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JAEA Reports

Development of stable solidification technique of ALPS sediment wastes by apatite ceramics (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2020-060, 116 Pages, 2021/02

JAEA-Review-2020-060.pdf:16.98MB

JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project in FY2019. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of Stable Solidification Technique of ALPS Sediment Wastes by Apatite Ceramics" conducted in FY2019.

JAEA Reports

Development of the Sintering Solidification Method for Spent Zeolite to Long-term Stabilization (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Shibaura Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2020-049, 78 Pages, 2021/01

JAEA-Review-2020-049.pdf:5.85MB

JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the Sintering Solidification Method for Spent Zeolite to Long-term Stabilization" conducted in FY2019.

JAEA Reports

Development of the sintering solidification method for spent zeolite to long-term stabilization (Contract research); FY2018 Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Shibaura Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2019-028, 71 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Review-2019-028.pdf:6.46MB

JAEA/CLADS, had been conducting the Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2018. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the Sintering Solidification Method for Spent Zeolite to Long-term Stabilization". The present study aims to develop the sintering solidification method for zeolites (spent zeolites) that adsorbs continuously generated radionuclides such as cesium. The sintering solidification method is able to stabilize adsorbed radionuclides such as cesium in zeolites by adding a glass as a binder to spent zeolite and sintered it. It is expected that the sintering solidification method is significantly reduce the volume of the solidified body compare with the glass solidification method and to form a stable solidified body equivalent to the calcination solidification method. In this project, we planned to select a glass suitable for the sintering solidification method and optimize the sintering temperature, etc. using non-radioactive nuclides (cold tests), and verify it by using radioactive nuclides (hot tests). In FY2018, we investigated the thermal properties of candidate glasses for binder and the effect of heating atmosphere on the sintering solidification method. Irradiated fuel for preparing simulated contaminated water containing radionuclides was selected and the condition of it was observed. In addition, we surveyed existing research results and latest research trends about solidification of zeolite, calcination solidification and so on.

Journal Articles

Stabilization of lead with amorphous solids synthesized from aluminosilicate gel

Sato, Junya; Shiota, Kenji*; Takaoka, Masaki*

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 385, p.121109_1 - 121109_9, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:62.5(Engineering, Environmental)

Lead is a hazardous heavy metal that can be stabilized by incorporation into the matrix of aluminosilicate bearing phases as they solidify. The actual mechanism by which lead is stabilized, however, continues to be unclear because the individual mechanisms of Pb incorporation into crystalline and amorphous aluminosilicate phases have not yet been studied separately. A detailed investigation of the incorporation of Pb into the amorphous phase of aluminosilicate solids was therefore performed. Amorphous aluminosilicate solids were synthesized with 0.7, 1.5, and 3.7 wt% of Pb from aluminosilicate gel produced from chemical reagents. Based on Raman spectroscopy, the Si-O stretching vibration bond shifted to lower wavenumbers with increasing Pb concentration. This shift suggested that covalent bonding between Pb and O in the matrix of the aluminosilicate solids increased. In addition, sequential extraction revealed that most of the Pb (75-90%) in the aluminosilicate solids was in a poorly soluble form (i.e. reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions). These findings indicate that most of Pb is bonded covalently to the amorphous phase in aluminosilicate solids.

Journal Articles

Completion of solidification and stabilization for Pu nitrate solution to reduce potential risks at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

Mukai, Yasunobu; Nakamichi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Nishimura, Kazuaki; Fujisaku, Sakae; Tanaka, Hideki; Isomae, Hidemi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kurita, Tsutomu; Iida, Masayoshi*; et al.

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/04

TRP has stored the plutonium in solution state for long-term since the last PCDF operation in 2007 was finished. After the great east Japan earthquake in 2011, JAEA had investigated the risk against potential hazard of these solutions which might lead to make hydrogen explosion and/or boiling of the solution accidents with the release of radioactive materials to the public when blackout. To reduce the risk for storing Pu solution (about 640 kg Pu), JAEA planned to perform the process operation for the solidification and stabilization of the solution by converted into MOX powder at PCDF in 2013. In order to perform PCDF operation without adaption of new safety regulation, JAEA conducted several safety measures such as emergency safety countermeasures, necessary security and safeguards (3S) measures with understanding of NRA. As a result, the PCDF operation had stared on 28th April, 2014, and successfully completed to convert MOX powder on 3rd August, 2016 for about 2 years as planned.

JAEA Reports

Stabilization of MOX dissolving solution at STACY

Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Sumiya, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Kokusen, Junya; Uchida, Shoji; Kaminaga, Jota; Oki, Keiichi; Fukaya, Hiroyuki; Sono, Hiroki

JAEA-Technology 2016-025, 42 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA-Technology-2016-025.pdf:17.88MB

A preliminary test on MOX fuel dissolution for the STACY critical experiments had been conducted in 2000 through 2003 at Nuclear Science Research Institute of JAEA. Accordingly, the uranyl / plutonium nitrate solution should be reconverted into oxide powder to store the fuel for a long period. For this storage, the moisture content in the oxide powder should be controlled from the viewpoint of criticality safety. The stabilization of uranium / plutonium solution was carried out under a precipitation process using ammonia or oxalic acid solution, and a calcination process using a sintering furnace. As a result of the stabilization operation, recovery rate was 95.6% for uranium and 95.0% for plutonium. Further, the recovered oxide powder was calcined again in nitrogen atmosphere and sealed immediately with a plastic bag to keep its moisture content low and to prevent from reabsorbing atmospheric moisture.

Journal Articles

Development of beam generation and irradiation technology for electrostatic accelerators

Chiba, Atsuya; Uno, Sadanori; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Yamada, Keisuke; Saito, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Takuro; Sato, Takahiro; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi

JAEA-Review 2005-001, TIARA Annual Report 2004, p.358 - 360, 2006/01

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Development of frequency stabilized laser system for long-lived isotope analysis, 3; Computer-based laser frequency tuning system

Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

JAERI-Tech 2005-043, 27 Pages, 2005/08

JAERI-Tech-2005-043.pdf:2.51MB

Multi-step resonance ionization spectrometry for long-lived nuclei in nuclear waste materials requires laser sources having high frequency stability and tunability. In this study we have developed a novel frequency control system consisting of digital circuitry and computer to improve the frequency tunability of the developed laser stabilization system using dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) and fringe offset lock (FOL) techniques. Based on the heterodyne experiment and multi-step laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic Ca, the frequency stability and tunability of the developed system were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Stabilization mechanism of ballooning modes by toroidal rotation shear in tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji

Nuclear Fusion, 45(5), p.377 - 383, 2005/05

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:35.91(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

A ballooning perturbation in a toroidally rotating tokamak is expanded by square-integrable eigenfunctions of an eigenvalue problem associated with ballooning modes in a static plasma. Especially a weight function is chosen such that the eigenvalue problem has only the discrete spectrum. The eigenvalues evolve in time owing to toroidal rotation shear, resulting in countably infinite number of crossings among them. The crossings cause energy transfer from an unstable mode to the infinite number of stable modes; such transfer works as the stabilization mechanism of the ballooning mode. A simple analytic formula is derived for estimating the toroidal rotation shear required to stabilize the ballooning mode.

Journal Articles

Mechanism of stabilization of ballooning modes by toroidal rotation shear in tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji

Physical Review Letters, 94(17), p.175001_1 - 175001_4, 2005/05

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:63.99(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A ballooning perturbation in a toroidally rotating tokamaks is expanded by square-integrable eigenfunctions of an eigenvalue problem associated with ballooning modes in a static plasma. Especially a weight function is chosen such that the eigenvalue problem has only the discrete spectrum. The eigenvalues evolve in time owing to toroidal rotation shear, resulting in countably infinite number of crossings among them. The crossings cause energy transfer from an unstable mode to the infinite number of stable modes; such transfer works as the stabilization mechanism of the ballooning mode.

Journal Articles

Operational progress of the 110GHz-4MW ECRF heating system in JT-60U

Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Seki, Masami; Moriyama, Shinichi; Terakado, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yokokura, Kenji; JT-60 Team

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 25, p.45 - 50, 2005/00

The JT-60U electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) is utilized to realize high performance plasma. Its output power is 4 MW at 110 GHz. By controlling the anode voltage of the gyrotron used in the JT-60U ECRF heating system, the gyrotoron output can be controlled. Then, the anode voltage controller was developed to modulate the injected power into plasmas. This low cost controller achieved the modulation frequency 12 - 500 Hz at 0.7 MW. This controller also extended the pulse width from 5s to 16 s at 0.5 MW. For these long pulses, temperature rise of the DC break made of Alumina ceramics is estimated. Its maximum temperature becomes $$sim$$ 140 deg. From the analysis of this temperature rise, DC break materials should be changed to low loss materials for the objective pulse width of 30 s. The stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) was demonstrated by ECRF heating using the real-time system in which the ECRF beams are injected to the NTM location predicted from ECE measurement every 10 ms.

JAEA Reports

Development of frequency stabilized laser system for long-lived isotope analysis, 2; Simultaneous locking system for multiple diode lasers using Zeeman effect and interferometer

Miyabe, Masabumi; Kato, Masaaki; Oba, Masaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

JAERI-Tech 2004-065, 19 Pages, 2004/10

JAERI-Tech-2004-065.pdf:0.99MB

In nuclear waste materials there are various radionuclides to which standard analytical techniques are difficult to be applied. We are developing an analytical technique where such nuclides are ionized and mass-analyzed using diode laser based multi-step RIMS technique. The diode laser, however, has one drawback, i.e. its oscillation wavelength is readily drifted by acoustic, electric and optical noise, and thus the laser without frequency stabilization is not suitable for the analysis. In this study, we have developed (1) the diode laser whose frequency is stabilized to an intense absorption line of Rb by Zeeman effect and (2) the stabilization system where diode lasers for 3-step ionization of Ca are locked to the Rb-stabilized laser using a Fabry-perot interferometer. Additionally, to evaluate overall frequency stability of the stabilization system, fluctuations in the photoion and fluorescence signals arising from 3-step RIMS of Ca were simultaneously observed.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive

Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Isayama, Akihiko; Nagasaki, Kazunobu*; Ozeki, Takahisa

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 80(7), p.605 - 613, 2004/07

Neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by an electron cyclotron wave current drive (ECCD) has been studied by using the numerical model on the basis on the modified Rutherford eq. coupled with the 1.5D transport code and the EC code. Numerical model almost reproduces the JT-60U experimental results. Undetermined parameters in the modified Rutherford equation are estimated from JT-60U experiments. Sensitivity of stabilization to the EC current location is investigated. Low EC current and peaked EC current profile mitigates the sensitivity, while higher EC current and the peaked EC current profile moves the rational surface more largely through the background current modification by ECCD and intensify the sensitivity. High EC current and broad EC current profile also mitigates the sensitivity. EC current necessary for the full stabilization is studied. The necessary EC current much depends on the parameters of bootstrap current and ECCD terms in the modified Rutherford equation. Necessary ECCD power on ITER is evaluated on the basis of parameters estimated from JT-60U experiments.

Journal Articles

ECCD power necessary for the neoclassical tearing mode stabilization in ITER

Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Ozeki, Takahisa; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Takizuka, Tomonori

Nuclear Fusion, 44(4), p.477 - 487, 2004/04

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:72.82(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

NTM stabilization by ECCD has been numerically studied in order to evaluate the necessary EC power for the stabilization of NTM on ITER. The time evolution of an island width of NTM is calculated by the modified Rutherford equation. The modification of background current profile by the EC current is calculated by the current diffusion equation and the variation of the tearing stability index $$Delta$$' is taken into account. When the EC power is higher than a threshold value, NTM with any island width can be fully stabilized. The dependence of the threshold power on parameters in the modified Rutherford equation is examined. The threshold power much depends on the parameters of the bootstrap current term in the modified Rutherford equation. The injected EC current decreases the value of $$Delta$$' through the background current modification, which results in the reduction of the threshold power. The effects of the peakedness of EC current profile and the EC power modulation on the threshold power are investigated. When the width of the EC current profile becomes half, the threshold power is reduced to half or less. The EC power modulation is inessential for the threshold power reduction if the EC current profile can be peaked. Considering the maximum value of the threshold power in the range of the parameters, the EC power of about 25 MW is found to be sufficient for the simultaneous stabilization of both the ${it m/n}$=3/2 and 2/1 mode NTM on ITER.

Journal Articles

Numerical study of zonal flow dynamics and electron transport in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Li, J.; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

Physics of Plasmas, 11(4), p.1493 - 1510, 2004/04

 Times Cited Count:57 Percentile:87.05(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence in tokamak core plasmas is numerically investigated based on three-dimensional gyrofluid model with adiabatic ion response. Attentions are focused on the zonal flow dynamics in ETG fluctuations and the resultant electron heat transport. A high electron energy confinement mode is found in the weak magnetic shear regime, which is closely relevant with self-organization behavior of turbulence through the enhanced zonal flow dynamics rather than the weak shear stabilization of ETG fluctuations. It is demonstrated that the weak shear is favorable for the enhancement of zonal flows in ETG turbulence.

Journal Articles

Geometrical improvements of rotational stabilization of high-$$n$$ ballooning modes in tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji; Wakatani, Masahiro*

Nuclear Fusion, 43(6), p.425 - 429, 2003/06

We have found numerically that damping phases appear in the time evolution of the perturbation energy of high-$$n$$ ballooning modes in the presence of toroidal shear flows. The damping dominates exponential growth which occurs in the bad curvature region, resulting in stabilization of ballooning modes. D-shaping of plasma cross-section, reduction of aspect ratio, and arrangement of X-point at inner side of the torus enhance the stabilization effect of the toroidal flow through this mechanism.

Journal Articles

Geometrical improvements of rotational stabilization of high-$$n$$ ballooning modes in tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji; Wakatani, Masahiro*

Nuclear Fusion, 43(6), p.425 - 429, 2003/06

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:33.42(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

We have found numerically that damping phases appear in the time evolution of the perturbation energy of high-$$n$$ ballooning modes in the presence of toriodal flow shear, where n is a toroidal mode number. The damping dominates exponential growth which occurs in the bad curvature region, resulting in stabilization of ballooning modes. D-shaping of plasma cross-section, reduction of aspect ratio, and arrangement of an X-point at inner side of the torus enhance the stabilization effect of the toroidal flow shear through this mechanism.

Journal Articles

Effects of circulating energetic ions on sawtooth oscillations

Wang, S.; Ozeki, Takahisa; Tobita, Kenji

Physical Review Letters, 88(10), p.105004_1 - 105004_4, 2002/03

A theoretical model has been established to show that energetic co-circulating ions can stabilize internal kink modes.And the theoretical model has been applied to interpret the recent experiments on sawtooth stabilization by energetic co-circulating ions.

Journal Articles

Simulation on neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by ECCD for JT-60 superconducting tokamak

Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Ozeki, Takahisa; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Takizuka, Tomonori

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.5, p.519 - 522, 2002/00

Stabilizing simulation of the neoclassical tearing mode by an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in JT-60 superconducting tokamak has been done by using a 1.5D time-dependent tokamak code TOPICS and the modified Rutherford's equation. A local EC current in the center of the island stabilizes the mode. However, the EC current off the center moves the rational surface and decreases the stabilizing effect of EC. Necessary range of EC current location for the stabilization becomes wider for low EC power, or narrower for high EC power, when the EC current profile is more peaked. The long duration of EC injection widens this range. Peaked EC current profile, early injection and long injection duration lower the minimum EC power necessary for the stabilization.

Journal Articles

Status report on the JAERI AVF cyclotron system

Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Nara, Takayuki; Agematsu, Takashi; Ishibori, Ikuo; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Kurashima, Satoshi; Yokota, Wataru; Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Arakawa, Kazuo

AIP Conference Proceedings 600, p.129 - 132, 2001/00

The AVF cyclotron system at JAERI Takasaki has been smoothly operated without serious troubles since the first beam extraction of 50 MeV 4He2+ in March 1991. A yearly operation time is about 3200 hours on an average for past several years. In last three years, we performed some improvements and developments as followings: stabilization of the cyclotron beam, renewal of the control computers and basic programs, installation of a new ECR ion source and reconstruction of the rotary shutter. Furthermore, cocktail beams of series M/Q=4 and M/Q=2 have been developed continuously. Now we are modifying the RF cavity for the flat-top acceleration by the addition of 5th harmonic frequency.

27 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)