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BWR lower head penetration failure test focusing on eutectic melting

山下 拓哉; 佐藤 拓未; 間所 寛; 永江 勇二

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 173, p.109129_1 - 109129_15, 2022/08

Decommissioning work occasioned by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) accident of March 2011 is in progress. Severe accident (SA) analysis, testing, and internal investigation are being used to grasp the 1F internal state. A PWR system that refers to the TMI-2 accident is typical for SA codes and testing, on the other hand, a BWR system like 1F is uncommon, understanding the 1F internal state is challenging. The present study conducted the ELSA-1 test, a test that focused on damage from eutectic melting of the liquid metal pool and control rod drive (CRD), to elucidate the lower head (LH) failure mechanism in the 1F accident. The results demonstrated that depending on the condition of the melt pool formed in the lower plenum, a factor of LH boundary failure was due to eutectic melting. In addition, the state related to the CRD structure of 1F unit 2 were estimated.


Preliminary experiment in a graphite-moderated core to avoid full mock-up experiment for the future first commercial HTGR

沖田 将一朗; 深谷 裕司; 左近 敦士*; 佐野 忠史*; 高橋 佳之*; 宇根崎 博信*

Proceedings of International Conference on Physics of Reactors 2022 (PHYSOR 2022) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/05

As a commercial reactor require high economic efficiency, the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) would be a more attractive proposition if a full mock-up experiment for the first commercial HTGR could be avoided in the future. In this paper, preliminary experiments were conducted in order to obtain basic core characteristics data, such as the criticality, necessary to demonstrate the applicability of a generalized bias factor method to neutronic design of HTGR. The graphite-moderated core with only highly enriched uranium fuels in the B-rack of Kyoto University Criticality Assembly (KUCA) was configured as a reference core. The C/E-1 values (Calculation/Experiment -1 values) for the keff values at the three critical states and the thermal neutron spectra with the major nuclear data libraries, such as JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.2, ENDF/B-VII.1, and ENDF/B-VIII.0, were calculated for the core. The result shows that the keff values are overestimated for JEFF-3.2, ENDF/B-VII.1, and ENDF/B-VIII.0 by 0.14% - 0.18%, while they are underestimated for JENDL-4.0 by 0.07% - 0.09%. The calculation result with JENDL-4.0 shows a slightly better agreement with this experiment than the others. In addition, the thermal neutron spectrum calculated with ENDF/B-VIII.0 is softer than the others. The Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) data of graphite stored in ENDF/B-VIII.0 suggests that the thermal neutron spectrum become softer than that of traditional TSL data stored in the others. The core characteristics of the reference core, which are necessary for future studies, were obtained.


Boundary condition free homogenization and evaluation of its performance in fast reactor core analysis

丸山 修平

Proceedings of International Conference on Physics of Reactors 2022 (PHYSOR 2022) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/05

本論文は新しい均質化法「Boundary Condition Free Homogenization (BCFH)」を提案した。従来の均質化法では、セル計算において特定の境界条件または周辺領域を仮定することにより、炉心計算とセル(集合体)計算を分離している。これらの仮定にはあいまいさや近似があり、評価結果の精度の低下を引き起こす原因にもなる。BCFHはこれらの問題を回避し、均質化等に係るセル計算の精度を向上させることを目的としている。著者は反応率保存に関連するセル内の物理量が流入部分中性子流に対して保存されるという条件を課した。すなわち、セル平均中性子束と流出部分中性子束の応答行列は均質-非均質系で同じになるものとした。これにより得られる断面積,SPH因子,不連続因子等の均質化パラメーターは特定の境界条件に依存しなくなる。このようにして得られた新しい均質化パラメータは、従来のベクトル形式から行列形式に拡張されたものとなる。BCFHの性能を調査するために、我が国のナトリウム冷却高速炉の炉心概念を使用して数値実験を行った。その結果、BCFHは従来の方法と比較して制御棒の反応度価値や反応率分布を評価するのに特に有効であることがわかった。この結果に基づき、BCFHは炉心解析における1つの有望な均質化の概念になりえると結論付けた。


Post-test analyses of the CMMR-4 test

山下 拓哉; 間所 寛; 佐藤 一憲

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 8(2), p.021701_1 - 021701_13, 2022/04

Understanding the final distribution of core materials and their characteristics is important for decommissioning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). Such characteristics depend on the accident progression in each unit. However, boiling water reactor accident progression involves great uncertainty. This uncertainty, which was clarified by MAAP-MELCOR Crosswalk, cannot be resolved with existing knowledge and was thus addressed in this work through core material melting and relocation (CMMR) tests. For the test bundle, ZrO$$_{2}$$ pellets were installed instead of UO$$_{2}$$ pellets. A plasma heating system was used for the tests. In the CMMR-4 test, useful information was obtained on the core state just before slumping. The presence of macroscopic gas permeability of the core approaching ceramic fuel melting was confirmed, and the fuel columns remained standing, suggesting that the collapse of fuel columns, which is likely in the reactor condition, would not allow effective relocation of the hottest fuel away from the bottom of the core. This information will help us comprehend core degradation in boiling water reactors, similar to those in 1F. In addition, useful information on abrasive water suspension jet (AWSJ) cutting for debris-containing boride was obtained in the process of dismantling the test bundle. When the mixing debris that contains oxide, metal, and boride material is cut, AWSJ may be repelled by the boride in the debris, which may cut unexpected parts, thus generating a large amount of waste in cutting the boride part in the targeted debris. This information will help the decommissioning of 1F.



横山 賢治; 丸山 修平; 谷中 裕; 大木 繁夫

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-019, 115 Pages, 2022/03




A 3D particle-based analysis of molten pool-to-structural wall heat transfer in a simulated fuel subassembly

Zhang, T.*; 守田 幸路*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; 神山 健司

Extended abstracts of the 2nd Asian Conference on Thermal Sciences (Internet), 2 Pages, 2021/10

日本のナトリウム冷却高速炉では、高速炉の炉心損傷事故における大規模炉心プール形成による再臨界を回避する方策として、内部ダクト付き燃料集合体(FAIDUS)が提案されている。本研究では、FAIDUSの有効性を実証するために実施されたEAGLE ID1炉内試験を対象に3次元粒子粒子法シミュレーションを行い、溶融燃料/スティールの混合プールからダクト壁への熱伝達機構を明らかにするための解析的検討を行った。


Melt impingement on a flat spreading surface under wet condition

Sahboun, N. F.; 松本 俊慶; 岩澤 譲; 杉山 智之

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2021 (ASRAM 2021) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2021/10

The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station triggered reevaluation and necessary enhancement of the accident countermeasures and safety regulations worldwide. Such actions are based on the present knowledge and evaluation techniques of the important phenomena anticipated to occur in a severe accident. The present study focused on the under-water melt spreading behavior and aimed at a formulation to predict the final geometry of the solidified melt on the floor of the containment vessel. The formulation, based on the author's previous study of the dry spreading of molten metal, considers the thermal and fluid properties of the melt, so the gap between the core and simulant materials could be filled by using adequate properties. In addition, the formulation was extended to the wet condition by considering the film boiling heat transfer at the upper side of the spreading melt. The improved formula was applied to the PULiMS experiments conducted by the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology with a simulant oxide material under wet conditions. The predicted final spreading area and thickness were in agreement with the experimental results within a twenty percent error.


Development of evaluation framework for ex-vessel core coolability

松本 俊慶; 岩澤 譲; 杉山 智之

Proceedings of Reactor core and Containment Cooling Systems, Long-term management and reliability (RCCS 2021) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2021/10



2020年度夏期休暇実習報告; HTTR炉心を用いた原子力電池に関する予備的検討; 核設計のための予備検討,3

石塚 悦男; 満井 渡*; 山本 雄大*; 中川 恭一*; Ho, H. Q.; 石井 俊晃; 濱本 真平; 長住 達; 高松 邦吉; Kenzhina, I.*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-016, 16 Pages, 2021/09





藤本 望*; 福田 航大*; 本多 友貴*; 栃尾 大輔; Ho, H. Q.; 長住 達; 石井 俊晃; 濱本 真平; 中野 優美*; 石塚 悦男

JAEA-Technology 2021-008, 23 Pages, 2021/06




Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-PV-09; 1.9% pressure vessel top small break LOCA with SG depressurization and gas inflow

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-006, 61 Pages, 2021/04


ROSA-V計画において、大型非定常実験装置(LSTF)を用いた実験(実験番号: SB-PV-09)が2005年11月17日に行われた。ROSA/LSTF SB-PV-09実験では、加圧水型原子炉(PWR)の1.9%圧力容器頂部小破断冷却材喪失事故を模擬した。このとき、非常用炉心冷却系(ECCS)である高圧注入系の全故障と蓄圧注入(ACC)タンクから一次系への非凝縮性ガス(窒素ガス)の流入を仮定した。実験では、上部ヘッドに形成される水位が破断流量に影響を与えることを見出した。アクシデントマネジメント(AM)策として、両ループの蒸気発生器(SG)逃し弁開放によるSG二次側減圧を炉心出口最高温度が623Kに到達した時点で開始した。SG二次側圧力が一次系圧力に低下するまで、このAM策は一次系減圧に対して有効とならなかった。一方、炉心出口温度の応答が遅くかつ緩慢であるため、模擬燃料棒の被覆管表面最高温度がLSTFの炉心保護のために予め決定した値(958K)を超えたとき、炉心出力は自動的に低下した。炉心出力の自動低下後、低温側配管内でのACC水と蒸気の凝縮により両ループのループシールクリアリング(LSC)が誘発された。LSC後、炉心水位が回復して炉心はクエンチした。ACCタンクから窒素ガスの流入開始後、一次系とSG二次側の圧力差が大きくなった。ECCSである低圧注入系の作動を通じた継続的な炉心冷却を確認後、実験を終了した。本報告書は、ROSA/LSTF SB-PV-09実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。


High temperature gas-cooled reactors

武田 哲明*; 稲垣 嘉之; 相原 純; 青木 健; 藤原 佑輔; 深谷 裕司; 後藤 実; Ho, H. Q.; 飯垣 和彦; 今井 良行; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02



Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-SL-01; Main steam line break accident

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-019, 58 Pages, 2021/01


ROSA-IV計画において、大型非定常実験装置(LSTF)を用いた実験(実験番号: SB-SL-01)が1990年3月27日に行われた。ROSA/LSTFSB-SL-01実験では、加圧水型原子炉(PWR)の主蒸気管破断(MSLB)事故を模擬した。このとき、両ループの蒸気発生器(SG)二次側への補助給水(AFW)とともに、非常用炉心冷却系である高圧注入(HPI)系から両ループの低温側配管内への冷却材注入を仮定した。MSLBにより、破断ループのSGは急減圧し、破断ループのSG二次側広域水位は低下した。しかし、破断ループのSG二次側へのAFWにより、破断ループのSG二次側広域水位は回復した。一次系圧力は、MSLB直後一時的に若干低下したが、SG主蒸気隔離弁の閉止に従い16.1MPaまで上昇した。一次系圧力が10MPa以下に低下した数分後、HPI系から両ループの低温側配管内へ冷却材を手動注入した。一次系圧力は、HPI系からの冷却材注入により上昇したが、加圧器逃し弁の開放により16.2MPa以下に維持された。実験中、炉心はサブクール水で満たされた。健全ループでは、流れが停滞し、HPI系からの冷却材注入時に低温側配管での温度成層が観察された。一方、破断ループでは、顕著な自然循環が継続した。HPI系からの冷却材の連続注入による継続的な炉心冷却を確認して実験を終了した。取得した実験データは、PWRのMSLBを伴う多重故障事故時の回復操作および手順の検討に役立てることができる。本報告書は、ROSA/LSTFSB-SL-01実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。


Numerical simulation of heat transfer behavior in EAGLE ID1 in-pile test using finite volume particle method

Zhang, T.*; 船越 寛司*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*; 神山 健司

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 150, p.107856_1 - 107856_10, 2021/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:81.22(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The EAGLE ID1 test was performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to demonstrate the effectiveness of fuel discharge from a fuel subassembly with an inner duct structure. The experimental results suggested that the early duct wall failure observed in the test was initiated by high heat flux from the molten pool comprising liquid fuel and steel. In addition, the post-test analyses showed that the high heat flux may be enhanced effectively by molten steel in the pool. In this study, a series of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the ID1 test was analyzed to investigate the mechanisms of molten pool-to-duct wall heat transfer using a fully Lagrangian approach based on the finite volume particle method. The present 2D particle-based simulation demonstrated that a large thermal load on the duct wall can be caused by direct contact of the liquid fuel with nuclear heat and high-temperature liquid steel.


The EAGLE Project to Enhance Safety of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

神山 健司

Human Energy Atom, 2021(2), p.30 - 35, 2021/00



The Working group on the analysis and management of accidents (WGAMA); A Historical review of major contributions

Herranz, L. E.*; Jacquemain, D.*; Nitheanandan, T.*; Sandberg, N.*; Barr$'e$, F.*; Bechta, S.*; Choi, K.-Y.*; D'Auria, F.*; Lee, R.*; 中村 秀夫

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 127, p.103432_1 - 103432_14, 2020/09

WGAMA started on Dec. 31st 1999 to assess and strengthen the technical basis needed for the prevention, mitigation and management of potential accidents in NPP and to facilitate international convergence on safety issues and AM analyses and strategies. WGAMA addresses reactor thermal-hydraulics (Thys), in-vessel behavior of degraded cores, containment behavior and protection, and FP release, transport, deposition and retention, for both current and advanced reactors. This paper summarizes such WGAMA contributions in Thys, CFD and severe accidents, which include the Fukushima-Daiichi accident impacts on the WGAMA activities and their substantial outcomes. Around 50 technical reports have become reference in the related fields, which appear in References. Recommendations in these reports include further research, some of which have given rise to the joint projects conducted or underway within the OECD framework. Ongoing WGAMA activities are numerous and a number of them are to be launched in the near future, which are shortly mentioned too.


2019年度夏期休暇実習報告; HTTR炉心を用いた原子力電池に関する予備的検討; 核設計のための予備検討,2

石塚 悦男; 中島 弘貴*; 中川 直樹*; Ho, H. Q.; 石井 俊晃; 濱本 真平; 高松 邦吉; Kenzhina, I.*; Chikhray, Y.*; 松浦 秀明*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-008, 16 Pages, 2020/08




Validation of analysis models on relocation behavior of molten core materials in sodium-cooled fast reactors based on the melt discharge experiment

五十嵐 魁*; 大貫 涼二*; 堺 公明*; 加藤 慎也; 松場 賢一; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

In order to improve the safety of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to make sure measures against their severe accidents. Especially, in the case of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), there is a possibility of significant energy release due to formation of a large-scale molten fuel pool accompanied by re-criticality in the event of a core disruptive accident (CDA). It is important to ensure in-vessel retention that keeps and confines damaged core material in the reactor vessel even if the CDA occurs. CDA scenario initiated by Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF), which is a typical cause of core damage, is generally categorized into four phases according to the progression of core-disruptive status, which are the initiating, early-discharge, material-relocation and heat-removal phases for the latest design in Japan. During the material-relocation phase, the molten core material flows down mainly through the control rod guide tube and is discharged into the inlet coolant plenum below the bottom of the core. The discharged molten core material collides with the bottom plate of the inlet plenum. Clarification of the accumulation behavior of molten core material with such a collision on the bottom plate is important to reduce uncertainties in the safety assessment of CDA. In present study, in order to make clear behavior of core melt materials during the CDAs of SFRs, analysis was conducted using the SIMMER-III code for a melt discharge simulation experiment in which low-melting-point alloy was discharged into a shallow water pool. This report shows the validation results for the melt behavior by comparing with the experimental data.


Four-point-bend tests on high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes after exposure to simulated LOCA conditions

成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.782 - 791, 2020/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:62.87(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To evaluate the fracture resistance of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes during the long-term core cooling period following loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), laboratory-scale four-point-bend tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73 - 84 GWd/t: low-tin ZIRLO$textsuperscript{texttrademark}$, M5$textsuperscript{textregistered}$, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). Three four-point-bend tests were performed on the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens subjected to the integral thermal shock tests which simulated LOCA conditions (ballooning and rupture, oxidation in high-temperature steam, and quench). During the four-point-bend tests, all the specimens that were oxidized at 1474 K to 9.9% - 21.5% equivalent cladding reacted exhibited brittle fractures. The maximum bending moments were comparable to those of the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube specimens. Furthermore, the effects of oxidation and hydriding on the maximum bending moment were comparable between the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens and the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube specimens. Therefore, it can be concluded that the post-LOCA fracture resistance of fuel cladding tubes is not significantly reduced by extending the burnup to 84 GWd/t and using the advanced fuel cladding tubes, though it may slightly decrease with increasing initial hydrogen concentration in a relatively lower ECR range ($$<$$ 15%), as observed for the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes.



長住 達; 松中 一朗*; 藤本 望*; 石井 俊晃; 石塚 悦男

JAEA-Technology 2020-003, 13 Pages, 2020/05



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