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Journal Articles

Recent discussions toward regulatory implementation of the new occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye and related studies in Japan

Yokoyama, Sumi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Tsujimura, Norio

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 95(8), p.1103 - 1112, 2019/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:100(Biology)

Journal Articles

Estimating internal dose coefficients of short-lived radionuclides in accordance with ICRP 2007 Recommendations

Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.385 - 393, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

At high energy accelerator facilities, various radionuclides are produced by nuclear reactions of high energy particles with structure and/or ambient air of the facilities. Consequently, the radionuclides are potential sources of internal exposure for works of the facilities. However, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) do not provide dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per intake, for the short-lived radionuclides whose half-lives are shorter than 10 minutes in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. Then, we estimated the dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of these short-lived radionuclides in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. In addition, we compared the dose coefficients with those in accordance with the ICRP 1990 Recommendations. As a result, a decreasing tendency was shown in the dose coefficients for inhalation cases; an increasing tendency was observed in those for ingestion cases. It was found that these changes in dose coefficients were mainly caused by the revision of the dose calculation procedures, alimentary tract models. The result of this study will be useful for planning of radiation protection at the high energy facilities.

Journal Articles

Units of radiation (radioactivity)

Takahashi, Fumiaki

Genshiryoku No Ima To Ashita, p.109 - 111, 2019/03

The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has planned to publish a document for public, entitled "Current and tomorrow of atomic energy, -Experiences from the accident at the Tokyo Electronic Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs-". The documents give us basics and usages of radiations, in addition to nuclear power plants and the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. This manuscript explains physical quantities (e.g., absorbed dose), protection quantities and operational quantities that are used for radiation measurement and protection. The unit of radioactivity is also explained, because radioactivity is measured for work places in a radiation facility for internal exposure protection. In addition, radiation dose constants that relate radiation dose to the activity are also introduced, as useful radiation units for radiation protection.

Journal Articles

Recent discussion on protection quantities and operational quantities by ICRP and ICRU

Endo, Akira

Hoken Butsuri, 52(1), p.39 - 41, 2017/03

Radiological protection requires the quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionizing radiation. To this end, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a dosimetry system consisting of protection quantities and operational quantities. The existing dosimetry system has been successfully used in radiological protection practice and regulations. Nevertheless, the system has some limitations and needs further improvements to consider changes in the fields of radiological protection. ICRP and ICRU have been discussing the issues to propose an alternative system of radiation dosimetry. This presentation overviews recent discussion on the protection quantities and operational quantities by ICRP and ICRU and the proposed dosimetry system for radiological protection.

Journal Articles

Issues associated with radiation protection after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster

Yamasoto, Kotaro

Gijutsushi, 27(11), p.8 - 11, 2015/11

Various analysis reports focused on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster have been published from government, national diet, private group and Tokyo electric power company. Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) analyzed these reports on perspective of radiation protection, and has reported towards the national and international society as "second-order recommendation report". What are radiation protection issues that have been found from these analysis reports? What is the direction of the goal of radiation protection system at the time of nuclear accident? From the results of these analyzes, many challenges have been found in current nuclear disaster prevention system.

Journal Articles

Experience gained from the Fukushima-Daiichi accident as input for developing a technical knowledge base including remediation technologies

Miyahara, Kaname; Iijima, Kazuki; Saito, Kimiaki

Jiban Kogakkai-Shi, 63(11/12), p.62 - 69, 2015/11

AA2015-0380.pdf:1.64MB

This review provides a concise overview of knowledge and experience gained from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident as input for developing a technical knowledge base including remediation technologies which is translated into actions that enable the rapid return of evacuees. It is reflecting JAEA's key role in the research associated with both remediation of contaminated areas and the natural processes influencing contamination migration in non-remediated areas, working together with a number of Japanese and international organisations and research institutes. This review also provides a perspective on the future actions required to remediate areas outside the Fukushima Dai-ichi site.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis of organ doses delivered during computed tomography examinations using Japanese adult phantoms with the WAZA-ARI dosimetry system

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Kai, Michiaki*

Health Physics, 109(2), p.104 - 112, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.6(Environmental Sciences)

A dosimetry system, named WAZA-ARI, is developed to assess accurately radiation doses to persons from Computed Tomography (CT) examination patients in Japan. Organ doses were prepared to application to dose calculations in WAZA-ARI by numerical analyses using average adult Japanese human models with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Experimental studies clarified the radiation configuration on the table for some multi-detector row CT (MDCT) devices. Then, a source model in PHITS could specifically take into account for emissions of X-ray in each MDCT device based on the experiment results. Numerical analyses with PHITS revealed a concordance of organ doses with human body size. The organ doses by the JM phantoms were compared with data obtained using previously developed systems. In addition, the dose calculation in WAZA-ARI were verified with previously reported results by realistic NUBAS phantoms and radiation dose measurement using a physical Japanese model. The results implied that analyses using the Japanese phantoms and PHITS including source models can appropriately give organ dose data with consideration of the MDCT device and physiques of typical Japanese adults.

Journal Articles

ICRP Publication 116 "Conversion Coefficients for Radiological Protection Quantities for External Radiation Exposures"; Summary

Endo, Akira

Isotope News, (736), p.34 - 37, 2015/08

Japanese translation of ICRP Publication 116 entitled "Conversion Coefficients for Radiological Protection Quantities for External Radiation Exposures" was published by the Japan Radioisotope Association in March 2015. The book gives fluence to dose conversion coefficients for both effective dose and organ absorbed doses for various types of external exposures, consistent with the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP. A complete set of conversion coefficients is provided in an accompanying CD in ASCII format and Microsoft Excel software. This article overviews ICRP Publication 116 and its impact to practice of radiation protection.

Journal Articles

Conference report; The Seventh Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection

Shimada, Kazumasa

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 57(6), P. 422, 2015/06

The conference of "The Seventh Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection" was open in June 8-9 2015 in Tokyo University. In this conference, the various stakeholders presented and discuss about the activity of radiation protection in Fukushima prefecture. I will report this conference.

JAEA Reports

Annual report on the present state and activities of the Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories in fiscal 2009

Radiation Protection Department

JAEA-Review 2015-003, 187 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Review-2015-003.pdf:18.34MB

This annual report summarizes the various activities on radiation control at the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, which were undertaken by the Radiation Protection Department in fiscal 2009. In the Laboratories, the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), MOX fuel fabrication facilities, the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF), and various other radioisotopes and uranium research laboratories have been operated. The Radiation Protection Department is responsible for the radiation control in and around the facilities, including personnel monitoring, workplace monitoring, consultation on radiological work planning and evaluation, monitoring of gaseous and liquid waste effluents, environmental monitoring, radiological standards, maintenance of radiation monitoring instruments, quality management, and the related research. In fiscal 2009, the results of radiological monitoring showed the situation to be normal, and no radiological incident or accident occurred. The maximum annual effective dose to radiation workers was 9.7 mSv and the mean annual effective dose was 0.2 mSv. Individual doses were kept within the annual dose limit specified in the safety regulations. The estimated effective dose caused by gaseous and liquid effluents from the TRP to imaginary members of the public around the Laboratories was 1.8$$times$$10$$^{-4}$$ mSv. The environmental monitoring and effluent control were performed appropriately in compliance with safety regulation and standards. As for the quality management activities, the inspection by the government, the internal audit, and the maintenance to revise the documents have been continued in accordance with the quality management system which had been introduced to safety regulation since fiscal 2004.

Journal Articles

The Health effect by the radioactive contamination of food

Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

Shokuhin No Anzen To Anshin; Koza 1, p.52 - 69, 2015/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Discussion on dose concept used for radiation protection

Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

FBNews, (345), p.1 - 3, 2005/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Motivation for professional engineer examination for nuclear power and radiation

Onodera, Junichi

Isotope News, (616), P. 20, 2005/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

11th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association

Kinase, Sakae; Saegusa, Jun; Sagawa, Hiroyuki*; Hosoda, Masahiro*

Hoken Butsuri, 39(4), p.307 - 311, 2004/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Personnel protection system in J-PARC linac

Hiroki, Fumio; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yasunori*; Kudo, Kikuo*

Proceedings of 1st Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan and 29th Linear Accelerator Meeting in Japan, p.159 - 161, 2004/08

The main purpose of Personnel Protection System (PPS) is to protect people from radiation exposure. From the viewpoint of it, important features of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) are (1) the beam power as high as 1MW, and (2) a lot of beam-line entrances apart from the main control room. The first feature requires the beam interlock function of PPS to be more reliable than ever. The second one is dealt with the access control function of PPS, with which the remote access control from the central control room is enabled. In this paper, we report the beam interlock and access control functions of the PPS.

Journal Articles

Topical Meeting on a New System of Radiological Protection

Kinase, Sakae

Hoken Butsuri, 38(1), p.24 - 27, 2003/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Transfer of nuclear safety culture to Asian countries by international cooperation

Ikuta, Yuko; Shitomi, Hajimu*; Saeki, Masakatsu

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 44(10), p.744 - 745, 2002/10

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

JCO criticality accident termination operation

Kanamori, Masashi

JNC-TN8440 2001-018, 50 Pages, 2001/12

JNC-TN8440-2001-018.pdf:1.31MB

On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff(Japan Nuclear cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs.

Journal Articles

Nuclear decay data used in radiation protection and medical application

Endo, Akira

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 43(12), p.1191 - 1194, 2001/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Nuclear decay data, a set of data on half-life and energies and intensities of radiations emitted by nuclear transformation, are required in calculating external and internal doses by emissions from radionuclides. A nuclear decay database, which has been the most widely used for dose calculation in radiation protection, is Publication 38 (ICRP38) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The paper describes overview of ICRP38 and a future plan of its revision.

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