Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.
High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02
As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Yamashita, Takuya; Sawada, Noriyoshi*
JAEA-Research 2019-010, 227 Pages, 2020/03
In order to support the decontamination activities proceeded by the national government and municipalities in terms of technology, we have developed a simulation system "RESET" which predicts the effect of decontamination. We also developed a "two-component model" for the purpose of predicting long-term changes in the air dose rate. We use these tools to perform decontamination simulation and predictive analysis of the air dose rate after decontamination, and provide information to the national government and municipalities aiming for reconstruction. In this report, the verification result of the prediction methods implemented using actual measurement data obtained in the "Decontamination model demonstration project in difficult-to-return zone" and "Survey result on transition of air dose rate after decontamination model demonstration project" conducted by Ministry of the Environment. In addition, the decontamination simulation conducted for the entire difficult-to-return area and the results of future prediction of the air dose rate after decontamination are shown.
Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I. E.*
Physical Sciences and Technology, 4(1), p.27 - 33, 2018/06
Increase of tritium concentration in the primary coolant for the research and testing reactors during reactor operation had been reported. To clarify the tritium sources, a curve of the tritium release rate into the primary coolant for the JMTR and the JRR-3M are evaluated. It is also observed that the amount of released tritium is lower in the case of new beryllium components installation, and increases with the reactor operating cycle. These results show the beryllium components in core strongly affect to the tritium release into the primary coolant. As a result, the tritium release rate is related with produced Li by (n,) reaction from Be, and evaluation results of tritium release curve are shown as the dominant source of tritium release into the primary coolant for the JMTR and the JRR-3M are beryllium components. Scattering of the tritium release rate with irradiation time were observed, and this phenomena in the JMTR occurred in earlier time than that of the JRR-3M.
Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I. E.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*
JAEA-Technology 2016-022, 35 Pages, 2016/10
As a part of study on the mechanism of tritium release to the primary coolant in research and testing reactors, the calculation methods by PHITS code is studied to evaluate the recoil tritium release rate from beryllium core components. Calculations using neutron and triton sources were compared, and it is clear that the tritium release rates in both cases show similar values. However, the calculation speed for the triton source cases is two orders faster than that for the neutron source case. It is also clear that the calculation up to history number per unit volume of 210 (cm) is necessary to determine the recoil tritium release rate of two effective digits precision. Furthermore, the relationship between the beryllium shape and recoil tritium release rate using the triton sources was studied. Recoil tritium release rate showed linear relation to the surface area per volume of beryllium, and the recoil tritium release rate showed about half of the conventional equation value.
Osaki, Hirotaka; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Konishi, Takashi; Ishihara, Masahiro
Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2015/05
For the design on the VHTR graphite components, it is desirable to employ graphite material with higher strength. IG-430 graphite has been developed as an advanced candidate for VHTR. However, the new developed IG-430 does not have enough databases for the design of HTGR. In this paper, the compressive strength (Cs) of IG-430, one of important strengths for design data, is statistically evaluated. The component reliability is evaluated based on the safety factors defined by the graphite design code, and the applicability as the VHTR graphite material is discussed. It was found that IG-430 has higher strength (about 11%) and lower standard deviation (about 27%) than IG-110 which is one of traditional graphites used for HTGR, because the crack in IG-430 would not easy to propagate rather than IG-110. Since fracture probability for IG-430 is low, the higher reliability of core-component will be achieved using IG-430. It is expected that IG-430 is applicable for VHTR graphite material.
Takada, Shoji; Sekita, Kenji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Honda, Yuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sawa, Kazuhiro
Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2015/05
To investigate the safety design criteria of heat utilization system for the HTGRs, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of fluctuation of thermal load on the reactor. The nuclear heat supply fluctuation test by non-nuclear heating was carried out to simulate the nuclear heat supply test which is carried out in the nuclear powered operation. The test data is used to verify the numerical code to calculate the temperature of core bottom structure to carry out the safety evaluation of abnormal events in the heat utilization system. In the test, the helium gas temperature was heated up to 120C. A sufficiently high temperature disturbance was imposed on the reactor inlet temperature. It was found that the response of temperatures of metallic components such as side shielding blocks was faster than those of graphite blocks in the core bottom structure, which was significantly affected by the heat capacities of components, the level of imposed disturbance and heat transfer performance.
Enuma, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Orita, Junichi*; Eto, Masao*; Miyagawa, Takayuki*
Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05
In the frame work of generation IV international forum, safety design criteria and safety design guideline for the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors have been developing. JAEA, JAPC, MFBR have been investigating design study for JSFR to satisfy SDC. In addition to the safety measures, maintainability, reparability and manufacturability are taken into account in the JSFR design study. This paper describes the design of main components. Enlargement of the access route for the inspection devices and addition of the access routes were carried out for the reactor structure. The pump-integrated IHX was modified for the primary heat exchanger, which was installed for the decay heat removal in the IHX at the upper plenum, to be removable for improved repair and maintenance. For the steam generator, protective wall tube type design is under investigation as an option with less R&D risks.
Kubota, Naoyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Kutsukake, Chuzo; Kondo, Keitaro*; Shu, Wataru; Nishi, Masataka; Nishitani, Takeo
Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.227 - 231, 2006/02
Hydrogen isotopes play important roles in the fuel recycling, the plasma condition etc. at the surface region of plasma facing components. The Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started microanalysis studies for fusion components since 2002 by applying the beam analyses. In this study, we have measured tritium depth profiles of TFTR tiles exposed to the deuterium-tritium plasma to reveal the hydrogen isotope behavior at the surface region using some microscopic techniques for material analyses at FNS. As the result of the deuteron nuclear reaction analysis, four kinds of elements; deuterium, tritium, lithium-6 and lithium-7, were identified from the energy spectra. Using the spectra, depth profiles of each element were also calculated. The tritium profile had a peak at 0.5 micron, whereas the deuterium and lithium profiles were uniform from the surface to 1.0 micron depth. In addition, the surface region of the TFTR tile has retained the tritium more than one order of magnitude in the bulk.
Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Hirose, Takanori; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Hajime; Enoeda, Mikio; Akiba, Masato
Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.93 - 103, 2006/02
This paper presents an R&D activity on the plasma facing components (PFCs), such as first wall and divertor, for the fusion power plant. The PFCs of the power plant will be subjected to heavy neutron irradiation and high heat/particle flux from plasma during the continuous operation. In the present design of the PFCs, the candidate structural material is a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel, F82H, from the viewpoints of low activation and high robustness against neutron irradiation, and the candidate armor material is tungsten from the low sputtering yield and low tritium retention points of view. To realize the PFCs using such materials, JAERI has bee extensively conducting R&Ds on; (1) high performance cooling tube, (2) tungsten armor materials, (3) selection of a bonding technique for F82H and tungsten materials and (4) evaluation of structural integrity. Recent achievements on these R&Ds are presented.
Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Dairaku, Masayuki; Akiba, Masato
Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.347 - 354, 2006/02
no abstracts in English
Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu
Hozengaku, 4(4), p.47 - 52, 2006/01
The technical structural standard for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Fusion Reactor) should be innovative because of their quite different features of safety and mechanical components from nuclear fission reactors, and the necessity of introducing several new fabrication and examination technologies. Recognizing the international importance of Fusion Standard, Japan and ASME has started the cooperation development of the Fusion Standard. This paper shows the special features of ITER from view points of safety, design and fabrication, and proposes approach for development of the fusion standard.
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 47(11), p.761 - 767, 2005/11
In-vessel components such as blanket and divertor of the fusion reactor are activated by neutron produced during fusion reaction. Gamma radiation will be about 500 MGy/h in maximum after fusion reaction. When the components are failed or troubled in the vessel, the maintenence has to be carried out by the robot because the human cannot be close inside the vessel. The required functions and present R&D status of the typical robots applied to ITER are introduced as examples of robots maintaining the in-vessel components of the fusion reactor.
Sono, Hiroki; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi*; Ono, Akio*; Kojima, Takuji; Soramasu, Noboru*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(8), p.678 - 687, 2005/08
Component analysis of -ray doses in criticality accident situations is indispensable for further understanding on emission behavior of -rays and accurate evaluation of external exposure to human bodies. Such dose components were evaluated, categorizing -rays into four components: prompt, delayed, pseudo components in the period of criticality, and a residual component in the period after the termination of criticality. This evaluation was performed by the combination of dosimetry experiments at the TRACY facility using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) made of lithium tetra borate and computational analyses using a Monte Carlo code. The evaluation confirmed that the dose proportions of the above components varied with the distance from the TRACY core tank. This variation was due to the difference in attenuation of the individual components with the distance from the core tank. The evaluated dose proportions quantitatively clarified the contribution of the pseudo and the residual components to be excluded for accurate evaluation of -ray exposure.
Mizukoshi, Seiji; Oshima, Soichiro; Shimada, Taro
JAERI-Tech 2005-011, 122 Pages, 2005/03
The radiological and physical characteristic on decommissioning, such as component and structure weights and radioactivity of the 1.1 MWe class reference nuclear power plants summarized in the NUREG reports of the US NRC were classified,arranged and compared with the domestic commercial nuclear power plants and JPDR from a view point of dismantling plan and waste management for decommissioning. As the results, it was found that the radioactive component and structure weights was about 28,000ton、and non-radioactive structure weights was about 124,000ton less than the domestic commercial BWR. And it was found that this differences has mainly influenced dismantling costs for decommissioning. Farther, it was found that the concrete element composition rates of B, Ni, Nb and so were differerence of one or more figures btween the reference nuclear power plants and the domestic commercial PWR or JPDR.Also,it was found that the this difference became about two or three times by radioactivity concentration and has mainly influenced transport and disposal costs for decommissioning.
Hirai, Takeshi*; Ezato, Koichiro; Majerus, P.*
Materials Transactions, 46(3), p.412 - 424, 2005/03
no abstracts in English
Takeda, Nobukazu; Omori, Junji*; Nakahira, Masataka
JAERI-Tech 2004-068, 27 Pages, 2004/12
ITER vacuum vessel (VV) is a safety component confining radioactive materials such as tritium and activated dust. An independent VV support structure with multiple flexible plates located at the bottom of VV lower port is proposed. This independent concept has two advantages: (1) thermal load due to the temperature deference between VV and the lower temperature components such as TF coil becomes lower and (2) the other components such as TF coil is categorized as a non-safety component because of its independence from VV. Stress analyses have been performed to assess the integrity of the VV support structure using a precisely modeled VV structure. As a result, (1) the maximum displacement of the VV corresponding to the relative displacement between VV and TF coil is found to be 15 mm, much less than the current design value of 100 mm, and (2) the stresses of the whole VV system including VV support are estimated to be less than the allowable ones defined by ASME. Based on these assessments, the feasibility of the proposed independent VV support has been verified as a VV support.
Takeda, Nobukazu; Omori, Junji*; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(12), p.1280 - 1286, 2004/12
ITER vacuum vessel (VV) is a safety component confining radioactive materials. An independent VV support structure located at the bottom of VV lower port is proposed as an alternative concept, which is deferent from the current reference, i.e., the VV support is directly connected to the toroidal coil (TF coil). This independent concept has two advantages comparing to the reference one: (1) thermal load becomes lower and (2) the TF coil is categorized as a non-safety component. Stress Analyses have been performed to assess the integrity of the VV support structure. As a result, (1) the maximum displacement of the VV corresponding to the relative displacement between VV and TF coil is found to be 15 mm, much less than the current design value of 100 mm, and (2) the stresses of the whole VV system including VV support are estimated to be less than the allowable ones defined by ASME, respectively. Based on these assessments, the feasibility of the proposed independent VV support has been verified as an alternative VV support.
Fumizawa, Motoo; Tanaka, Gaku*; Zhao, H.*; Hishida, Makoto*; Shiina, Yasuaki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 3(4), p.313 - 322, 2004/12
This paper deals with a computer simulation of a helium-air counter flow in a rectangular channel. The inclination angle is varied from 0(horizontal) to 90(vertical). Velocity profiles and concentration profiles are calculated with a computer program VSOP sub-module. Following main features of the counter flow are discussed. (1) Time required to establish a quasi-steady state counter flow. (2) The relationship between the inclination angle and the flow patterns of the counter flow (3) The developing process of velocity profiles and concentration profiles (4) The relationship between the inclination angle of the channel and the velocity profiles of upwards flow and the downwards flow (5) The relationship between the concentration profile and the inclination angle (6) The relationship between the net in-flow rate and the inclination angle We compared the computed velocity profile and the net in-flow rate with experimental data. A good agreement is obtained between the calculation and the experiment.
Ishihara, Masahiro; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Oku, Tatsuo*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.251 - 260, 2004/10
The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is a graphite-moderated and helium-gas-cooled reactor with prismatic fuel elements of hexagonal blocks. The reactor internal structures of the HTTR are mainly made up of graphite components. As well known, the graphite is a brittle material and there were no available design criteria for brittle materials. Therefore, JAERI had to develop the design criteria taking account of the brittle fracture behavior. In this paper, concept and key specification of the developed graphite design criteria is described, and also an outline of the quality control specified in the design criteria is mentioned.
Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.261 - 272, 2004/10
no abstracts in English