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Scalability of inertial particle deposition in bubbles with internal circulation

茂木 孝介; 柴本 泰照; 久木田 豊

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 184, p.109679_1 - 109679_10, 2023/05

Inertial deposition of small (less than a few $$mu$$ m in diameter) aerosol particles in mm-scale bubbles is an old but unsettled issue in modeling of pool scrubbing phenomenon. Whereas existing practical models give no specific consideration to the bubble-internal transport, some studies have shown that inertial transport affects considerably the particle deposition rate. We show, on the basis of Lagrangian simulations of particles advected by steady internal circulation in a spherical bubble, that particle centrifugal velocity becomes scale invariant for low- Stokes numbers (St $$le$$ $$10^{-2}$$) when the characteristic timescale is chosen to be that for transversal particle motion at the Stokes terminal velocity corresponding to the local fluid acceleration. Because a scaling law can be derived by running simulations with a small number of particles, it can provide a practical tool for considering the influence of inertial particle transport within the bubble on the decontamination factor.


Some considerations on the dependence to numerical schemes of Lagrangian radionuclide transport models for the aquatic environment

Peri$'a$$~n$ez, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kim, K. O.*; Liptak, L.*; Little, A.*; 小林 卓也; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; Suh, K. S.*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 261, p.107138_1 - 107138_8, 2023/05



Atmospheric ammonia deposition and its role in a cool-temperate fragmented deciduous broad-leaved forest

堅田 元喜*; 山口 高志*; 渡辺 誠*; 福島 慶太郎*; 中山 理智*; 永野 博彦*; 小嵐 淳; 舘野 隆之輔*; 久保田 智大

Atmospheric Environment, 298, p.119640_1 - 119640_12, 2023/04

Moderately elevated reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition due to anthropogenic activities can have an impact on forest production via throughfall and canopy retention processes. Forest fragmentation can increase dry deposition of atmospheric ammonia volatilized from agricultural areas, and consequently increase spatial variability of Nr deposition even within the same forest (edge effect). However, little is known about the edge effect and its impact on forest production in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Asian countries. Here, we performed the field observations of atmospheric concentration and deposition of inorganic Nr gases and particles in a Japanese fragmented forest from May 2018 to April 2019. The results demonstrated that annual dry deposition of ammonia was dominant in the annual total dissolved inorganic Nr deposition at the forest edge, including the edge effect. Additionally, agricultural activities such as fertilization in the area surrounding the forest likely enhanced the potential of canopy retention of NH$$_{4}$$$$^{+}$$, known as Nr species readily absorbed by tree canopy.


Experimental study on local damage to reinforced concrete panels subjected to oblique impact by projectiles

奥田 幸彦; 西田 明美; Kang, Z.; 坪田 張二; Li, Y.

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 9(2), p.021801_1 - 021801_12, 2023/04



ARKADIA; For the innovation of advanced nuclear reactor design

大島 宏之; 浅山 泰; 古川 智弘; 田中 正暁; 内堀 昭寛; 高田 孝; 関 暁之; 江沼 康弘

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 9(2), p.025001_1 - 025001_12, 2023/04



Validation of feedback reactivity evaluation models for plant dynamics analysis code during unprotected loss of heat sink event in sodium-cooled fast reactors

吉村 一夫; 堂田 哲広; 井川 健一*; 田中 正暁; 山野 秀将

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 9(2), p.021601_1 - 021601_9, 2023/04



Aging of fuel-containing materials (fuel debris) in the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) Nuclear Power Plant and its implication for the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

北垣 徹; Krasnov, V.*; 池田 篤史

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 576, p.154224_1 - 154224_14, 2023/04


Nuclear fuel debris is a complex material containing a wide range of elements, compounds, and radiation. This complexity renders all the stages of the treatment of nuclear fuel debris extremely difficult and troublesome in the technical context. The whole treatment of nuclear fuel debris is also an extremely long-term process for tens of thousands of years, during which the aging of nuclear fuel debris is an unavoidable but critical issue. This applies to the decommissioning of the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). This review article aims at collecting and summarizing the knowledge and information about the aging of materials containing nuclear fuels (fuel-containing materials) formed as a result of the accident at ChNPP-4 in the light of the decommissioning of 1F and assessing the potential effects of aging on the nuclear fuel debris remaining in the damaged 1F reactors.


Photocatalytic unification of iodine species using platinum-loaded titanium dioxide

杉田 剛; 森 勝伸*; 香西 直文

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A; Chemistry, 438, p.114548_1 - 114548_6, 2023/04

原子力事故や放射性廃棄物の放出によって汚染された水からヨウ素を除去することは、水中に様々な形でヨウ素が存在するため、複雑でコストがかかる。そこで、水中の放射性ヨウ素を除去するための前処理として、光触媒によるヨウ素種の統一を検討した。ヨウ化物(I$$^{-}$$), ヨウ素酸(IO$$_3^{-}$$), o-ヨード安息香酸の光触媒酸化還元反応に及ぼすPt-TiO$$_{2}$$結晶相と溶液pHの影響を評価した。TiO$$_{2}$$結晶相とpHの選択により、混合されたヨウ素種をI$$^{-}$$またはIO$$_3^{-}$$のみに統一することができた。Pt-TiO$$_{2}$$の種類に関係なく、アルカリ性条件下でo-ヨード安息香酸中のヨウ素はI$$^{-}$$に無機化された。光触媒と溶液のpHを選択することでヨウ素種を単一化できるため、この光触媒処理は高効率でヨウ素種を除去するために適用できると考えられる。


Attention-based time series analysis for data-driven anomaly detection in nuclear power plants

Dong, F.*; Chen, S.*; 出町 和之*; 吉川 雅紀; 関 暁之; 高屋 茂

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 404, p.112161_1 - 112161_15, 2023/04


To ensure nuclear safety, timely and accurate anomaly detection is of utmost importance in the daily condition monitoring of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), as any slight anomaly in a plant may result in an irreversible and serious accident, as well as high costs of maintenance and management. Nevertheless, due to the unique inherent attributes of anomalies, the difficulty of automatic detection in NPPs is increased. Previous model-driven anomaly detection approaches required skilled priori knowledge, leading to their limited usability. Commonly adopted deep learning-based data-driven anomaly detection approaches may not easily acquire the most relevant features when dealing with sensor data containing redundant information with uneven distribution of anomalies. To alleviate these issues, this paper propose an attention-based time series model for anomaly detection to ensure safety in NPPs. First, we employ one-dimension convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) backbone for feature extraction to preserve original inherent features of time series inputs. Subsequently, we originally adopt soft-attention mechanism to automatically extract the most relevant temporal features considering the specificity of anomaly detection in NPPs. The performance of the proposed model was experimentally validated on the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) anomaly case dataset simulated using the analytical code. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model was capable of detecting anomalies in NPPs with superior performance to the baseline model, while ensuring fast detection at short time steps.


MAAP code analysis focusing on the fuel debris condition in the lower head of the pressure vessel in Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2

佐藤 一憲; 吉川 信治; 山下 拓哉; Cibula, M.*; 溝上 伸也*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 404, p.112205_1 - 112205_21, 2023/04



A New application technique of a position-sensitive liquid light guide Cerenkov counter for the simultaneous position detection of $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity

寺阪 祐太; 瓜谷 章*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1049, p.168071_1 - 168071_7, 2023/04

A new application of a position-sensitive liquid light guide Cerenkov counter for the simultaneous position detection of $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity in a gamma-ray-dominant environment is proposed. $$beta$$-emitting $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y and $$gamma$$-emitting $$^{137}$$Cs radioactive point sources were measured using a position-sensitive liquid light guide based on the time-of-flight (TOF) method. We found a clear difference in the count rate ratio between the source position peak and reflection peak of the position histogram. Moreover, simultaneous measurements of the radioactive point sources were performed. The results suggest that the source position and activity of $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y and $$^{137}$$Cs can be simultaneously determined based on the count rate ratio of the source position peak and the reflection peak.


Elastic properties of nuclear pasta in a fully three-dimensional geometry

Xia, C.-J.*; 丸山 敏毅; 安武 伸俊*; 巽 敏隆*; Zhang, Y.-X.*

Physics Letters B, 839, p.137769_1 - 137769_5, 2023/04

Realistic estimations on the elastic properties of neutron star matter are carried out with a large strain ($$varepsilon$$ $$_sim^{<}$$ 0.5) in the framework of relativistic-mean-field model with Thomas-Fermi approximation, where various crystalline configurations are considered in a fully three-dimensional geometry with reflection symmetry. Our calculation confirms the validity of assuming Coulomb crystals for the droplet phase above neutron drip density, which nonetheless does not work at large densities since the elastic constants are found to be decreasing after reaching their peaks. Similarly, the analytic formulae derived in the incompressible liquid-drop model give excellent description for the rod phase at small densities, which overestimates the elastic constants at larger densities. For slabs, due to the negligence on the variations of their thicknesses, the analytic formulae from liquid-drop model agree qualitatively but not quantitatively with our numerical estimations. By fitting to the numerical results, these analytic formulae are improved by introducing dampening factors. The impacts of nuclear symmetry energy are examined adopting two parameter sets, corresponding to the slope of symmetry energy L = 41.34 and 89.39 MeV. Even with the uncertainties caused by the anisotropy in polycrystallines, the elastic properties of neutron star matter obtained with L = 41.34 and 89.39 MeV are distinctively different, results in detectable differences in various neutron star activities.


Isotopic signals in fracture-filling calcite showing anaerobic oxidation of methane in a granitic basement

水野 崇; 鈴木 庸平*; Milodowski, A. E.*; 岩月 輝希

Applied Geochemistry, 150, p.105571_1 - 105571_11, 2023/03

地下水中における嫌気的メタン酸化(AOM)は、地下水の酸化還元条件と炭素循環の両方に影響を及ぼすものの、地層処分の母岩となりうる結晶質岩を対象とした研究例は少ない。そのため、本研究では、日本の中央部に分布する土岐花崗岩の割れ目に産出する二次鉱物である方解石を対象に、炭素と酸素の安定同位体組成に着目した古水理地質学的研究を実施した。その結果、酸素同位体組成($$delta$$$$^{18}$$O$$_{VPDB}$$: -32.7‰$$sim$$ -0.59‰)から、方解石を析出させた地下水は熱水由来の地下水、地表から浸透した淡水、海進時に侵入した海水であることが明らかとなった。一方、炭素同位体組成$$delta$$$$^{13}$$C$$_{VPDB}$$: -56.6‰$$sim$$ +6.0‰)は、熱水,淡水,海水由来のDICの炭素同位体組成の範囲(-25‰$$sim$$ +2‰)より広い範囲に分布していた。-25‰より軽い$$delta$$$$^{13}$$C$$_{VPDB}$$を持つ方解石はAOMから供給されたDICを起源として沈殿したと考えられ、+2‰より重い$$delta$$$$^{13}$$C$$_{VPDB}$$を持つ方解石はメタン生成時に$$^{13}$$Cが濃縮したDICを起源として沈殿したと考えられる。北欧における先行研究とは異なり、瑞浪のAOM方解石は淡水環境で沈殿したものであり、結晶質岩の深部では様々なプロセスによりAOMが生じる可能性があることが示された。このような幅広い環境下での炭素循環を理解することは、地層処分システムの長期的な安全性を評価する上で重要な知見を提供できると考えられる。


Corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of a structurally gradient steel for high-speed railway axles

Ao, N.*; Zhang, H.*; Xu, H. H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Liu, D.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.; Kang, Q. H.*; Kang, G. Z.*

Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 281, p.109166_1 - 109166_14, 2023/03

Considering the complex service environments that high-speed railway axles are subjected to, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a structurally gradient axle steel with different pre-crack depths both in air and corrosive medium was investigated at a frequency of 5 Hz. The results indicated that in the high $$Delta$$$$K$$ region, FCG rate was dramatically accelerated by corrosion, but the gap narrows as $$Delta$$$$K$$ decreased. The accelerated corrosion FCG rate was a comprehensive result of the acceleration effect of the anodic dissolution, hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity and the retardation effect of corrosion-induced crack-tip blunting. Despite the fact that the corrosion resistance gradually decreased as the pre-crack depth increased, the FCG rate in the corrosive medium gradually decreased. This was because fatigue loading played a more important role than corrosion in accelerating the corrosion FCG rate.


Effect of radioactive cesium-rich microparticles on radioactive cesium concentration and distribution coefficient in rivers flowing through the watersheds with different contaminated condition in Fukushima

辰野 宇大*; 脇 嘉理*; 角間 海七渡*; 二瓶 直登*; 高瀬 つぎ子*; 和田 敏裕*; 吉村 和也; 中西 貴宏; 大手 信人*

Journal of Environmental Management, 329, p.116983_1 - 116983_13, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Environmental Sciences)

This study investigated the effect of radioactive cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) on the radiocesium (RCs) concentration and distribution coefficient (Kd) in two rivers, Takase River and Kami-Oguni River, flowing in the watersheds with different radioactive contaminated conditions in Fukushima Prefecture. Unlike RCs adsorbed on to the suspended solids (SS), there was no correlation between the RCs concentration derived from CsMPs and the SS concentration in both rivers. Inflow of CsMPs to the targeted rivers was contingent. CsMPs were detected only in some samples during rainfall. Furthermore, the proportion of RCs concentration derived from CsMPs in the average RCs concentrations per unit mass of SS in both rivers during rainfall were not large, which were 10% or less. As a results, CsMPs did not significantly increase particulate RCs concentration and had little effect on Kd in both river water flowing the watershed with different RCs contaminated condition.


Pore connectivity influences mass transport in natural rocks; Pore structure, gas diffusion and batch sorption studies

Yuan, X.*; Hu, Q.*; Lin, X.*; Zhao, C.*; Wang, Q.*; 舘 幸男; 深津 勇太; 濱本 昌一郎*; Siitari-Kauppi, M.*; Li, X.*

Journal of Hydrology, 618, p.129172_1 - 129172_15, 2023/03

Mass transport in geomedia as influenced by the pore structure is an important phenomenon. Six rocks (granodiorite, limestone, two chalks, mudstone, and dolostone) with different extents of heterogeneity at six different particle sizes were studied to describe the effects of pore connectivity on mass transport. The multiple methods applied were porosity measurement, gas diffusion test, and batch sorption test of multiple ions. Porosity measurement results reveal that with decreasing particle sizes, the effective porosities for the "heterogenous" group (granodiorite and limestone) increase, whereas the porosities of "homogeneous" group (chalks, mudstone, and dolostone) roughly remain constant. Gas diffusion results show that the intraparticle gas diffusion coefficient among these two groups, varying in the magnitude of 10$$^{-8}$$ to 10$$^{-6}$$ m$$^{2}$$/s. The batch sorption work displays a different affinity of these rocks for tracers, which are related to their mineral components. For granodiorite, mudstone, and dolostone, the adsorption capacity increases as the particle size decreases, due to higher specific surface area in smaller particle-size. In general, this integrated research of grain size distribution, rock porosity, intraparticle diffusivity, and ionic sorption capacity gives insights into the pore connectivity effect on both gas diffusion and chemical transport behaviors for different lithologies and/or different particle sizes.


Investigation of the oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 cladding in a mixture of air and steam

根本 義之; 石島 暖大; 近藤 啓悦; 藤村 由希; 加治 芳行

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 575, p.154209_1 - 154209_19, 2023/03




Microstructural evolution in tungsten binary alloys under proton and self-ion irradiations at 800$$^{circ}$$C

宮澤 健; 菊池 裕太*; 安堂 正己*; Yu, J.-H.*; 藪内 聖皓*; 野澤 貴史*; 谷川 博康*; 野上 修平*; 長谷川 晃*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 575, p.154239_1 - 154239_11, 2023/03

This study examined the effects of alloying elements such as Re and Ta on the microstructural evolution of recrystallized W under proton and self-ion irradiations at 800$$^{circ}$$C. Although the number density of voids increased with increasing proton-induced damage level, the void density in W-Re and W-Ta alloys were lower than that of pure W. Herein, the addition of Re and Ta to W suppresses the void formation process. In the proton-irradiated W-3%Re, a lot of dislocation loops were observed at 0.05 dpa which is the stage of nucleation. The evolution process up to 0.2 dpa was characterized by loop growth via the absorption of clusters and point defects. The dislocation loops then coalesce and grow large, and the dislocation lines become tangled at 1 dpa. At 0.05 dpa, the dislocation loops in pure W have already evolved into the tangled dislocations. Solute Re may inhibit the mobility of small dislocation loops and SIA clusters. In W-3%Ta irradiated at 0.05 and 0.2 dpa, the coalescence process of the elongated dislocation loops was observed. Solute Ta may inhibit the mobility of SIA clusters. Although no voids and rafts were observed in self-ion irradiated W-3%Re to 0.2 dpa, not only dislocation loops but also voids and rafts were observed in pure W to 0.2 dpa. The solute Re would suppress the raft formation and then the void formation under self-ion irradiation.


Hierarchical aggregation in a complex fluid; The Role of isomeric interconversion

Massey, D.*; Williams, C. D.*; Mu, J.*; Masters, A. J.*; 元川 竜平; 青柳 登; 上田 祐生; Antonio, M. R.*

Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 127(9), p.2052 - 2065, 2023/03

There is an ever-increasing body of evidence that metallic complexes, involving amphiphilic ligands, do not form normal solutions in organic solvents. Instead, they form complex fluids with intricate structures. For example, the metallic complexes may aggregate into clusters and these clusters themselves may aggregate into super-clusters. In order to gain a deeper insight into the mechanisms at play, we have used an improved force field to conduct extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a system composed of zirconium nitrate, water, nitric acid, tri-$$n$$-butyl phosphate and $$n$$-octane. The important new finding is that a dynamic equilibrium between the cis and trans isomers of the metal complex is likely to play a key role in the aggregation behavior. The isolated cis and trans isomers have similar energies but simulation indicates that the clusters consist predominantly of cis isomers. With increasing metal concentration, we hypothesize that more clustering occurs and the chemical equilibrium shifts towards the cis isomer. It is possible that such isomeric effects play a role in the liquid-liquid extraction of other species and the inclusion of such effects in flowsheet modelling may lead to a better description of the process.


Possible pathway of zeolite formation through alkali activation chemistry of metakaolin for geopolymer-zeolite composite materials; ATR-FTIR study

Onutai, S.; 佐藤 淳也; 大杉 武史

Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 319, p.123808_1 - 123808_10, 2023/03


The process of zeolite formation for geopolymer-zeolite composites can be explained using ATR/FTIR spectroscopy. The process consists of the dissolution of silica and alumina precursors from the alkali activation process of metakaolin with NaOH solution. Thereafter, the formation of hydrated aluminosilicate primary units and secondary units occurs. Finally, the units are reorganized and crystallized into the zeolite structure. The increase in the alkali activator concentrations promotes the high dissolution of raw materials. Na cations play an important role in dissolution and synthesis. The higher the alkali activator concentration, the higher the tetrahedron condensation rate and the greater the degree of structure ordering. The phases in alkali activation of metakaolin with different NaOH concentrations (Na/Al) at 1.18, 2.03, and 3.05 were zeolite-A, zeolite-X, and sodalite zeolite. Finally, the possible pathway of zeolite formation was explained and deduced.

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