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JAEA Reports

Background radiation monitoring using manned helicopter for application of technique of nuclear emergency response in the fiscal year 2020 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Sasaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Sato, Kazuhiko*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kikuchi, Hikaru*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-020, 138 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Technology-2021-020.pdf:17.11MB

A large amount of radioactive material was released by the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring via manned helicopter has been utilized to grasp rapidly and widely the distribution of the radioactive materials surrounding FDNPS. We prepare the data of background radiation dose, geomorphic characteristics and the controlled airspace surrounding nuclear facilities of the whole country in order to make effective use of the monitoring technique as a way of emergency radiation monitoring and supply the results during an accident of a facility. This report is summarized that the knowledge as noted above achieved by the aerial radiation monitoring around Tsuruga and Mihama nuclear power station, research reactors in Kindai University Atomic Energy Research Institute and Institute for Integrated Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University. In addition, examination's progress aimed at introduction of airborne radiation monitoring via unmanned plane during nuclear disaster and the technical issues are summarized in this report.

JAEA Reports

Consideration on utilization of atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response

Togawa, Orihiko; Okura, Takehisa; Kimura, Masanori; Nagai, Haruyasu

JAEA-Review 2021-021, 61 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Review-2021-021.pdf:3.72MB

Triggered by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, there have been a lot of arguments among various situations and levels about utilization of atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Most of these arguments, however, were alternative and extreme discussions on whether predictions by computational models could be applied or not for protective measures in a nuclear emergency, and it was hard to say that these arguments were politely conducted, based on scientific verification in an emergency response. It was known, on the other hand, that there were not a few potential users of atmospheric dispersion models and/or calculation results by the models within the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and outside. However, they seemed to have a lack of understanding and a misunderstanding on proper use of different kinds of atmospheric dispersion models. This report compares an outline of models and calculation method in atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response, with a central focus on the models which have been developed and used in the JAEA. Examples of calculations by these models are also described in the report. This report aims at contributing to future consideration and activities for potential users of atmospheric dispersion models within the JAEA and outside.

JAEA Reports

Direction of future safety research to be conducted by Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness (FY 2021 Edition)

Planning and Co-ordination Office, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness

JAEA-Review 2021-019, 58 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Review-2021-019.pdf:2.26MB

In response to the directives of the 4th medium-to-long-term objectives, Japan Atomic Energy Agency will formulate the 4th medium-to-long-term plan and run its operation according to the plan from the fiscal year 2022. Consequently, the Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness has reviewed the strategies of the safety research for contributing to the demand, "the continuous improvement of nuclear safety and the effectiveness of nuclear disaster prevention". It was also discussed how to proceed the safety research over the medium-to-long-term plan period based on the proposed new strategies. From the viewpoint of developing human resources and maintaining research capabilities in the sector, discussion was made on measures to pass on the knowledge and skills of senior and mid-career researchers to young researchers. The main elements of the proposed strategies are: (1) to efficiently and effectively develop both problem-solving research and advanced or leading research, considering the importance and needs on the nuclear safety and corresponding to regulatory trends and introduction of new technologies, (2) to produce research results of high quality for social implementation, including proactive proposal of measures for enhancing rationality of nuclear safety and regulation by utilizing risk information, and (3) to promote development of human resources and maintenance of technological base through challenging new research subjects. This report summarizes results of the discussion on the medium-to-long-term safety research strategies and the research plans based on the proposed strategies.

JAEA Reports

Background radiation monitoring using manned helicopter for application of technique of nuclear emergency response in the fiscal year 2019 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Sato, Kazuhiko*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kikuchi, Hikaru*; Ishizaki, Azusa; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-019, 128 Pages, 2021/02

JAEA-Technology-2020-019.pdf:15.75MB

A large amount of radioactive material was released by the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter has been utilized to grasp rapidly and widely the distribution of the radioactive materials around FDNPS. We prepare the data of background radiation dose, geomorphic characteristics and the controlled airspace around nuclear facilities of the whole country in order to make effective use of the monitoring technique as a way of emergency radiation monitoring and supply the results during accidents of the facilities. Furthermore, the airborne radiation monitoring has been conducted in Integrated Nuclear Emergency Response Drill to increase effectiveness of the monitoring. This report is summarized that the knowledge as noted above achieved by the aerial radiation monitoring around Higashidori nuclear power station, the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho village and Shika nuclear power station, the full details of the aerial radiation monitoring in Integrated Nuclear Emergency Response Drill in the fiscal 2019. In addition, examination's progress aimed at introduction of airborne radiation monitoring using unmanned helicopter during nuclear disaster and the technical issues are summarized in this report.

JAEA Reports

Outline of Regional Workshops held in 2006 - 2017 by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the proposal of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Group of the Asian Nuclear Safety Network

Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya

JAEA-Review 2020-066, 32 Pages, 2021/02

JAEA-Review-2020-066.pdf:3.01MB

The International Atomic Energy Agency (abbreviated as IAEA) has been implementing the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (abbreviated as ANSN) activities since 2002. As part of this effort, Topical Group on Emergency Preparedness and Response (abbreviated as EPRTG) for nuclear or radiation disasters was established in 2006 under the umbrella of the ANSN. Based on the EPRTG proposal, the IAEA conducted 23 Asian regional workshops in the 12 years from 2006 to 2017. Typical topical fields of the regional workshops were nuclear emergency drills, emergency medical care, long-term response after nuclear/radiological emergency, international cooperation, national nuclear disaster prevention system. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has produced coordinators for EPRTG since its establishment and has led its activities since then. This report summarizes the Asian regional workshops conducted by the IAEA based on the recommendations of the EPRTG.

Journal Articles

Development of a user-friendly interface IRONS for atmospheric dispersion database for nuclear emergency preparedness based on the Fukushima database

El-Asaad, H.*; Nagai, Haruyasu; Sagara, Hiroshi*; Han, C. Y.*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 141, p.107292_1 - 107292_9, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Atmospheric dispersion simulations can provide crucial information to assess radioactive plumes in the environment for nuclear emergency preparedness. However, it is a difficult and time-consuming task to make simulations assuming many possible scenarios and to derive data from a vast number of results. Therefore, an interface was developed to assist users in conveying characteristics of plumes from simulation results. The interface uses a large database that contains WSPEEDI-II simulations for the first 20-days of radioactive release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and it displays essential quantitative data to the user from the database. The user may conduct sensitivity analysis with the help of the interface by changing release condition to generate many different case scenarios.

Journal Articles

Atmospheric-dispersion database system that can immediately provide calculation results for various source term and meteorological conditions

Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tanaka, Atsunori*; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Kadowaki, Masanao

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.745 - 754, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:76.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have estimated source term and analyzed processes of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident by the Worldwide version of System for Environmental Emergency Dose Information. On the basis of this experience, we developed an dispersion calculation method that can respond to various needs in a nuclear emergency and provide useful information for emergency-response planning. By this method, if a release point is known, it is possible to immediately obtain the prediction results by applying provided source term to the database of dispersion-calculation results prepared in advance. With this function, it is easy to compare results by applying various source term with monitoring data, and to find out the optimum source term, which was applied for the source term estimation of the FDNPS accident. By performing this calculation with past meteorological-analysis data, it is possible to immediately get dispersion-calculation results for various source term and meteorological conditions. This database can be used for pre-accident planning, such as optimization of a monitoring plan and understanding of events to be supposed in considering emergency countermeasures.

Journal Articles

Preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological emergency as a designated public corporation

Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05

In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.

JAEA Reports

Progress report on Nuclear Safety Research Center (JFY 2015 - 2017)

Nuclear Safety Research Center, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness

JAEA-Review 2018-022, 201 Pages, 2019/01

JAEA-Review-2018-022.pdf:20.61MB

Nuclear Safety Research Center (NSRC), Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting technical support to nuclear safety regulation and safety research based on the Mid-Long Term Target determined by Japanese government. This report summarizes the research structure of NSRC and the cooperative research activities with domestic and international organizations as well as the nuclear safety research activities and results in the period from JFY 2015 to 2017 on the nine research fields in NSRC; (1) severe accident analysis, (2) radiation risk analysis, (3) safety of nuclear fuels in light water reactors (LWRs), (4) thermohydraulic behavior under severe accident in LWRs, (5) materials degradation and structural integrity, (6) safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, (7) safety management on criticality, (8) safety of radioactive waste management, and (9) nuclear safeguards.

Journal Articles

Comparison of the Fukushima radioactive mapping by two different aerial radiation monitoring systems

Kim, B.-J.*; Sasaki, Miyuki; Sanada, Yukihisa

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.130 - 133, 2019/01

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2015 - March 31, 2016)

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2017-011, 54 Pages, 2017/07

JAEA-Review-2017-011.pdf:3.46MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national and some local governments in case of a nuclear incident. In case of a nuclear emergency, the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) dispatches experts of JAEA, supplies the governments with emergency equipment, and gives them technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various drills/exercises and training courses to nuclear emergency responders. In FY2015, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Improvement of hardware and software for technical support activities (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency responders ; (3) Researches on nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and dissemination of useful information for emergency responders; (4) Arrangements for technical support for aerial monitoring; and (5) Technical contributions to Asian countries on nuclear emergency preparedness and response.

Journal Articles

Lessons learned in protection of the public for the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Callen, J.*; Homma, Toshimitsu

Health Physics, 112(6), p.550 - 559, 2017/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:40.62(Environmental Sciences)

What insights can the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provide in the reality of decision making on actions to protect the public during a severe reactor and spent fuel pool emergency? In order to answer this question, and with the goal of limiting the consequences of any future emergencies at a nuclear power plant due to severe conditions, this article presents the main actions taken in response to the emergency in the form of a timeline. The focus of this paper are those insights concerning the progression of an accident due to severe conditions at a light water reactor nuclear power plant that must be understood in order to protect the public.

Journal Articles

Calculations of safe distance from the point of a severe accident during transportation of a package containing spent nuclear fuels

Watanabe, Fumitaka; Okuno, Hiroshi

Proceedings of 18th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials (PATRAM 2016) (DVD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2016/09

This paper shows our calculations on the effects of a radiological release by assuming a severe accident in nuclear material transportation. Following recalculations of safe distance from the point of a severe accident during transportation of a transportation cask TN12 typically used in France containing spent nuclear fuel, and calculations to replicate the "Regulatory Guide: Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities", a similar calculation was made for a spent fuel transportation cask NFT-14P that was typically utilized in Japan instead of TN12. The safe distance was calculated to be about 30 m. The above calculations were made with the HotSpot codes which adopted the Gauss plume model and had been developed by the USA. Some additional calculations were made with EyesAct, which was developed and used in Japan, adopting also the Gauss plume model, to compare calculation results.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015)

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2016-005, 55 Pages, 2016/05

JAEA-Review-2016-005.pdf:3.61MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, is a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of nuclear and/or radiological incidents. In order to fulfill the tasks as the designated public institution, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear/radiological emergency, the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives them technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear preparedness and response to emergency responders including the national and local government officers, in addition to the JAEA staff members. The NEAT also researches nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations on the above research theme. In the FY2014, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency responders for the national and local governments, (3) Researches on nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and release to the public as useful information, (4) Technical contributions to Asian countries on nuclear emergency preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations.

Journal Articles

Fukushima cleanup; Status and lessons

Miyahara, Kaname; McKinley, I. G.*; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki; Hardie, S. M. L.*

Nuclear Engineering International, 60(736), p.12 - 14, 2015/11

Remediation work in Fukushima is based on a comprehensive technical knowledge base, which is translated into actions that enable the rapid return of evacuees but also provides a globally valuable resource for disaster planning and contaminated site remediation.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2014)

Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Aoki, Kazufumi; Okamoto, Akiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Kume, Nobuhide; Nakanishi, Chika; Koie, Masahiro; Kawamata, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Review 2014-048, 69 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Review-2014-048.pdf:13.91MB

JAEA was assigned as a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of disaster responses or response in the event of a military attack, etc. In order to fulfill the tasks, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear emergency, NEAT dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response institutions of the national and local governments, police, fire fighters, self-defense forces, etc. in addition to the JAEA itself. The NEAT also researches nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations. In the FY2013, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, etc. (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency response personnel for the national and local governments, etc. (3) Researches on nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and sending useful information (4) International contributions to Asian countries on nuclear disaster preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations

JAEA Reports

NuTEC annual report; April l, 2001 - March 31, 2002

Nuclear Technology and Education Center

JAERI-Review 2003-003, 81 Pages, 2003/05

JAERI-Review-2003-003.pdf:3.48MB

This report summarizes the educational activities and related management of the Nuclear Technology andEducation Center (NuTEC) during the 2001 fiscal year. Both Tokyo and Tokai Education Centers have successfully conducted almost all the planned domestic and international training courses. In addition Tokai Education Center has performed the 3nd nuclear supervisor training course and introduced a new course for special nuclear emergency preparedness in response to the legal amendment after the criticality accident. The sum total number of participants was 1,310. The International Technology Transfer Division has not only planned and organized the international training courses, but also taken charge of the 3nd workshop on Human Resource Development in Nuclear Field in Asian and Pasific Region. Various researches have been made to improve the educational program.

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