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Journal Articles

Mechanism of phase transfer of uranyl ions; A Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy study on solvent extraction in nuclear reprocessing

Kusaka, Ryoji; Watanabe, Masayuki

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 20(47), p.29588 - 29590, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:62.06(Chemistry, Physical)

Mechanistic understanding of solvent extraction of uranyl ions (UO$$_{2}$$$$^{2+}$$) by tributyl phosphate (TBP) will help improve the technology for the treatment and disposal of spent nuclear fuels. So far, it has been believed that uranyl ions in the aqueous phase are adsorbed to a TBP-enriched organic/aqueous interface, form complexes with TBP at the interface, and are extracted into the organic phase. Here we show that uranyl-TBP complex formation does not take place at the interface using vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy and propose an alternative extraction mechanism that uranyl nitrate, UO$$_{2}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$, passes through the interface and forms the uranyl-TBP complex, UO$$_{2}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$(TBP)$$_{2}$$, in the organic phase.

Journal Articles

Security measures at nuclear fuel facilities, 2; Internal threat countermeasure in cyber-security

Kono, Soma; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Goto, Atsushi*; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kitao, Takahiko

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 2 Pages, 2018/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nuclear agreement to promote cooperation between Japan and the U.S.

Suda, Kazunori

Enerugi Rebyu, 38(10), p.38 - 41, 2018/09

Journal Articles

Physical property evaluation of valve seal material at analytical radioactive liquid waste storage tanks in reprocessing facility

Goto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Kuno, Takehiko; Inada, Satoshi

Nippon Hozen Gakkai Dai-15-Kai Gakujutsu Koenkai Yoshishu, p.489 - 492, 2018/07

Radioactive liquid waste from the Tokai Reprocessing Facility Analytical Laboratory is temporarily stored in intermediate waste storage tank by using receiving valves. Then, the liquid waste is transferred to liquid treatment facility by using liquid feed valves. The deterioration of the gasket part of these valves (leakage of waste liquid) was confirmed in 2004. Since then, the material of gaskets was changed from polyethylene to Teflon. In 2016, the gaskets were replaced by periodical update. Therefore, physical properties of used gaskets were investigated, and the relevance between radioactive level and degradation degree was evaluated.

Journal Articles

Optimization of disposal method and scenario to reduce high level waste volume and repository footprint for HTGR

Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Tatsuro

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 116, p.224 - 234, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:38.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Optimization of disposal method and scenario to reduce volume of High Level Waste (HLW) and the footprint in a geological repository for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been performed. It was found that HTGR has great advantages to reducing HLW volume and its footprint, which are high burn-up, high thermal efficiency and pin-in-block type fuel, compared with those of LWR and has potential to reduce those more in the previous study. In this study, the scenario is optimized, and the geological repository layout is designed with the horizontal emplacement based on the KBS-3H concept instead of the vertical emplacement based on KBS-3V concept employed in the previous study. As a result, for direct disposal, the repository footprint can be reduced by 20 % by employing the horizontal without change of the scenario. By extending 40 years for cooling time before disposal, the footprint can be reduced by 50 %. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canister generation can be reduced by 20 % by extending cooling time of 1.5 years between the discharge and reprocessing. The footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 80 % by extending 40 years before disposal. Moreover, by employing four-group partitioning technology without transmutation, the footprint can be reduced by 90 % with cooling time of 150 years.

Journal Articles

Outline of decommissioning plan of Tokai Reprocessing Plant

Okano, Masanori; Akiyama, Kazuki; Taguchi, Katsuya; Nagasato, Yoshihiko; Omori, Eiichi

Dekomisshoningu Giho, (57), p.53 - 64, 2018/03

The construction of Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) was initiated in June 1971, and its hot test using spent fuel started in September 1977. Thereafter TRP had been operated to reprocess 1,140 tons of spent fuel for approximately 30 years until May 2007, according to the reprocessing contract with domestic electric power companies. JAEA announced a policy of TRP in report of JAEA reform plan published in September 2014. The policy shows that TRP will shift to a decommissioning stage by economic reasons. Based on the policy, application of approval for TRP decommissioning plan was submitted to Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) in June 2017. This plan provides basic guidelines such as procedures for decommissioning and specific activities for risk reduction, and implementation divisions of decommissioning, management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes, decommissioning budget, and decommissioning schedule. The process of TRP decommissioning is planned to continue for approximately 70 years until the release of controlled areas of approximately 30 facilities.

Journal Articles

Study on hydrogen generation from cement solidified products loading low-radioactive liquid wastes at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

Ito, Yoshiyuki; Matsushima, Ryotatsu; Sato, Fuminori

QST-M-8; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2016, P. 69, 2018/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Current status of research for the accident of evaporation to dryness caused by boiling of reprocessed high level radioactive liquid waste

Tamaki, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Abe, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2017 (ASRAM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2017/11

An accident of evaporation to dryness caused by boiling of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at the fuel reprocessing plant. This accident can be divided into early boiling stage, late boiling stage and dry-out stage by characteristics of accident evolution. It is important to estimate the amount of fission product (FP) transport between the liquid and gas phases, and the amount of FP deposition on the walls in each stage in order to estimate the release amount of FP to the environment. Various research activities have been carried out for this issue. This paper reviews these activities and presents the recent activities at JAEA for development of simulation code for this type of accident.

Journal Articles

Replacement of the glove port equipped with glove box in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facility

Horigome, Kazushi; Taguchi, Shigeo; Nishida, Naoki; Goto, Yuichi; Inada, Satoshi; Kuno, Takehiko

Nippon Hozen Gakkai Dai-14-Kai Gakujutsu Koenkai Yoshishu, p.381 - 384, 2017/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Solvent extraction of uranium with ${it N}$,${it N}$-di(2-ethylhexyl)octanamide from nitric acid medium

Tsutsui, Nao; Ban, Yasutoshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Ishii, Sho; Matsumura, Tatsuro

Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 35(6), p.439 - 449, 2017/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:84.03(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Solvent extraction of uranium from a nitric acid medium was performed with ${it N}$,${it N}$-di(2-ethylhexyl)octanamide (DEHOA) by a single-stage batch method, and the distribution ratio equation of U(VI) was derived as $${it D}_{rm U}$$ = 1.1$$[rm NO^{-}_{3}]^{1.6}_{rm aq}[{rm DEHOA}]^{2}_{rm org}$$. Furthermore, the nitric acid distribution was also evaluated, and the distribution ratio equation $${it D}_{rm H}$$ = 0.12$$[rm H^{+}]^{0.76}_{rm aq}[{rm DEHOA_{rm Free}}]_{rm H}$$ was obtained. Batch experiments to evaluate the time dependence of U(VI) extraction and the U(VI) loading capacity of DEHOA were also performed. It was revealed that U(VI) extraction by DEHOA reached an equilibrium state within a few minutes, and the loading capacity was 0.71 mol/dm$$^{3}$$ (M) when the concentrations of DEHOA and nitric acid were 1.5 and 3.0 M, respectively.

Journal Articles

Effect of seawater on corrosion of SUS316L in HAW under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation

Ambai, Hiromu; Nishizuka, Yusuke*; Sano, Yuichi; Uchida, Naoki; Iijima, Shizuka

QST-M-2; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2015, P. 90, 2017/03

The spent fuel stored in the storage pools at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. is exposed with the environment containing seawater components, owing to the injection of seawater into the storage pools. Therefore, during reprocessing, it is expected that the spent fuel will be contaminated with seawater components, and the influence of seawater on reprocessing needs to be investigated. We conducted the corrosion tests of the HAW storage tanks under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation, and revealed that no significant effect of seawater components was emerged.

Journal Articles

Estimation of corrosion mechanisms from the data obtained by the reproduced experiments considering the actual environments; Maritime structures and nuclear facilities

Yamamoto, Masahiro

Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(1), p.3 - 12, 2017/01

The laboratory simulation tests which could be reproduced the corrosion reactions propagating in the actual environments were utilized to analyze the mechanism of corrosion phenomena. In this report, some results are introduced in the cases of maritime structures and nuclear facilities. Experimental apparatus was originally designed to obtain the data in high radioactive condition simulating actual plants. One is a result showing the effect of Np ion to the corrosion of stainless steel in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Corrosion mechanism was revealed that Np$$^{6+}$$ ion is reduced to Np$$^{5+}$$ ion by a corrosion reaction of stainless steel and then re-oxidized to Np$$^{6+}$$ ion in the bulk solution. And repetition of this cycle accelerated corrosion of stainless steel by a little amounts of Np addition in nitric acid solution. Another result is introduced that an effect of H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ created by radiolysis of cooling water at high radioactive environment in light water reactor.

Journal Articles

Simulation study of sludge precipitation in spent fuel reprocessing

Takeuchi, Masayuki; Aihara, Haruka; Nakahara, Masaumi; Tanaka, Kotaro*

Procedia Chemistry, 21, p.182 - 189, 2016/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:20.72

A simulation technology with electrolyte thermodynamic model has been developed to evaluate the precipitation behavior in reprocessing solution based on nitric acid solution. The simulation results were compared with the experiment data from non-radioactive simulated HLLW with ten elements and Pu-Zr-Mo solution, and the reliability of the thermodynamic model was verified. Most of the precipitation species was zirconium molybdate hydrate from the both data. It is demonstrated that the chemical species and amount of the precipitation calculated by thermodynamic model reflected well that of experiments. This study has shown the thermodynamic simulation model is one of the useful tools to estimate the behavior of precipitation from the reprocessing solution.

Journal Articles

Reduction on high level radioactive waste volume and geological repository footprint with high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of HTGR

Fukaya, Yuji; Nishihara, Tetsuo

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 307, p.188 - 196, 2016/10


 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:76.09(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Reduction of High Level Waste (HLW) and footprint in a geological repository due to high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been investigated. A helium-cooled and graphite-moderated commercial HTGR was designed as a Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300), and the features are significantly high burn-up of approximately 120 GWd/t, high thermal efficiency around 50%, and pin-in-block type fuel. The pin-in-block type fuel was employed to reduce processed graphite volume in reprocessing, and effective waste loading method for direct disposal is proposed by applying the feature in this study. As a result, it is found that the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 60% compared with LWR representative case for direct disposal because of the higher burn-up, higher thermal efficiency, less TRU generation, and effective waste loading proposed in this study for HTGR. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 30% compared with LWR because of the 30% higher thermal efficiency of HTGR.

Journal Articles

Physical property of seal-gasket for glove box panel in reprocessing facilities

Goto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki

Nippon Hozen Gakkai Dai-13-Kai Gakujutsu Koenkai Yoshishu, p.31 - 34, 2016/07

Chloroprene rubber gaskets are often used to seal the glove box body and its panels. Such gaskets are deformed with compressive pressure and its elastic restoring force keeps sealing property. Therefore, gaskets play an important role in glove box sealing. However, physical properties of those used in glove box have not reported so far. In this study, hardness, elongation, tensile strength and compression set are investigated and its sealing performances are evaluated. The gaskets samples are taken from the glove box, which is used for 37 years. It is found that hardness, elongation and tensile strength of gaskets are changed due to the aging but its values are within the specification of chloroprene rubber. Also, the compression-set is less than the value that sealing performance is decreased. The results show that even the gaskets are used for long time, it has the property to keep sealing performances of glove box.

Journal Articles

Comparative molecular dynamics study on tri-$$n$$-butyl phosphate in organic and aqueous environments and its relevance to nuclear extraction processes

Mu, J.*; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Williams, C. D.*; Akutsu, Kazuhiro*; Nishitsuji, Shotaro*; Masters, A. J.*

Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 120(23), p.5183 - 5193, 2016/06

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:35.55(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Effect of boiling under reduced pressure on corrosion of stainless steels in nitric acid solution simulating high-level radioactive liquid waste

Irisawa, Eriko; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Hitoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 65(4), p.134 - 137, 2016/04

In order to investigate the effect of boiling under reduced pressure on corrosion of stainless steel in the nitric acid solution, the corrosion tests simulating the high-level radioactive liquid waste evaporator were performed. The results of immersion tests of stainless steels in the solution with and without boiling showed that the corrosion rates in boiling solution were larger than those in not boiling solution in case of same temperature of solution. Moreover, the cathode polarization curves showed that the corrosion potential of stainless steel in boiling solutions were shifted nobler, and the current intensity became larger than that in not boiling solutions. According to these results, it can be concluded that boiling of solution under reduced pressure accelerate the corrosion rates.

Journal Articles

Distribution behavior of neptunium by extraction with ${it N,N}$-dialkylamides (DEHDMPA and DEHBA) in mixer-settler extractors

Ban, Yasutoshi; Hotoku, Shinobu; Tsutsui, Nao; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Tatsuro

Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 34(1), p.37 - 47, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:80.3(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

The extraction properties of ${it N,N}$-di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,2-dimethylpropanamide (DEHDMPA) and ${it N,N}$-di(2-ethylhexyl)butanamide (DEHBA) for Np(V) and Np(VI) were studied by a batch method using various nitrate ion concentrations. The distribution ratios of Np(VI) obtained with DEHDMPA and DEHBA exceeded unity when the nitrate ion concentration was $$>$$3 mol/L. DEHDMPA and DEHBA barely extracted Np(V), and the maximum distribution ratios were 0.4 and 0.2 when DEHDMPA and DEHBA were used as extractants, respectively. A continuous counter-current experiment was performed to evaluate the behavior of Np in a process comprising two cycles. The ratio of Np recovered to the U fraction and U-Pu fraction were 63.7% and 29.1%, respectively. The behavior of Np suggested that the valence state of Np changed from Np(V) to Np(IV) or Np(VI) after the 1st experimental cycle. The recoveries of U and Pu to the U fraction stream and the U-Pu fraction stream were 99.9% and 99.8%, respectively.

JAEA Reports

Report on the evaluation of research and development activities in FY2014 issue; "Research and Development on Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuel Materials" (Ex-post evaluation)

Tokai Reprocessing Technology Development Center

JAEA-Evaluation 2015-012, 83 Pages, 2015/12


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter referred as "JAEA") consulted the "Evaluation Committee of Research and Development Activities for Fast Reactor Cycle" to assess the issue on "Research and Development on Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuel Materials" conducted by JAEA during the period from FY2010 to FY2014. In response to the JAEA's request, the committee assessed the R&D programs and the activities of JAEA related to the issue and concluded the mission was accomplished. This evaluation was performed based on the "General guideline for the evaluation of government R&D activities", the "Guideline for evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)" and the "Operational rule for evaluation of R&D activities" by JAEA.

Journal Articles

Release Characteristics of Ruthenium from Highly Active Liquid Waste in Drying Step

Tashiro, Shinsuke; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Yamane, Yuichi; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Abe, Hitoshi

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 14(4), p.227 - 234, 2015/12

The release characteristics of Ru from highly active liquid waste (HALW) have been investigated under the condition of accidental evaporation to dryness by boiling of HALW. Using a laboratory-scale apparatus, non-radioactive simulated HALW (s-HALW) was heated with an external heater to dryness to observe the release characteristics of Ru and gaseous nitrogen oxides. As a result, Ru was significantly released between 120 and 300 $$^{circ}$$C of the s-HALW. The cumulative release ratio of Ru was 0.088. It was also found that the partially released amount of Ru against the temperature of the s-HALW had two peaks with one maximal at about 140 $$^{circ}$$C and maximum at about 240 $$^{circ}$$C. Referring to the results of the release rate of gaseous nitrogen oxides and the volume of condensate, which was a collection of the mixed vapors of steam and nitric acid released from the s-HALW, we discussed the causes of Ru release around these peaks.

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