Kawaguchi, Koichi; Segawa, Tomomi; Ishii, Katsunori
Funtai Kogakkai-Shi, 59(6), p.283 - 290, 2022/06
In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to effectively use the out-of-standard pellets in the fuel manufacturing process for high-speed furnaces, we are developing techniques for crushing and reusing them with raw material powder. By analyzing in detail the particle size distribution before and after grinding, it was shown that the grinding powder is composed of three different component particles having different characteristics of the particle size distribution. In addition, we examined the method of predicting pulverized powder particle size distribution from the supply powder particle size distribution.
Tasaki, Yudai; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.382 - 394, 2022/03
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; National Institute of Maritime, Port and Aviation Technology*
JAEA-Review 2021-049, 67 Pages, 2022/01
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Research and development of the sample-return technique for fuel debris using the unmanned underwater vehicle" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to develop a fuel debris sampling device that comprises a neutron detector with radiation resistance and enhanced neutron detection efficiency, an end-effector with powerful cutting and collection capabilities, and a manipulator under the Japan-UK joint research team. We will also develop a fuel debris sampling system that can be mounted on an unmanned vehicle. In addition, we will develop a positioning system to identify the system position, and a technique to project the counting information of optical cameras, sonar, and neutron detectors to be developed in this
HPC Technology Promotion Office
JAEA-Review 2021-022, 187 Pages, 2022/01
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) conducts research and development (R&D) in various fields related to nuclear power as a comprehensive institution of nuclear energy R&Ds, and utilizes computational science and technology in many activities. As shown in the fact that about 20 percent of papers published by JAEA are concerned with R&D using computational science, the supercomputer system of JAEA has become an important infrastructure to support computational science and technology. In FY2020, the system was used for R&D aiming to restore Fukushima (environmental recovery and nuclear installation decommissioning) as a priority issue, as well as for JAEA's major projects such as research and development of fast reactor cycle technology, research for safety improvement in the field of nuclear energy, and basic nuclear science and engineering research. This report presents a great number of R&D results accomplished by using the system in FY2020, as well as user support, operational records and overviews of the system, and so on.
Hasegawa, Yuta; Aoki, Takayuki*; Kobayashi, Hiromichi*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki
Parallel Computing, 108, p.102851_1 - 102851_12, 2021/12
The aerodynamics simulation code based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) using forest-of-octrees-based block-structured local mesh refinement (LMR) was implemented, and its performance was evaluated on GPU-based supercomputers. We found that the conventional Space-Filling-Curve-based (SFC) domain partitioning algorithm results in costly halo communication in our aerodynamics simulations. Our new tree cutting approach improved the locality and the topology of the partitioned sub-domains and reduced the communication cost to one-third or one-fourth of the original SFC approach. In the strong scaling test, the code achieved maximum speedup at the performance of 2207 MLUPS (mega- lattice update per second) on 128 GPUs. In the weak scaling test, the code achieved 9620 MLUPS at 128 GPUs with 4.473 billion grid points, while the parallel efficiency was 93.4% from 8 to 128 GPUs.
Togawa, Orihiko; Okura, Takehisa; Kimura, Masanori; Nagai, Haruyasu
JAEA-Review 2021-021, 61 Pages, 2021/11
Triggered by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, there have been a lot of arguments among various situations and levels about utilization of atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Most of these arguments, however, were alternative and extreme discussions on whether predictions by computational models could be applied or not for protective measures in a nuclear emergency, and it was hard to say that these arguments were politely conducted, based on scientific verification in an emergency response. It was known, on the other hand, that there were not a few potential users of atmospheric dispersion models and/or calculation results by the models within the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and outside. However, they seemed to have a lack of understanding and a misunderstanding on proper use of different kinds of atmospheric dispersion models. This report compares an outline of models and calculation method in atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response, with a central focus on the models which have been developed and used in the JAEA. Examples of calculations by these models are also described in the report. This report aims at contributing to future consideration and activities for potential users of atmospheric dispersion models within the JAEA and outside.
Center for Computational Science & e-Systems
JAEA-Evaluation 2021-001, 66 Pages, 2021/11
Research on advanced computational science for nuclear applications, based on "the plan to achieve the mid- and long-term goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency", has been performed by Center for Computational Science & e-Systems (CCSE), Japan Atomic Energy Agency. CCSE established a committee consisting of external experts and authorities which does research evaluation and advice for the assistance of the future research and development. This report summarizes the results of the R&D performed by CCSE in FY2020 (April 1st, 2020 - March 31st, 2021), the results expected at the end of the 3rd mid and long-term goal period, and the evaluation by the committee on them.
Hashimoto, Shunsuke*; Nakajima, Kenji; Kikuchi, Tatsuya*; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Shibata, Kaoru; Yamada, Takeshi*
Journal of Molecular Liquids, 342, p.117580_1 - 117580_8, 2021/11
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFGNMR) analyses of a nanofluid composed of silicon dioxide (SiO) nanoparticles and a base fluid of ethylene glycol aqueous solution were performed. The aim was to elucidate the mechanism increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid above its theoretical value. The obtained experimental results indicate that SiO particles may decrease the self-diffusion coefficient of the liquid molecules in the ethylene glycol aqueous solution because of their highly restricted motion around these nanoparticles. At a constant temperature, the thermal conductivity increases as the self-diffusion coefficient of the liquid molecules decreases in the SiO nanofluids.
Ina, Takuya*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Toshiyuki*; Yamashita, Susumu; Onodera, Naoyuki
Proceedings of 12th Workshop on Latest Advances in Scalable Algorithms for Large-Scale Systems ScalA21) (Internet) , 8 Pages, 2021/11
A new mixed-precision preconditioner based on the iterative refinement (IR) method is developed for preconditioned conjugate gradient (P-CG) and multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient (MGCG) solvers in a multi-phase thermal-hydraulic CFD code JUPITER. In the IR preconditioner, all data is stored in FP16 to reduce memory access, while all computation is performed in FP32. The hybrid FP16/32 implementation keeps the similar convergence property as FP32, while the computational performance is close to FP16. The developed solvers are optimized on Fugaku (A64FX), and applied to ill-conditioned matrices in JUPITER. The P-CG and MGCG solvers with the new IR preconditioner show excellent strong scaling up to 8,000 nodes, and at 8,000 nodes, they are respectively accelerated up to 4.86 and 2.39 from the conventional ones on Oakforest-PACS (KNL).
Asahi, Yuichi; Latu, G.*; Bigot, J.*; Grandgirard, V.*
Proceedings of 2021 International Workshop on Performance, Portability, and Productivity in HPC (P3HPC) (Internet), p.79 - 91, 2021/11
This paper presents optimization strategies dedicated to a kinetic plasma simulation code that makes use of OpenACC/OpenMP directives and Kokkos performance portable framework to run across multiple CPUs and GPUs. We evaluate the impacts of optimizations on multiple hardware platforms: Intel Xeon Skylake, Fujitsu Arm A64FX, and Nvidia Tesla P100 and V100. After the optimizations, the OpenACC/OpenMP version achieved the acceleration of 1.07 to 1.39. The Kokkos version in turn achieved the acceleration of 1.00 to 1.33.Since the impact of optimizations under multiple combinations of kernels, devices and parallel implementations is demonstrated, this paper provides a widely available approach to accelerate a code keeping the performance portability. To achieve an excellent performance on both CPUs and GPUs, Kokkos could be a reasonable choice which offers more flexibility to manage multiple data and loop structures with a single codebase.
Vu, TheDang; Shishido, Hiroaki*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Kojima, Kenji M*; Koyama, Tomio*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Miyajima, Shigeyuki*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1006, p.165411_1 - 165411_8, 2021/08
Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Junichi*; Ito, Masahiro*; Ishitani, Ikuo*; Doda, Norihiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Otsuka, Satoshi
Nuclear Technology, 207(8), p.1280 - 1289, 2021/08
Computer codes for irradiation behavior analysis of a fuel pin and a fuel pin bundle and for coolant thermal hydraulics analysis were coupled into an integrated code system. In the system, each code provides data required by other codes and the analyzed results are shared among them. The system allows for the synthesizing of analyses of thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviors in a fuel subassembly under irradiation. A test analysis was made for a fuel subassembly containing a mixed oxide fuel pin bundle irradiated in a fast reactor. The results of the analysis were presented with transverse cross-sectional images of the fuel subassembly and three-dimensional images of a fuel pin and fuel pin bundle models. For detailed evaluation, various irradiation behaviors of all fuel pins in the subassembly were analyzed and correlated with irradiation conditions.
Li, C.; Uchibori, Akihiro; Takata, Takashi; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; Okamoto, Koji*
Dai-25-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/07
The capability of stable cooling and avoiding re-criticality on the debris bed are the main issues for achieving IVR (In-Vessel Retention). In the actual situation, the debris bed is composed of mixed-density debris particles. Hence, when these mixed-density debris particles were launched to re-distribute, the debris bed would possibly form a density-stratified distribution. For the proper evaluation of this scenario, the multi-physics model of CFD-DEM-Monte-Carlo based neutronics is established to investigate the coolability and re-criticality on the heterogeneous density-stratified debris bed with considering the particle relocation. The CFD-DEM model has been verified by utilizing water injection experiments on the mixed-density particle bed in the first portion of this research. In the second portion, the coupled system of the CFD-DEM-Monte-Carlo based neutronics model is applied to reactor cases. Afterward, the debris particles' movement, debris particles' and coolant's temperature, and the k-eff eigenvalue are successfully tracked. Ultimately, the relocation and stratification effects on debris bed's coolability and re-criticality had been quantitatively confirmed.
Nugraha, E. D.*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Kusdiana*; Untara*; Mellawati, J.*; Nurokhim*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Ikram, A.*; Syaifudin, M.*; Yamada, Ryohei; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.14578_1 - 14578_16, 2021/07
Mamuju is one of the regions in Indonesia which retains natural conditions but has relatively high exposure to natural radiation. The goals of the present study were to characterize exposure of the entire Mamuju region as a high natural background radiation area (HNBRA) and to assess the existing exposure as a means for radiation protection of the public and the environment. A cross-sectional study method was used with cluster sampling areas by measuring all parameters that contribute to external and internal radiation exposures. It was determined that Mamuju was a unique HNBRA with the annual effective dose between 17 and 115 mSv, with an average of 32 mSv. The lifetime cumulative dose calculation suggested that Mamuju residents could receive as much as 2.2 Sv on average which is much higher than the average dose of atomic bomb survivors for which risks of cancer and non-cancer diseases are demonstrated. The study results are new scientific data allowing better understanding of health effects related to chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposure and they can be used as the main input in a future epidemiology study.
Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 155, p.108171_1 - 108171_11, 2021/06
Hasegawa, Yuta; Aoki, Takayuki*; Kobayashi, Hiromichi*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki
Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 26, 6 Pages, 2021/05
We introduce an improved domain partitioning method called "tree cutting approach" for the aerodynamics simulation code based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the forest-of-octrees-based local mesh refinement (LMR). The conventional domain partitioning algorithm based on the space-filling curve (SFC), which is widely used in LMR, caused a costly halo data communication which became a bottleneck of our aerodynamics simulation on the GPU-based supercomputers. Our tree cutting approach adopts a hybrid domain partitioning with the coarse structured block decomposition and the SFC partitioning in each block. This hybrid approach improved the locality and the topology of the partitioned sub-domains and reduced the amount of the halo communication to one-third of the original SFC approach. The code achieved speedup on 8 GPUs, and achieved speedup at the performance of 2207 MLUPS (mega-lattice update per second) on 128 GPUs with strong scaling test.
Onodera, Naoyuki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuta; Shimokawabe, Takashi*; Aoki, Takayuki*
Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 26, 3 Pages, 2021/05
We develop a mixed-precision preconditioner for the pressure Poisson equation in a two-phase flow CFD code JUPITER-AMR. The multi-grid (MG) preconditioner is constructed based on the geometric MG method with a three- stage V-cycle, and a cache-reuse SOR (CR-SOR) method at each stage. The numerical experiments are conducted for two-phase flows in a fuel bundle of a nuclear reactor. The MG-CG solver in single-precision shows the same convergence histories as double-precision, which is about 75% of the computational time in double-precision. In the strong scaling test, the MG-CG solver in single-precision is accelerated by 1.88 times between 32 and 96 GPUs.
Asahi, Yuichi; Hatayama, Sora*; Shimokawabe, Takashi*; Onodera, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Yuta; Idomura, Yasuhiro
Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 26, 4 Pages, 2021/05
We develop a convolutional neural network model to predict the multi-resolution steady flow. Based on the state-of-the-art image-to-image translation model Pix2PixHD, our model can predict the high resolution flow field from the signed distance function. By patching the high resolution data, the memory requirements in our model is suppressed compared to Pix2PixHD.
Wallner, A.*; Froehlich, M. B.*; Hotchkis, M. A. C.*; Kinoshita, N.*; Paul, M.*; Martschini, M.*; Pavetich, S.*; Tims, S. G.*; Kivel, N.*; Schumann, D.*; et al.
Science, 372(6543), p.742 - 745, 2021/05
Half of the chemical elements heavier than iron are produced by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). The sites and yields of this process are disputed, with candidates including some types of supernovae (SNe) and mergers of neutron stars. We search for two isotopic signatures in a sample of Pacific Ocean crust-iron-60 (Fe) (half-life, 2.6 million years), which is predominantly produced in massive stars and ejected in supernova explosions, and Pu (half-life, 80.6 million years), which is produced solely in r-process events. We detect two distinct influxes of Fe to Earth in the last 10 million years and accompanying lower quantities of Pu. The Pu/Fe influx ratios are similar for both events. The Pu influx is lower than expected if SNe dominate r-process nucleosynthesis, which implies some contribution from other sources.
Hashimoto, Makoto; Kinase, Sakae; Munakata, Masahiro; Murayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Masa; Takada, Chie; Okamoto, Akiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sukegawa, Masato; Kume, Nobuhide*; et al.
JAEA-Review 2020-071, 53 Pages, 2021/03
In the case of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and the Armed Attack Situation Response Law, undertakes technical supports to the national government and local governments. The JAEA is requested to support to evaluate radiation doses to residents in a nuclear emergency, which is specified in the Basic Disaster Management Plan and the Nuclear Emergency Response Manual. For the dose evaluation, however, its strategy, target, method, structure and so on have not been determined either specifically or in detail. This report describes the results of investigation and consideration discussed in the "Working Group for Radiation Dose Evaluation at a Nuclear Emergency" established within the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center to discuss technical supports for radiation dose evaluation to residents in the case of a nuclear emergency, and aims at contributing to specific and detailed discussion and activities in the future for the national government and local governments, also within the JAEA.