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論文

Current-induced crystallisation in a Heusler-alloy-based giant magnetoresistive junction for neuromorphic potentiation

Zhou, Z.*; Frost, W.*; Lloyd, D. C.*; 関 剛斎*; 窪田 崇秀*; Ramos, R.*; 齊藤 英治; 高梨 弘毅; 廣畑 貴文*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 571, p.170575_1 - 170575_5, 2023/04

Recent development in neuromorphic computation allows us to achieve low power and highly efficient calculations better than the conventional von Neumann computation. In order to achieve realistic synaptic operation, potentiation to add weighting to strengthen a selected artificial synapse. Such functionality can be achieved by reducing the electrical resistance of the artificial synapse. Recently, a ferromagnetic Heusler alloy used in a magnetoresistive junction has been demonstrated to crystallise via the layer-by-layer mode by introducing an electrical current pulse. In this study, we have extended the current-induced crystallisation to a junction with epitaxially-grown Heusler alloy after post-annealing for crystallisation. By combining this potentiation functionality with the neuromorphic operation, realistic synaptic computation can be developed.

論文

Spin hydrodynamic generation in unsteady flows

船戸 匠*; 松尾 衛

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 572, p.170574_1 - 170574_6, 2023/04

We theoretically investigate a spin-mediated conversion from fluid dynamics to voltage, known as spin hydrodynamic generation (SHDG), in oscillatory and transient unsteady flows. We consider unsteady flows of liquid metal between two parallel infinite planes and then calculate its vorticity fields based on the Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible viscous fluid. The spin accumulation and spin current generated by unsteady flows are derived using a spin-diffusion equation, including spin-vorticity coupling, which is a couple of angular momentum between electron spin and vorticity field in unsteady flows. The estimation of SHDG in liquid mercury flow suggests that an observable magnitude of voltage can be induced in unsteady flows. Our results are expected to enable the realization of high-speed spin devices with unsteady flows and broaden the range of fluid spintronics applicability.

論文

Polarized neutron scattering study of hollow Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ submicron spherical particles

小林 悟*; 野村 英志*; 千葉 桃子*; 河村 幸彦*; 大石 一城*; 廣井 孝介; 鈴木 淳市*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 569, p.170410_1 - 170410_9, 2023/03

We report results of polarized small-angle and wide-angle neutron scattering experiments at $$T$$ = 10 and 300 K for 420 nm-sized hollow Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ spherical particles. Each hollow particle is a mesocrystal, which is composed of small nanoparticles with nearly the same crystallographic orientation. Polarized neutron experiments allow us to evaluate magnetic correlations of parallel and perpendicular magnetization components with respect to magnetic field during magnetization process. Small-angle neutron scattering reveals that as the magnetic field decreases from a saturation field of 10 kOe, the perpendicular magnetization component maximizes around zero applied field, whereas the parallel component minimizes. This behavior was observed below and above Verwey transition temperature of $$sim$$ 120 K. Calculations of neutron intensities for vortex structures suggest the reorientation of the vortex core towards the magnetocrystalline anisotropy axis from the magnetic field direction at low applied fields. Moreover, a magnetic domain length obtained from the wide-angle scattering is of the order of 30-40 nm and comparable to the size of the small nanoparticles forming a hollow sphere, suggesting that magnetic correlations within the small nanoparticles always retain during magnetization process.

論文

Tracing magnetic atom diffusion with annealing at the interface between CoMn alloy and MnGa layer by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

岡林 潤*; 鈴木 和也; 水上 成美*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 564, Part2, p.170163_1 - 170163_5, 2022/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:19.16(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

アニールによるCoMn合金とMnGa層の界面での磁気原子の拡散をX線磁気円二色性(XMCD)解析を用いて調べた。その結果、成長直後の状態ではbcc CoMnのスピンは垂直磁化MnGa層のスピンと平行に結合しているが、熱処理により界面磁気結合がCoの反強磁性に変化することがわかった。各吸収端における元素別のヒステリシス曲線から、MnGaとの交換結合を介してMnとCoに大きな保磁力場があることが判明した。熱処理後のXMCDスペクトル線形状の変化からMnとCo$$_{2}$$MnGa層の形成を促進する界面反応に関連していることが透過型電子顕微鏡の分析から推測された。Mn原子の界面拡散は、MnとCoサイトの磁気交換結合を変調させ、垂直磁化の方向を反転させることがわかった。

論文

Interaction between surface acoustic waves and spin waves in a ferromagnetic thin film

山本 慧; Xu, M.*; Puebla, J.*; 大谷 義近*; 前川 禎通*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 545, p.168672_1 - 168672_10, 2022/03

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:50.04(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We present a theoretical description of magnon-phonon interactions in a multi-layer structure containing a ferromagnetic thin film. The formalism is applicable to an arbitrary direction of external magnetic field and various types of acoustic waves including Rayleigh and Love surface modes. A particular attention is paid to the spatial profile of the acoustic wave modes and analytical expressions for the effective coupling coefficients are derived taking into account the degree of mode profile overlap between spin waves and acoustic waves. The results are applied to reproduce a strongly anisotropic and non-reciprocal linewidth of acoustic ferromagnetic resonance reported in a recent experiment.

論文

Holographic dual approach to magnetism and magnetization dynamics

横井 直人*; 齊藤 英治

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 545, p.168673_1 - 168673_12, 2022/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We propose a dual gravitational theory corresponding to isotropic ferromagnetic systems based on the holographic duality, and establish the holographic dictionary between physical quantities in ferromagnets and the gravitational theory. Utilizing the holographic dictionary, the holographic calculation in the dual gravitational theory is shown to reproduce thermodynamics of ferromagnets including ferromagnetic phase transitions and low-temperature behaviors originating from magnons and conduction electrons. We further derive the equation for magnetization dynamics in ferromagnets from the equations for scalar fields and non-abelian gauge fields on charged black holes in the dual gravitational theory. From these results, the holographic duality is expected to give a new guiding principle to explore new phenomena in spintronics and magnonics based on the gravitational perspective.

論文

Fluctuation theorem for spin transport at insulating ferromagnetic junctions

佐藤 哲也*; 立野 雅大*; 松尾 衛; 加藤 岳生*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 546, p.168814_1 - 168814_6, 2022/03

General relations for nonequilibrium spin transport at a magnetic junction between a normal metal and a ferromagnetic insulator are derived from the quantum fluctuation theorem. They include the extended Onsager relations between the spin conductance and the spin-current noise that hold for nonequilibrium states driven by an external current. These relations are valid for a general setup of spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) when the main contribution is due to the interfacial spin conductance. Unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance (UMR) in insulating ferromagnetic junctions can be understood in a similar way. Therefore, our work can provide a comprehensive viewpoint for understanding of SMR and UMR in insulating ferromagnetic junctions. Our result also predicts relations for higher-order coefficients with respect to the external current in terms of higher-order cumulants in a unified framework.

論文

Acoustic Rashba-Edelstein effect

船戸 匠*; 松尾 衛

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 540, p.168436_1 - 168436_7, 2021/12

We theoretically study the mechanical induction of the spin density via the Rashba spin--orbit interaction (SOI). The spin density in the linear response to lattice distortion dynamics is calculated based on the microscopic theory. We reveal that there are two mechanisms of spin induction: one is the acoustic Edelstein effect (AEE) from the acceleration of the lattice dynamics and the other is caused by the Rashba spin--vorticity coupling (RSVC). We find that the AEE induces a more efficient spin-to-charge conversion in comparison with the conventional electric Edelstein effect. The induced spin density due to the RSVC is expressed as a Berry curvature-like quantity; therefore, it can be attributed to the spatial symmetry breaking due to the Rashba SOI. Our work demonstrates high-efficiency spin generation in Rashba systems.

論文

Spin Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$/YIG structure

Qi, J.*; Hou, D.*; Chen, Y.*; 齊藤 英治; Jin, X.*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 534, p.167980_1 - 167980_6, 2021/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:8.84(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) has been investigated herein Pt/Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$/Y$$_3$$Fe$$_5$$O$$_{12}$$ structure. Well below the N$'{e}$el temperature of Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$, the SMR is not observed at the noise level of 1.2 ppm. In vicinity of the N$'{e}$el temperature, only a positive SMR tracks the YIG magnetic switching process, supporting that the SMR of normal metal/antiferromagnetic insulator/ferromagnetic insulator trilayer is controlled by the N$'{e}$el vector of the antiferromagnetic insulator. A high field magnetoresistance is observed up to an external magnetic field of 20000 Oe which has a field angle dependence symmetry consistent with the SMR. We attribute this high field magnetoresistance to be induced by the Hanle magnetoresistance in Pt.

論文

Highly accurate evaluation of spin-torque efficiency by measuring in-plane angular dependence of spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance

洞口 泰輔*; 松尾 衛; 能崎 幸雄*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 505, p.166727_1 - 166727_5, 2020/07

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:44.57(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) is a powerful tool to evaluate spin-torque efficiency ($$xi_{rm FMR}$$), the efficiency of current-induced torque in metallic bilayers consisting of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic materials. In general, $$xi_{rm FMR}$$ can be evaluated from the amplitude ratio between symmetric and anti-symmetric components of the ST-FMR spectrum. However, the ratio is also affected by an unnecessary magnetic field owing to the asymmetric alternating current flow used to excite the ST-FMR. In this article, we demonstrate that $$xi_{rm FMR}$$ can be precisely evaluated from the full-angular dependence of the ST-FMR spectrum even though the distribution of alternating current flow is highly asymmetric.

論文

Crystalline dependence of spin transmission in Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$ thin films

Qin, J.*; Hou, D.*; Chen, Y.*; 齊藤 英治; Jin, X.*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 501, p.166362_1 - 166362_4, 2020/05

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:20.83(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Spin transmission in Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$ films of different crystalline textures is studied experimentally. With Y$$_3$$Fe$$_5$$O$$_{12}$$/Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$/Pt trilayer devices, a spin current is injected into Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$ by spin pumping from Y$$_3$$Fe$$_5$$O$$_{12}$$, and the spin transmission is monitored by the inverse spin Hall voltage ($$V_mathrm{ISHE}$$) in Pt. For (0001) plane textured Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$ films, $$V_mathrm{ISHE}$$ vanishes quickly below the N$'{e}$el temperature. However, the $$V_mathrm{ISHE}$$ shows a broad shoulder below the N$'{e}$el temperature for $$(11bar{2}0)$$ and $$(11bar{2}3)$$ plane co-textured Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$. Such a difference in the temperature dependence of Cr$$_2$$O$$_3$$ can be understood by the different N$'{e}$el vector orientations with respect to the injected spin moment direction.

論文

Skyrmion-generated spinmotive forces in inversion broken ferromagnets

山根 結太*; 家田 淳一

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 491, p.165550_1 - 165550_5, 2019/12

AA2018-0522.pdf:0.4MB

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:33.27(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We present an analytical study on the spinmotive force (SMF) generated by translational motion of magnetic skyrmion. A SMF refers to an electrical voltage induced by dynamical magnetic textures, which reflects the spatiotemporal variation of the magnetization. The dynamics of a skyrmion thus can be detected by a SMF measurement, which may play an important role in future skyrmion-based technologies. We find the dependence of the SMF on skyrmion structure (e.g., skyrmion or anti-skyrmion, Neel or Bloch type, and the polarity of the skyrmion core) and Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). To this end, we derive explicit formulae for the spin-dependent electric fields originating from the two SOCs. Our findings offer a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and an estimation of the electrical voltage signal associated with a moving skyrmion for a given experiment.

論文

Magnetic excitations and transport properties in frustrated ferromagnetic chain

大西 弘明

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 479, p.88 - 90, 2019/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In a spin nematic state of a spin-1/2 frustrated ferromagnetic chain, low-energy excitations are governed by bound magnons, so that bound magnons carry spin current and thermal current. Regarding magnetic excitations, we find gapless longitudinal and gapped transverse spin excitation spectra, in accordance with quasi-long-range longitudinal and short-range transverse spin correlations, respectively, while we observe gapless quadrupole excitations, signaling quasi-long-range quadrupole correlations. In the present work, we investigate spin and thermal transport properties by exploiting numerical methods, such as exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group. We will discuss the effects of bound magnon propagation in spin and thermal transport, based on detailed analyses of current-current correlation functions in the spin nematic ground state, and temperature and field dependencies of the spin Drude weight and the thermal Drude weight.

論文

Microscopic formulation of nonlinear spin current induced by spin pumping

亀田 麻衣*; 廣部 大地*; 大門 俊介*; 塩見 雄毅*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 476, p.459 - 463, 2019/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:4.96(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Nonlinear effects of spin pumping have been investigated by numerically calculating the temporal evolution of the magnon number affected by three- and four-magnon interactions. We showed that the three-magnon interaction gives rise to the enhancement of spin-pumping spin current. We also found that the four-magnon interaction in combination with the three-magnon interaction can be responsible for the experimentally observed low-frequency oscillation of spin current.

論文

Thickness dependence of transverse thermoelectric voltage in Co$$_{40}$$Fe$$_{60}$$/YIG magnetic junctions

Wongjom, P.*; Ramos, R.*; Pinitsoontorn, S.*; 内田 健一*; 齊藤 英治

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 471, p.439 - 443, 2019/02

Measurements of transverse thermoelectric voltage were carried out in Co$$_{40}$$Fe$$_{60}$$ (CoFe)/Yttrium-Iron-Garnet (YIG) magnetic junctions, using the CoFe film as the spin detector. An unusual dependence of the voltage on the CoFe thickness was observed in the in-plane magnetized (IM) configuration; the junction with a relatively thick CoFe layer (40 nm) exhibits positive signals, whereas the junctions with a thinner CoFe layer (7-10 nm) exhibit negative signals. To find the origin of the behavior, we compare the voltage signals in the CoFe/YIG and CoFe/GGG systems in the IM configuration as well as perpendicularly magnetized (PM) configuration. Furthermore, the anomalous Hall effect was also measured in the Hall-bar shaped CoFe films. The experimental results suggest that the observed thickness dependence of the voltage is attributed to the combination of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) and the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in the CoFe layers; the former shows a negative voltage and its contribution gradually increases with decreasing the CoFe thickness, whereas the latter shows a positive and mostly thickness independent voltage. The competition between the ISHE and ANE contributions results in the observed peculiar CoFe-thickness dependence of the transverse thermoelectric voltage.

論文

Invariant incommensurate coherence length in spin-density-wave excitation of Cr$$_{0.99}$$Fe$$_{0.01}$$

平賀 晴弘*; 矢野 真一郎*; 福田 竜生

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 469, p.629 - 632, 2019/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Low-energy magnetic excitation of spin-density wave (SDW) in a single crystal of Cr$$_{0.99}$$Fe$$_{0.01}$$ was measured using cold neutron triple-axis spectroscopy. Because of the unchanged incommensurability and the constant line width in 2.5 $$leqslanthbaromegaleqslant$$ 6 meV, the magnetic excitation could not be explained with a conventional dispersion of $$hbaromega_qpropto q$$. In this paper, we conjectured the presence of standing waves, which would be excited in local spin matrices. The effectively vertical dispersion was attributed to the longitudinal spin fluctuation in the spin matrices. A series of low-energy magnetic excitations in Cr alloys could be understood with the coexistence of the standing waves and progressive waves such as spin waves.

論文

Enhanced orbital magnetic moment in FeCo nanogranules observed by Barnett effect

緒方 裕大; 中堂 博之; Gu, B.; 小林 伸聖*; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛; 齊藤 英治; 前川 禎通

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 442, p.329 - 331, 2017/11

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:66.67(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The gyroscopic g factor, $$g'$$, of FeCo nanogranules embedded in a matrix of MgF$$_2$$ (FeCo-MgF$$_2$$) was determined by measuring the magnetic-field generation from a rotating sample due to the Barnett effect. The $$g'$$ value of the FeCo-MgF$$_2$$ is estimated to be 1.76 $$pm$$ 0.11. The orbital contribution to the magnetic moment in the FeCo nanogranules was found to be quite large compared with that in bulk FeCo, being consistent with a density-functional-theory calculation that shows that the orbital magnetic moment may increase at the FeCo/MgF$$_2$$ interfaces. The result suggests that the orbital magnetic moment is enhanced by symmetry breaking at the surface of the FeCo nanogranules.

論文

Three-dimensional magnetic domain structure in a model with exchange randomness

横田 光史

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 432, p.532 - 538, 2017/06

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:6.06(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Surface magnetic domain structure can be different from internal one. Both of them are influenced by structural randomness. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed using a model with random exchange interactions and dipolar interactions on a lattice with the periodic boundary condition for the horizontal directions to simulate infinite system in the directions and with the free boundary condition for vertical direction (z) to represent the existence of surface. The lattice sizes are $$64times 64times (2L_z +1)$$ for $$L_z =1, 2, 4$$ and $$32times 32times (2L_z +1)$$ for $$L_z=8, 16$$. To simulate highly anisotropic materials, time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation using a model with Ising symmetry is solved numerically. Dependence of magnetic domain patterns on thickness of the system and the degree of disorder is investigated for systems with small thickness. Magnetic structure factor for the surface layer is compared with that for the internal layer. The inverse of the wave number that gives the maximum value of the magnetic structure factor depends on the thickness of the system $$T$$ as $$T^{0.3}$$ approximately. The distribution of the local magnetization depends on the disorder rather differently for different thicknesses of the system.

論文

The Study of the magnetization process of Fe film by magnetic Compton scattering and M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopy

安居院 あかね; 増田 亮*; 小林 康弘*; 加藤 忠*; 柄本 俊*; 鈴木 宏輔*; 櫻井 浩*

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 408, p.41 - 45, 2016/06

AA2015-0849.pdf:1.54MB

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:21.57(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

本研究では磁気コンプトン散乱およびメスバーワー分光を用いてFe薄膜の磁化過程を詳細に調べた。磁気コンプトン散乱からスピン磁気モーメントと軌道磁気モーメントの磁化曲線を算出した。メスバーワースペクトルからは磁化と外部磁場のなす角の印加磁場依存性を調べた。これにより磁化曲線の振る舞いは磁化と外部磁場のなす角の変化と大きなかかわりがあることが分かった。

論文

What determines the sign of the spin Hall effects in Cu alloys doped with 5d elements?

Xu, Z.; Gu, B.; 森 道康; Ziman, T.*; 前川 禎通

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 400, p.184 - 187, 2016/02

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:21.57(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We perform a systematical analysis of the spin Hall effect (SHE) in the Cu alloys doped with a series of 5d elements, by the combined approach of density functional theory and Hartree-Fock approximation. We find that not only the spin orbit interactions (SOI) in both the 5d and 6p orbitals, but also the local correlations in the 5d orbitals of the impurities, are decisive on the sign of the spin Hall angle (SHA). Including all of these three factors properly, we predict the SHA for each alloy in the series. The signs of CuIr and CuPt are sensitive to perturbation of the local correlations. This observation is favorable for controlling the sign of the transverse spin Hall voltage.

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