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JAEA Reports

Research and development of radiation-resistant sensor for fuel debris by integrating advanced measurement technologies (Contract research); FY2018 Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization*

JAEA-Review 2019-040, 77 Pages, 2020/03


JAEA/CLADS, had been conducting the Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2018. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Research and Development of Radiation-resistant Sensor for Fuel Debris by Integrating Advanced Measurement Technologies". The present study aims to in-situ measure and analyze the distribution status and criticality of flooded fuel debris. For this purpose, we construct a neutron measurement system by developing compact diamond neutron sensor (200 $$mu$$m $$times$$ 510 $$mu$$m thickness) and integrated circuit whose radiation resistance was improved by circuit design. Along with the multi-phased array sonar and the acoustic sub-bottom profiling (SBP) system, the neutron measurement system will be installed in the ROV (developed by Japan-UK collaboration) and its demonstration tests will be conducted in a PCV mock-up water tank.

Journal Articles

Measurement of neutron scattering cross section of nano-diamond with particle diameter of approximately 5 nm in energy range of 0.2 meV to 100 meV

Teshigawara, Makoto; Tsuchikawa, Yusuke*; Ichikawa, Go*; Takata, Shinichi; Mishima, Kenji*; Harada, Masahide; Oi, Motoki; Kawamura, Yukihiko*; Kai, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Seiko; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 929, p.113 - 120, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:20.8(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A nano-diamond is an attractive neutron reflection material below cold neutron energy. The total neutron cross section of a nano-diamond was derived from a neutron transmission measurement over the neutron energy range of 0.2 meV to 100 meV because total neutron cross section data were not available. The total cross section of a nano-diamond with particle size of approximately 5 nm increased with a decrease in neutron energy to 0.2 meV. It was approximately two orders of magnitude larger than that of graphite at 0.2 meV. The contribution of inelastic scattering to the total cross section was to be shown negligible small at neutron energies of 1.2, 1.5, 1.9, 2.6, and 5.9 meV in the inelastic neutron scattering measurement. Moreover, small-angle neutron scattering measurements of the nano-diamond showed a large scattering cross section in the forward direction for low neutron energies.

Journal Articles

Atom-photon coupling from nitrogen-vacancy centres embedded in tellurite microspheres

Ruan, Y.*; Gibson, B. C.*; Lau, D. W. M.*; Greentree, A. D.*; Ji, H.*; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.*; Johnson, B. C.*; Oshima, Takeshi; Monro, T. M.*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 5, p.11486_1 - 11486_7, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:82.22(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Journal Articles

Nanodiamond in tellurite glass, 2; Practical nanodiamond-doped fibers

Ruan, Y.*; Ji, H.*; Johnson, B. C.*; Oshima, Takeshi; Greentree, A. D.*; Gibson, B. C.*; Monro, T. M.*; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.*

Optical Materials Express (Internet), 5(1), p.73 - 87, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:24.75(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Disassembly of JT-60 tokamak device for JT-60SA Project; Disassembly of radioactivated large structures

Okano, Fuminori; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Sakasai, Akira; Hanada, Masaya; JT-60 Team

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 90(10), p.630 - 639, 2014/10

JT-60 tokamak device, as a largest nuclear fusion device in the world, started the experiments since 1985 and had accomplished the research and development of plasma performance toward the DEMO. The project has successfully completed it operation in August 2008 with many results such as accomplishment of break-even plasma condition in 1996. This disassembly was required for JT-60SA project, which is the Satellite Tokamak project under Japan-EU international corroboration to modify the JT-60 to the superconducting tokamak. This work was the first experience of disassembling a large radioactive fusion device based on Radiation Hazard Prevention Act in Japan. This report presents the outline of disassembly of JT-60 tokamak device.

Journal Articles

Development of reliable diamond window for EC launcher on fusion reactors

Takahashi, Koji; Illy, S.*; Heidinger, R.*; Kasugai, Atsushi; Minami, Ryutaro; Sakamoto, Keishi; Thumm, M.*; Imai, Tsuyoshi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 74(1-4), p.305 - 310, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:30.82(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A new diamond window with the copper-coated edge for an EC launcher is developed. The diamond window is designed to cool its disk edge. Since Cu is coated at the entire edge, ingress of cooling water into a transmission line in case of failure on the edge is negligible. In addition, corrosion of Al blaze between the edge and the Inconel cuffs can be avoided. A 170GHz, RF transmission experiment equivalent to a MW-level transmission was carried out to investigate the capability of the edge cooling. The transmission power and pulse are 55kW and 3sec, respectively. Temperature increase was 45$$^{circ}$$C and alomost became constant. Thermal calculation with tan$$delta$$ of 4.4$$times$$10$$^{-4}$$ and thermal conductivity of 1.9kW/m/K agrees with the experiment. Since tan$$delta$$ of the diamond is much higher than the actual one (tan$$delta$$=2$$times$$10$$^{-5}$$), the temperature increase corresponds to that of 1MW transmission. It concludes that the Cu coating dose not degrade the edge cooling capability and improves the reliability of the diamond window.

Journal Articles

Preliminary measurements on single and multi-crystal diamond electron cathodes

Minehara, Eisuke

Proceedings of 2nd Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan and 30th Linear Accelerator Meeting in Japan, p.55 - 56, 2005/07

The next generation high brightness and high current electron source like a photo cathode, a thermionic cathode, a crystal Diamond electron cathode and others would be expected to realize the next generation ERL (energy recovery linac) based light source and SASE X-ray free-electron laser. The JAERI FEL group has recently started to develop a new crystal Diamond electron cathode technology for high current, high brightness, and long life electron source. In the presentation, we plan to explain and to discuss our strategy and a preliminary experimental measurements of the crystal Diamond cathode, and related Diamond cathode evaluation system.

Journal Articles

Thermal desorption behavior of deuterium implanted into polycrystalline diamond

Kimura, Hiromi*; Sasaki, Masayoshi*; Morimoto, Yasutomi*; Takeda, Tsuyoshi*; Kodama, Hiroshi*; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Oyaizu, Makoto*; Takahashi, Koji; Sakamoto, Keishi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 337-339, p.614 - 618, 2005/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:56.45(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Tensile and fatigue strength of free-standing CVD diamond

Davies, A. R.*; Field, J. E.*; Takahashi, Koji; Hada, Kazuhiko

Diamond and Related Materials, 14(1), p.6 - 10, 2005/01

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:38.35(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A CVD diamond is finding increased application and it is important to study its fatigue properties. The present paper describes research on a batch of di-electric grade CVD material. It was obtained that tensile strength at the nucleation side and the growth were side 690$$pm$$90MPa and 280$$pm$$30MPa, respectively. Some samples survived at least 95% of their critical fracture stress for 10$$^{7}$$ cycles without fatiguing.

Journal Articles

Development of EC launcher components for ITER

Takahashi, Koji; Kobayashi, Noriyuki*; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 25, p.75 - 83, 2005/00

Recent progress of the development on the ITER equatorial EC launcher components, such as the steering mirrors, its drive system, the waveguide components and the diamond vacuum windows, is reported. Thermmo-mechanical analysis of the recent mirror design shows that maximum temperature increase of 187$$^{circ}$$C at the reflecting surface and maximum stress of 242MPa at the inner surface of the cooling tube are obtained. In the cyclic test of the spiral tube mock-up, the cyclic number of 1.3$$times$$10$$^{6}$$ is succeeded without failure. In the window development, the fabrication of the Cu-coated edge diamond window and the high power transmission test were done. The Cu-coating on the disk edge can avoid water ingress in the launcher (vessel) under the assumption of the crack formation toward edge. Transmission experiment indicative to 1.2MW, was carried out. Temperature increase of 50$$^{circ}$$C agrees with the calculation. It concludes that the Cu-coated window is capable of MW-level transmission and improves its reliability.

Journal Articles

Energetic deuterium and helium irradiation effects on chemical structure of CVD diamond

Sasaki, Masayoshi*; Morimoto, Yasutomi*; Kimura, Hiromi*; Takahashi, Koji; Sakamoto, Keishi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Okuno, Kenji*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 329-333(Part1), p.899 - 903, 2004/08

A CVD diamond has been the reference material of a torus widow for a rf heating system in a fusion reactor. Since the window is in the circumstance of tritium, helium and radio activated dust, it is important to elucidate the effect of ions on chemical structure of the diamond, existing states of tritium and tritium inventory. Polycrystalline CVD diamond disks($$phi$$=10.0mm, t=0.21mm) used in this study are the same grade as rf windows. After sputtering the surface with 1.0 keV Ar$$^{+}$$ to remove oxygen impurity, the sample was irradiated with deuterium (D$$_{2}$$$$^{+}$$) or helium ions (He$$^{+}$$) at an angle of 0 degrees to the surface normal. The irradiation energies of deuterium and helium are 0.25 keV D$$^{+}$$ and 0.45 keV He$$^{+}$$, respectively. The structural change of the irradiated sample was measured by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The C1s peak shift toward lower binding energy side was observed when deuterium ions irradiated. This result indicates that the diamond changes to amorphous carbon due to formation of C-D bond.

Journal Articles

Energetic deuterium and helium irradiation effects on chemical structure of CVD diamond

Sasaki, Masayoshi*; Morimoto, Yasutomi*; Kimura, Hiromi*; Takahashi, Koji; Sakamoto, Keishi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Okuno, Kenji*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 329-333(1), p.899 - 903, 2004/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:68.32(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Toughness of free-standing CVD diamond

Davies, A. R.*; Field, J. E.*; Takahashi, Koji; Hada, Kazuhiko

Journal of Materials Science, 39(5), p.1571 - 1574, 2004/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:70.33(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A four-point bend test was used to determine the fracture toughness of mechanical grade and di-electric (optical) grade chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond. The validity of the test was first confirmed by measuring the toughness of alumina and confirming the results with literature values. The toughnesses of both types of CVD were similar; 8.5$$pm$$1.0 and 8.3$$pm$$0.4 MPa ($$sqrt{m}$$) respectively. This is higher than the value of 3.4$$pm$$0.5 MPa ($$sqrt{m}$$) measured for diamond by Field and Freeman, 1981 using an indentation technique. It is suggested that this is primarily due to differences in surface roughness. There were enough samples to make a preliminary study of the effect of temperature and these data are reported.

Journal Articles

Application of diamond window for infrared laser diagnostics in a tokamak device

Kawano, Yasunori; Chiba, Shinichi; Inoue, Akira*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 75(1), p.279 - 280, 2004/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:46.16(Instruments & Instrumentation)

It has been successful to apply CVD diamond plate as the vacuum window for infrared CO$$_{2}$$ laser interferometry and polarimetry for electron density measurement in the JT-60U tokamak. In comparison with to use the conventional zinc-selenide windows, the Faraday rotation component at diamond windows was small as negligible. This resulted in the improvement of the Faraday rotation measurement for a tokamak plasma by polarimetry.

Journal Articles

Strong anti-stokes luminescence from H$$^{+}$$-irradiated diamond

Xu, Y.; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Narumi, Kazumasa; Miyashita, Kiyoshi*; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sakai, Takuro

Applied Physics Letters, 83(10), p.1968 - 1970, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:83.53(Physics, Applied)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of EC H&CD launcher components for fusion device

Takahashi, Koji; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Moeller, C. P.*; Hayashida, Kazunori*; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Hayashi, Kenichi*; Imai, Tsuyoshi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 66-68, p.473 - 479, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:37.8(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For the purpose to confirm the reliability of the front steering concept, tests of the front steering launcher mock-up and neutron irradiation tests of bearings for a movable mirror were carried out under the ITER conditions. The max. stress of the flexible pipes for the movable mirror was measuerd to be 60MPa, much less than the allowable stress and agree with the calculation. No degradation on the performance of bearings was obtained for the assumed fluence of ITER. The mock-up of remote steering(RS) launcher was tested and RF radiation of 0.5MW-3sec and 0.2MW-10sec over 0-10$$^{circ}$$ were performed. No degradation was obseved, either. The new launcher which has the capability of wider range rf beam steering and the corrugated square waveguide with four miter bends that yield the dog-legged structure has been designed, based on the test results. It has been fabricating for high power experiments.

Journal Articles

Formation of promising Co-C nanocompositions

Lavrentiev, V.; Abe, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Narumi, Kazumasa

Surface and Interface Analysis, 35(1), p.36 - 39, 2003/01

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:75.67(Chemistry, Physical)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of EC launcher and diamond window for ITER

Takahashi, Koji; Sakamoto, Keishi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Kasugai, Atsushi; Heidinger, R.*; Thumm, M.*; Moeller, C. P.*

Proceedings of IAEA TM on ECRH Physics and Technology for ITER (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2003/00

A front steering (FS) launcher and a remote steering (RS) one have been studied for ITER. In the analysis of a mirror(Cu alloy) for FS launcher, max. temperature of 333$$^{circ}$$C and max. induced stress of 136MPa, less than allowable stress(200MPa), were obtained at the mirror surface under 1MW/1line in CW operation. The efficient transmission ($$eta$$$$>$$95%) at -12$$^{circ}$$$$<$$$$theta$$$$<$$12$$^{circ}$$ and 170GHz was performed for both polarizations in the experiments of a square corrugated waveguide for the RS launcher. RF and pressure tests of the diamond window irradiated by neutron were carried under JA/EU(FZK) collaboration. Neutron fluence of the window was 10$$^{21}$$n/m$$^{2}$$, whereas the estimated annual fluence at the window position is 10$$^{18}$$$$sim$$10$$^{19}$$n/m$$^{2}$$. Transmission of 0.48MW-30sec and 0.2MW-132sec were performed. It was successfully demonstrated that the irradiated window withstood 0.4MPa, which was twice higher than the ITER requirement. Diamond windows are applicable for ITER.

Journal Articles

In situ X-ray observations of the decomposition of brucite and the graphite-diamond conversion in aqueous fluid at high pressure and temperature

Okada, Taku; Utsumi, Wataru; Kaneko, Hiroshi*; Yamakata, Masaaki*; Shimomura, Osamu

Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 29(7), p.439 - 445, 2002/08

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:51.22(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

An experimental technique to make real-time observations at high pressure and temperature of the diamond forming process in candidate material of mantle fluids as a catalyst has been established for the first time. In situ X-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation have been performed upon a mixture of brucite (Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$) and graphite as starting material. Brucite decomposes into periclase (MgO) and H$$_{2}$$O at 3.6 GPa and 1050$$^{circ}$$C while no periclase is formed after the decomposition of brucite at 6.2 GPa and 1150$$^{circ}$$C, indicating that the solubility of the MgO component in H$$_{2}$$O greatly increases with increasing pressure. The conversion of graphite to diamond in aqueous fluid has been observed at 7.7 GPa and 1835$$^{circ}$$C. Time-dependent X-ray diffraction profiles for this transformation have been successfully obtained.

Journal Articles

Modification of carbon related films with ion beams

Naramoto, Hiroshi; Xu, Y.; Narumi, Kazumasa; Zhu, X.; Vacik, J.; Yamamoto, Shunya; Miyashita, Kiyoshi*

JAERI-Review 2001-039, TIARA Annual Report 2000, p.183 - 185, 2001/11

no abstracts in English

34 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)