玉造 博夢; 村上 洋一*; 倉本 義夫*; 佐賀山 基*; 松浦 直人*; 川北 至信; 松石 聡*; 鷲尾 康仁*; 井下 猛*; 浜田 典昭*; et al.
Physical Review B, 102(22), p.224406_1 - 224406_5, 2020/12
Magnetic excitations in layered electride YC have been found by inelastic neutron scattering. We have observed weak but clear magnetic scattering around the wave number , but no magnetic order down to the lowest temperature measured (7 K). The imaginary part of the dynamical susceptibility deduced is well described by the Lorentz function of energy for each momentum . The width of the Lorentzian is proportional to with at K. We have also found that with increasing the magnetic form factor decays faster than that of a electron in a single Y atom, which indicates a more extended magnetic moment in YC. These results provide experimental evidence that the itinerant magnetism in YC originates from the anionic electrons that reside in the interlayers. The Curie-Weiss-like behavior of the magnetic susceptibility reported in YC is ascribed to the mode coupling effects of spin fluctuations.
Zhang, D.*; Hu, X.*; Chen, T.*; Abernathy, D. L.*; 梶本 亮一; 中村 充孝; 古府 麻衣子; Foley, B. J.*; Yoon, M.*; Choi, J. J.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 102(22), p.224310_1 - 224310_10, 2020/12
The long carrier lifetime and defect tolerance in metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are major contributors to the superb performance of MHP optoelectronic devices. Large polarons were reported to be responsible for the long carrier lifetime. Yet microscopic mechanisms of the large polaron formation, including the so-called phonon melting, are still under debate. Here, time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering experiments and first-principles density-functional theory calculations were employed to investigate the lattice vibrations (or phonon dynamics) in methylammonium lead iodide, a prototypical example of MHPs. Our findings are that optical phonons lose temporal coherence gradually with increasing temperature which vanishes at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal structural phase transition. Surprisingly, however, we found that the spatial coherence is still retained throughout the decoherence process. We argue that the temporally decoherent and spatially coherent vibrations contribute to the formation of large polarons in this metal halide perovskite.
川上 洋平*; 原田 正康*; 岡 眞; 鈴木 渓
Physical Review D, 102(11), p.114004_1 - 114004_9, 2020/12
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(11), p.114705_1 - 114705_7, 2020/11
The nuclear magnetic relaxation time in a ferrimagnetic insulators is calculated within the mean-field approximation for the magnetic exchange interactions and the Raman process involving the hyperfine interaction. We find that the value of 1/ on one type of site increases rapidly near the compensation temperature , whereas that on the other type of site does not increase up to Curie temperature . This is due to the fact that the soft-magnon bandwidth becomes comparable to . An increase in 1/ below is found also in another type ferrimagnet, which shows a hump structure in the temperature dependence of magnetization instead of compensation. Also in that case, we find the rapid increase in 1/ below , even though the magnetization does not show compensation. The coexistence of soft and hard magnons leads to these remarkable properties of ferrimagnets.
山本 慧; Yu, W.*; Yu, T.*; Puebla, J.*; Xu, M.*; 前川 禎通*; Bauer, G.*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(11), p.113702_1 - 113702_5, 2020/11
We predict that surface acoustic waves are generated preferentially in one direction in a heterostructure of a thin magnetic film on a non-magnetic substrate. The non-reciprocity arises from magneto-elastic coupling and magneto-rotation coupling, the former being dominant for YIG/GGG heterostructures. For YIG films thinner than about 100 nm, the surface acoustic wave amplitude is nearly unidirectional at certain angles of the in-plane equilibrium magnetisation. We compute the full magnetic field dependence of the effect for a selected device.
佐藤 研太朗*; 池内 和彦*; 梶本 亮一; 脇本 秀一; 新井 正敏*; 藤田 全基*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(11), p.114703_1 - 114703_7, 2020/11
To elucidate the spin dynamics of LaSrCuO, which couples with the charge degree of freedom, the spin excitations spanning the characteristic energy ( 35--40 meV) are investigated for underdoped = 0.10 and optimally doped (OP) = 0.16 through inelastic neutron scattering measurements. Analysis based on a two-component picture of high-quality data clarified the possible coexistence of upright standing incommensurate (IC) excitations with gapless commensurate (C) excitations in the energy-momentum space. The IC component weakens the intensity toward with increasing energy transfer (), whereas the C component strengthens at high- regions. The analysis results imply that the superposition of two components with a particular intensity balance forms an hourglass-shaped excitation in appearance. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the intensity of each component exhibits different behaviors; the IC component disappears near the pseudo-gap temperature () upon warming, whereas the C component is robust against temperature. These results suggest the itinerant electron spin nature and the localized magnetism of the parent LaCuO in IC and C excitations, respectively, similar to the spin excitations in the OP YBaCuO and HgBaCuO with higher superconducting-transition temperatures.
Fleurence, A.*; Lee, C.-C.*; Friedlein, R.*; 深谷 有喜; 吉本 真也*; 向井 孝三*; 山根 宏之*; 小杉 信博*; 吉信 淳*; 尾崎 泰助*; et al.
Physical Review B, 102(20), p.201102_1 - 201102_6, 2020/11
Vermeulen, M. J.; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Kean, K. R.; 牧井 宏之; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; Tsekhanovich, I.*; Andreyev, A. N.; 石崎 翔馬*; et al.
Physical Review C, 102(5), p.054610_1 - 054610_11, 2020/11
Fission fragment mass distributions for 23 nuclei (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Bk) were measured using the multi-nucleon transfer approach in the reaction of O+Np, and their excitation-energy dependence was obtained up to a maximum of 70 MeV. Among them, the low energy fission of Np, Pu, and Cm is reported for the first time. The experimental data for all the studied nuclei were compared to the Langevin calculations. The calculation which takes into account the effects of multi-chance fission well reproduced the peak-to-valley ratio and mass-asymmetric peak positions of the distributions. The angular momenta given to the fissioning nucleus is also discussed.
Carroll, R. J.*; Podolyk, Zs.*; Berry, T.*; Grawe, H.*; Alexander, T.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ansari, S.*; Borge, M. J. G.*; Brunet, M.*; Creswell, J. R.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 125(19), p.192501_1 - 192501_6, 2020/11
The decay of Hg into the one-proton hole, one neutron-particle Tl nucleus was investigated at CERN-ISOLDE. Shell-model calculations describe well the level scheme deduced, validating the proton-neutron interactions used, with implications for the whole of the , quadrant of neutron-rich nuclei. While both negative and positive parity states with spin 0 and 1 are expected within the window, only three negative parity states are populated directly in the decay. The data provide a unique test of the competition between allowed Gamow-Teller and Fermi, and first-forbidden decays, essential for the understanding of the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in the rapid neutron capture process. Furthermore, the observation of the parity changing decay where the daughter state is core excited is unique, and can provide information on mesonic corrections of effective operators.
大場 洋次郎; 足立 望*; 戸高 義一*; Gilbert, E. P.*; 間宮 広明*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 2(3), p.033473_1 - 033473_6, 2020/11
Formation of nanosized spin misalignment was found in pure iron processed by high-pressure torsion straining. The small-angle neutron scattering profiles show that the spin misalignment remains in magnetic field up to 10 T, whereas the magnetization is almost saturated below 1 T based on the magnetic measurement. These results indicates that anomalous magnetic anisotropy is induced in pure iron via the high-pressure torsion straining.
土田 秀次*; 甲斐 健師; 北島 謙生*; 松谷 悠佑; 間嶋 拓也*; 斎藤 学*
European Physical Journal D, 74(10), p.212_1 - 212_7, 2020/10
和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 小高 裕和*; 古田 禄大; 土屋 晴文
Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 125(20), 17 Pages, 2020/10
We report simulation results of photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere triggered by a downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash in lightning. Possible channels of reactions in the atmosphere and their cross sections are verified with the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Monte-Carlo simulations with two stages are then performed with the Geant4 framework. In the first stage, electrons following the relativistic runaway electron avalanche spectrum are produced in a mass model of the atmosphere, and production of photoneutrons and -decay nuclei is calculated based on the nuclear data library. In total 1 neutrons and 4 -decay nuclei are produced by energetic electrons above 1 MeV. In the second stage, propagation of the photoneutrons and positrons from the -decay nuclei in the previous stage is calculated. As a result, we model on-ground distributions of fluxes and energy spectra for neutrons, neutron-related gamma rays, and annihilation ones. The simulation model is to be compared with photonuclear events detected in low-charge-center winter thunderstorms.
斎藤 祐児; 藤原 秀紀*; 保井 晃*; 門野 利治*; 菅原 仁*; 菊地 大輔*; 佐藤 英行*; 菅 滋正*; 山崎 篤志*; 関山 明*; et al.
Physical Review B, 102(16), p.165152_1 - 165152_8, 2020/10
Through a high-precision soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study of the intermediate-valence compound SmOsSb, we show our successful approach of revealing unprecedented details of Kondo screening below a characteristic temperature of 20 K in the paramagnetic phase. The multiplet XMCD structure at the Sm edge sensitive to the 4 configuration enabled us to observe a clear difference between the temperature evolution above and below with one- and two-component behavior, respectively. Our findings are in strong contrast to the conventional Kondo crossover that coincides with the valence transition, but are qualitatively accounted for by theoretical XMCD predictions combined with the two-fluid phenomenology recently proposed. This work contributes to the large context of Kondo physics that is closely related to quantum criticality in heavy fermion systems.
永井 泰樹*; 木下 充隆*; 井頭 政之*; 延原 由利子*; 牧井 宏之; 三島 賢二*; 嶋 達志*; Mengoni, A.*
Physical Review C, 102(4), p.044616_1 - 044616_8, 2020/10
We measured the total capture cross section of the OO reaction, as well as partial cross sections leading to the ground ( and first excited ( states in O. The measurement was carried out at average neutron energies of 157, 349, 398, 427, 468, 498, and 556 keV by using pulsed neutrons produced via the LiBe reaction and a -ray detection system based on an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. We observed the interference effect between the resonance state at 4554 keV of O, corresponding to a neutron energy of 411 keV in the center-of-mass system, and a non-resonant contribution in the capture process. The measured partial cross sections are in good agreement with theoretical calculations obtained taking into account the interference between the resonance and a non-resonant p-wave direct radiative capture contribution. Using the present results, together with our previous measurement, we derived the Maxwellian-averaged capture cross sections (MACS) for thermal energies between kT = 5 and 100 keV, key quantities for process nucleosynthesis studies in massive stars.
Khuyagbaatar, J.*; Heberger, F. P.*; Hofmann, S.*; Ackermann, D.*; Burkhard, H. G.*; Heinz, S.*; Kindler, B.*; Kojouharov, I.*; Lommel, B.*; Mann, R.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 102(4), p.044312_1 - 044312_8, 2020/10
Nuclear structure of Fm, Fm, and their daughter nuclei were investigated via detection of their radioactive decays, , , and spontaneous fission. Measured -decay energies, half-lives, and branching ratios improve the literature data significantly. A signature for detection of the hitherto unknown Cm was found in the -decay chains from Fm. Two groups of events with average energies of 6.69(2) MeV and 7.01(2) MeV and with a half-life of = 300, s are suggested to originate from Cm. Tentative decay schemes for Fm, Cf, Cm, and Fm, Cf isotopes are suggested based on the present experimental data. Systematical trends of single-particle states in =141 isotones of = 92-98 nuclei are discussed.
Cubiss, J. G.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Barzakh, A. E.*; Manea, V.*; Al Monthery, M.*; Althubiti, N. A.*; Andel, B.*; Antalic, S.*; 他39名*
Physical Review C, 102(4), p.044332_1 - 044332_12, 2020/10
A comprehensive study of the isotope Au has been made at the CERN-ISOLDE facility, using resonance laser ionization. Two long-lived states in Au were identified - a low-spin ground state and a high-spin isomer - each of which were produced as pure beams. Using the ISOLTRAP precision Penning trap, the excitation energy of the isomeric state in Au was determined to be 189(14) keV. The -decay fine structure patterns of the two states were studied using the Windmill decay station, providing information on the low-lying states in the daughter nucleus Ir. Nuclear spin assignments of Au and Au are made based on the observed -decay feeding and hyperfine structure intensity patterns.
仲田 光樹; 高吉 慎太郎*
Physical Review B, 102(9), p.094417_1 - 094417_11, 2020/09
いわゆる光学的Barnett効果[A. Rebei and J. Hohlfeld, Phys. Lett. A 372, 1915 (2008); J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07B118 (2008)], i.e., 円偏光レーザー誘起磁化成長[S. Takayoshi et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 214413 (2014); S. Takayoshi et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 085150 (2014)]をフェリ磁性絶縁体に応用し、THz領域におけるマグノン凝縮機構を微視的に解明した。これはBose統計に従うマグノンに特有の巨視的量子効果である。本研究が提供するTHzマグノン凝縮体を活用することで、従来の強磁性絶縁体中のものよりはるかに高速のスピン輸送「巨視的量子干渉効果によるJosephsonスピン流」を実現することができる。
植田 寛和; 笹川 裕矢*; Ivanov, D.*; 大野 哲*; 小倉 正平*; 福谷 克之
Physical Review B, 102(12), p.121407_1 - 121407_5, 2020/09
Ciccarelli, M.*; 湊 太志; 内藤 智也*
Physical Review C, 102(3), p.034306_1 - 034306_9, 2020/09
The isotope Mo, the generator of Tc used for diagnostic imaging, is supplied by extracting from fission fragments of highly enriched uranium in reactors. However, a reactor-free production method of Mo is searched over the world from the point of view of nuclear proliferation. Recently, Mo production through a muon capture reaction was proposed and it was found that about 50% of Mo turned into Mo through Mo reaction. However, the detailed physical process of the muon capture reaction is not completely understood. We, therefore, study the muon capture reaction of Mo by a theoretical approach. We used the QRPA to calculate the muon capture rate. The muon wave function is calculated with considering the electronic distribution of the atom and the nuclear charge distribution. The particle evaporation process from the daughter nucleus is calculated by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. From the model calculation, about 38% of Mo is converted to Mo through the muon capture reaction, which is in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. It is revealed that negative parity states, especially state, play an important role in Mo Nb. Isotope production by the muon capture reaction strongly depends on the nuclear structure. To understand the mechanism, excitation energy functions have to be known microscopically.