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Journal Articles

Influence of distant scatterer on air kerma measurement in the evaluation of diagnostic X-rays using Monte Carlo simulation

Tominaga, Masahide*; Nagayasu, Yukari*; Sasaki, Motoharu*; Furuta, Takuya; Hayashi, Hiroaki*; Oita, Masataka*; Nishiyama, Yuichi*; Haga, Akihiro*

Radiological Physics and Technology, 14(4), p.381 - 389, 2021/12

Due to recent advance of diagnostic radiology, the increase of diagnostic radiation exposure to patient becomes problem. Diagnostic Reference Levels has been released to optimized the radiation exposure to patients in Japan recently. The evaluation of entrance surface dose (ESD) is recommended to assess the dose level for general X-ray examination. The ESD can be easily evaluated by multiplying the backscatter factor of the patient body on the free-in-air air kerma. The air kerma free-in-air value used to estimate ESD may contain X-rays scattered from obstacles located at the time of measurement, which may induce non-minor error in assessments. We therefore studied the influence of scattered X-rays on air kerma measurement under various environments (distances, field sizes, and materials). It was found that the dependence on the X-ray energy and field size was different for different materials. The X-ray contamination can be ignored for all the materials when the distance to the scatterer exceeds 35 cm.

Journal Articles

Technical Note: Validation of a material assignment method for a retrospective study of carbon-ion radiotherapy using Monte Carlo simulation

Chang, W.*; Koba, Yusuke*; Furuta, Takuya; Yonai, Shunsuke*; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Shinnosuke*; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(5), p.846 - 855, 2021/09

With the aim of developing a revaluation tool of treatment plan in carbon-ion radiotherapy using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, we propose two methods; one is dedicated to identify realistic-tissue materials from a CT image with satisfying the well-calibrated relationship between CT numbers and stopping power ratio (SPR) provided by TPS, and the other is to estimate dose to water considering the particle- and energy-dependent SPR between realistic tissue materials and water. We validated these proposed methods by computing depth dose distribution in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms composed of human tissue materials and water irradiated by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam with 8 cm SOBP using a MC simulation code PHITS and comparing with results of conventional treatment planning system (TPS). Our result suggested that use of water as a surrogate of real tissue materials, which is adopted in conventional TPS, is inadequate for dose estimation from secondary particles because their production rates cannot be scaled by SPR of the primary particle in water. We therefore concluded that the proposed methods can play important roles in the reevaluation of the treatment plans in carbon-ion radiotherapy.

Journal Articles

Medical application of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS

Furuta, Takuya; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Radiological Physics and Technology, 14(3), p.215 - 225, 2021/09

Number of the PHITS users has steadily increased since 2010 from when it is officially counted. Among them, increase of new users in medical physics is outstanding. Many research works in medical physics using PHITS have been published and the applications are widely spread in different fields such as applications to different types of radiotherapy, shielding calculations of medical facilities, application to radiation biology, and research and development of medical tools. In this article, we will introduce useful functions for medical application in PHITS by referring to examples of various medical applications.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Feasibility study on tritium recoil barrier for neutron reflectors of research and test reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Ho, H. Q.; Sakamoto, Naoki*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 164, p.112181_1 - 112181_5, 2021/03

Tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and the JRR-3M (Japan Research Reactor-3M) had been studied. It is found that the recoil release by $$^{6}$$Li(n$$_{t}$$,$$alpha$$)$$^{3}$$H reaction, which comes from a chain reaction of beryllium neutron reflectors, is dominant. To prevent tritium recoil release, the surface area of beryllium neutron reflectors needs to be minimum in the core design and/or be shielded with other material. In this paper, as the feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors, various materials such as Al, Ti, V, Ni, and Zr were evaluated from the viewpoint of the thickness of barriers, activities after long-term operations, and effects on the reactivities. From the results of evaluations, Al would be a suitable candidate as the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors.

Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross section for proton in the kinetic energy range from 0.4 GeV to 3 GeV

Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011050_1 - 011050_6, 2021/03

R&D of the beam window is crucial in the ADS, which serves as a partition between the accelerator and the target region. Although the displacement per atom (DPA) is used to evaluate the damage on the window, experimental data on the displacement cross section is scarce in the energy region above 20 MeV. We started to measure the displacement cross section for the protons in the energy region between 0.4 to 3 GeV. The displacement cross section can be derived by resistivity change divided by the proton flux and the resistivity change per Frankel pair on cryo-cooled sample to maintain damage. Experiments were conducted at the 3 GeV proton synchrotron at the J-PARC Center, and aluminum and copper was used as samples. As a result of comparison between the present experiment and the calculation of the NRT model, which is widely used for calculation of the displacement cross section, it was found that the calculation of the NRT model overestimated the experiment by about 3 times.

Journal Articles

Nuclide production cross sections of Ni and Zr irradiated with 0.4-, 1.3-, 2.2-, and 3.0-GeV protons

Takeshita, Hayato; Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Maekawa, Fujio; Watanabe, Yukinobu*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011045_1 - 011045_6, 2021/03

To improve accuracy of nuclear design of accelerator driven nuclear transmutation systems, nuclide production cross sections on Ni and Zr, which were candidate materials to be used in ADS, were measured for GeV energy protons. The measured results were compared with PHITS calculations and JENDL/HE-2007.

Journal Articles

Measurement of nuclide production cross-sections of $$^{mathrm{nat}}$$Fe for 0.4-3.0 GeV protons in J-PARC

Matsuda, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hayato*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011047_1 - 011047_6, 2021/03

Accurate nuclide production cross-section data are required for the design of Accelerator-Driven nuclear transmutation System (ADS) such as the design of radioactive waste disposal, design of remote-handling procedure of highly activated components, and evaluation of exposure doses of rad-workers. Although much efforts have been devoted to nuclide production cross-section measurements so far, uncertainties of the measured data are sometimes large as several tens percentage, and there is no experimental data in the GeV energy region even for some of important nuclides. In this study, proton induced nuclide production cross-section of iron, which is the most important constituent element of steel, was measured. The present experiment was compared with calculations by the PHITS code with several physics models including Bertini and INCL4.6 and evaluated nuclear data JENDL-HE/2007. The most significant discrepancy found in this study was the production cross sections via the (p,xn) reaction. It was suggested that further improvements, such as the in-medium effect on the nucleon-nucleon scattering and the Pauli blocking, were required in the intra-nuclear cascade models used in this study.

Journal Articles

A Prediction method for the dose rate of fuel debris depending on the constituent elements

Terashima, Kenichi; Okumura, Keisuke

Journal of Advanced Simulation in Science and Engineering (Internet), 8(1), p.73 - 86, 2021/03

JAEA Reports

Quantitative analysis of radioactivity distribution by imaging of high radiation field environment using gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Kyoto University*

JAEA-Review 2020-044, 79 Pages, 2021/01

JAEA-Review-2020-044.pdf:4.39MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Quantitative analysis of radioactivity distribution by imaging of high radiation field environment using gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy" Conducted in FY2019. In this study, a gamma-ray imaging detector, ETCC, will be improved to operate under high dose conditions, and a portable system will be constructed to be installed in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear PowerStation (1F). In addition, the development and combination of ETCC-based quantitative radioactivity distribution analysis methods will lead to innovative advances in the six key issues to be solved for the decommissioning of the 1F. This system will enable us to quantitatively visualize the three-dimensional radiation distribution and its origin.

Journal Articles

Calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates in nine forests in eastern Japan from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity measurements

Malins, A.; Imamura, Naohiro*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Junko*; Kim, M.; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Shinomiya, Yoshiki*; Miura, Satoru*; Machida, Masahiko

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Evaluation of tritium release into primary coolant for research and testing reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.1 - 8, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The sources and mechanisms for the tritium release into the primary coolant in the JMTR and the JRR-3M containing beryllium reflectors are evaluated. It is found that the recoil release from chain reaction of $$^{9}$$Be is dominant and its calculation results agree well with trends derived from the measured variation of tritium concentration in the primary coolant. It also indicates that the simple calculation method used in this study for the tritium recoil release from the beryllium reflectors can be utilized for an estimation of the tritium release into the primary coolant for a research and testing reactors containing beryllium reflectors.

Journal Articles

Re-evaluation of radiation-energy transfer to an extraction solvent in a minor-actinide-separation process based on consideration of radiation permeability

Toigawa, Tomohiro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Kai, Takeshi; Furuta, Takuya; Kumagai, Yuta; Matsumura, Tatsuro

Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 39(1), p.74 - 89, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Absorbed-dose estimation is essential for evaluation of the radiation feasibility of minor-actinide-separation processes. We propose a dose-evaluation method based on radiation permeability, with comparisons of heterogeneous structures seen in the solvent-extraction process, such as emulsions forming in the mixture of the organic and aqueous phases. A demonstration of radiation-energy-transfer simulation is performed with a focus on the minor-actinide-recovery process from high-level liquid waste with the aid of the Monte Carlo radiation-transport code PHITS. The simulation results indicate that the dose absorbed by the extraction solvent from alpha ray depends upon the emulsion structure, and that from beta and gamma ray depends upon the mixer-settler-apparatus size. Non-negligible contributions of well-permeable gamma rays were indicated in terms of the plant operation of the minor-actinide-separation process.

Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross-sections of copper and iron for proton with kinetic energies in the range 0.4 - 3 GeV

Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(10), p.1141 - 1151, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:76.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To estimate the structural damages of materials in accelerator facilities, displacement per atom (dpa) is widely employed as a damage index, calculated based on the displacement cross-section obtained using a calculation model. Although dpa is applied as standard, the experimental data of the displacement cross-section for a proton in the energy region above 20 MeV are scarce. Among the calculation models, difference of about factor 8 exist, so that the experimental data of the cross-section are crucial to validate the model. To obtain the displacement cross-section, we conducted experiments at J-PARC. The displacement cross-section of copper and iron was successfully obtained for a proton projectile with the kinetic energies, 0.4 - 3 GeV. The results were compared with those obtained using the widely utilized Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model and the athermal-recombination-corrected (arc) model based on molecular dynamics. It was found that the NRT model overestimates the present displacement cross-section by 3.5 times. The calculation results obtained using with the arc model based on the Nordlund parameter show remarkable agreement with the experimental data. It can be concluded that the arc model must be employed for the dpa calculation for the damage estimation of copper and iron.

Journal Articles

Simulation analysis of the Compton-to-peak method for quantifying radiocesium deposition quantities

Malins, A.; Ochi, Kotaro; Machida, Masahiko; Sanada, Yukihisa

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.147 - 154, 2020/10

Journal Articles

A Comprehensive study of spallation models for proton-induced spallation product yields utilized in transport calculation

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki

EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.06001_1 - 06001_6, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.19

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Measurement of nuclide production cross section for lead and bismuth with proton in energy range from 0.4 GeV to 3.0 GeV

Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Maekawa, Fujio

EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.06004_1 - 06004_4, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.19

For the Accelerator-Driven nuclear transmutation System (ADS), nuclide production yield estimation in the lead-bismuth target is important to manage the target. However, experimental data of nuclide production yield by spallation and high-energy fission reactions are scarce. In order to obtain the experimental data, we experimented in J-PARC using $$^{mathrm{nat}}$$Pb and $$^{mathrm{209}}$$Bi samples. The samples were irradiated with protons at various kinematic energy points between 0.4 and 3.0 GeV. After the irradiation, the nuclide production cross section over $$^{mathrm{7}}$$Be to $$^{mathrm{183}}$$Re was obtained by spectroscopic measurement of decay gamma-rays from the samples with HPGe detectors. The present experimental results were compared with the evaluated data (JENDL-HE/2007) and the calculation with the PHITS code and the INCL++ code. The present experiment data showed consistency with other experimental data with better accuracy than other ones. In reactions to produce light nuclides, JENDL and calculation with the PHITS and INCL++ for $$^{mathrm{7}}$$Be production agreed with the data.$$^{mathrm{22}}$$Na production, however, underestimated about 1/10 times. For middle to heavy nuclide productions cases, both calculations agreed with the experiment by a factor of two. JENDL showed lower energy having a maximum value of excitation function maximal value than the experimental data.

Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross section of structural materials utilized in the proton accelerator facilities with the kinematic energy above 400 MeV

Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*

EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.06006_1 - 06006_4, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.19

R&D of the beam window is crucial in the ADS, which serves as a partition between the accelerator and the target region. Although the displacement per atom (DPA) is used to evaluate the damage on the window, experimental data on the displacement cross section is scarce in the energy region above 20 MeV. We started to measure the displacement cross section for the protons in the energy region between 0.4 to 3 GeV. The displacement cross section can be derived by resistivity change divided by the proton flux and the resistivity change per Frankel pair on cryo-cooled sample to maintain damage. Experiments were conducted at the 3 GeV proton synchrotron at the J-PARC Center, and copper was used as samples. As a result of comparison between the present experiment and the calculation of the NRT model, which is widely used for calculation of the displacement cross section, it was found that the calculation of the NRT model overestimated the experiment by about 3 times.

Journal Articles

Neutronic design of neutron moderator on a reentrant-hole configuration for Kyoto University Accelerator-based Neutron Source (KUANS)

Okita, Shoichiro; Tasaki, Seiji*; Abe, Yutaka*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 19(3), p.178 - 184, 2020/09

The Kyoto University Accelerator-based Neutron Source (KUANS) is a compact neutron source that is mainly used for spectrometer and detector development. In addition, it is also suited for experiments to study the neutronic design of moderators owing to the relatively low neutron generation yield by $$^{9}$$Be(p,n). We present a neutronic design of the neutron moderator on a reentrant-hole configuration for KUANS to enhance the neutron emission, and some experiments are conducted at KUANS for verification. A polyethylene moderator on a reentrant-hole configuration is designed by PHITS calculation and is introduced to KUANS to obtain intense oblong neutron beams. The intensity of the pulsed neutron beam is experimentally measured. The results reveal that the intensity becomes approximately 1.9 times stronger than that of the conventional rectangular design. In addition, the ratio of its intensity to the conventional intensity increases to approximately threefold as the neutron wavelength increases. It is interesting to note that the longer the neutron wavelength, the more efficiently they are extracted from the inside of the moderator owing to the existence of the reentrant-hole configuration.

Journal Articles

Gamma detector response simulation inside the pedestal of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi; Matsumura, Taichi; Sakamoto, Masahiro

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00543_1 - 19-00543_8, 2020/06

185 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)