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Journal Articles

Radioactive particles from a range of past nuclear events; Challenges posed by highly varied structure and composition

Johansen, M. P.*; Child, D. P.*; Collins, R.*; Cook, M.*; Davis, J.*; Hotchkis, M. A. C.*; Howard, D. L.*; Howell, N.*; Ikeda, Atsushi; Young, E.*

Science of the Total Environment, 842, p.156755_1 - 156755_11, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0

JAEA Reports

Study on radioactivity evaluation method of research reactors using DORT and MCNP codes

Kochiyama, Mami; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2022-009, 56 Pages, 2022/06


It is necessary to evaluate radioactivity inventory in wastes before disposal of low-level radioactive wastes generated from dismantling research reactors. It is efficient for owners of each research reactor to use a common radioactive evaluation method in order to comply with the license application for disposal facility. In this report, neutron transport and activation calculations were carried out for the Rikkyo University research reactor in order to examine a common radioactivity evaluation method for burial disposal of radioactive wastes generated by dismantling. We adopted the neutron transport codes DORT and MCNP and the activation code ORIGEN-S with cross-section libraries based on JENDL-4.0 and JENDL/AD-2017. The radioactivity concentrations obtained by the radiochemical analysis and both calculation codes were in agreement by 0.4 to 3 times. Therefore, by appropriately considering this difference, the radioactivity evaluation method by DORT, MCNP and ORIGEN-S can be applied to the radioactivity evaluation for buried disposal. In order to classify wastes from dismantling by clearance or buried disposal method according to their radioactivity levels, we also created radioactivity concentration distributions in the concrete area and graphite thermal column area.

Journal Articles

Phase-field mobility for crystal growth rates in undercooled silicates, SiO$$_2$$ and GeO$$_2$$ liquids

Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Uno, Masayoshi*

Journal of Crystal Growth, 585, p.126590_1 - 126590_7, 2022/05

Phase-field mobility, $$L$$, and crystal growth rates in crystallization of 11 oxides or mixed oxides in undercooled silicates, SiO$$_2$$ and GeO$$_2$$ liquids were calculated with a simple phase-field model (PFM), and material dependence of the $$L$$ was discussed. Ratios between experimental crystal growth rates and the PFM simulation with $$L=1$$ were confirmed to be proportional to a power of $$frac{TDelta T}{eta}$$ on the solid/liquid interface process during the crystal growth in a log-log plot. We determined that parameters, $$A$$ and $$B$$, of the $$L=A(frac{k_{B}TDelta T}{6pi^{2}lambda^{3}eta T_{m} })^{B}$$ were $$A=6.7times 10^{-6}$$ to $$2.6$$m$$^4$$J$$^{-1}$$s$$^{-1}$$ and $$B=0.65$$ to $$1.3$$, which were unique for the materials. It was confirmed that our PFM simulation with the determined $$L$$ reproduced quantitively the experimental crystal growth rates. The $$A$$ has a proportional relationship with the diffusion coefficient of a cation molar mass average per unit an oxygen molar mass at $$T_{m}$$ in a log-log graph. The $$B$$ depends on the sum of the cation molar mass per the oxygen molar mass, $$frac{Sigma_{i}M_{i}}{M_{O}}$$, in a compound. In $$frac{Sigma_{i}M_{i}}{M_{O}}leq 25$$, the $$B$$ decreases with the cation molar mass increasing. The assumed cause is that the B represents the degree of the temperature dependence of the $$L$$. Since the cation molar mass is proportional to an inertial resistance of the cation transfer, the $$B$$ decreases with inverse of the cation molar mass. In crystallization of the silicates of heavy cation in $$frac{Sigma_{i}M_{i}}{M_{O}}geq 25$$, the $$B$$ saturates at approximately 0.67, which leads to $$T_{p}approx 0.9T_{m}$$.

Journal Articles

Advanced reactor experiments for sodium fast reactor fuels (ARES) project; Transient irradiation experiments for metallic and MOX fuels

Jensen, C. B.*; Wachs, D. M.*; Woolstenhulme, N. E.*; Ozawa, Takayuki; Hiroka, Shun; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/04

JAEA Reports

Development of stable solidification technique of ALPS sediment wastes by apatite ceramics (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2021-077, 217 Pages, 2022/03


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of stable solidification technique of ALPS sediment wastes by apatite ceramics" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to establish an apatite solidification process of radioactive sediment wastes, which were generated from the ALPS process manipulating the large amount of contaminated water from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. In FY2020, the synthetic scheme and elemental composition were updated to precipitation method to accept the actual ALPS sediment wastes in engineering scale. The synthesis of apatite or phosphate wastes and their molding conditions were surveyed, and the relations among elemental compositions, structures and chemical properties were clarified.

Journal Articles

Applicability of equivalent linear analysis to reinforced concrete shear walls; 3D FEM simulation of experiment results of seismic wall ultimate behavior

Ichihara, Yoshitaka*; Nakamura, Naohiro*; Moritani, Hiroshi*; Horiguchi, Tomohiro*; Choi, B.

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 21(1), p.1 - 14, 2022/03

In this study, we aim to approximately evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of reinforced concrete structures through seismic response analysis using the equivalent linear analysis method. A simulation analysis was performed for the ultimate response test of the shear wall of the reactor building used in an international competition by OECD/NEA in 1996. The equivalent stiffness and damping of the shear wall were obtained from the trilinear skeleton curves proposed by the Japan Electric Association and the hysteresis curves proposed by Cheng et al. The dominant frequency, maximum acceleration response, maximum displacement response, inertia force-displacement relationship, and acceleration response spectra of the top slab could be simulated well up to a shear strain of approximately $$gamma$$=2.0$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$. The equivalent linear analysis used herein underestimates the maximum displacement response at the time of ultimate fracture of approximately $$gamma$$=4.0$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$. Moreover, the maximum shear strain of the shear wall could not capture the locally occurring shear strain compared with that of the nonlinear analysis. Therefore, when employing this method to evaluate the maximum shear strain and test results, including those during the sudden increase in displacement immediately before the fracture, sufficient attention must be paid to its applicability.

JAEA Reports

Data comparison of measurement of carbon isotope standards between JAEA-AMS-TONO and JAEA-AMS-MUTSU

Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Fujita, Natsuko; Kuwabara, Jun; Kinoshita, Naoki

JAEA-Technology 2021-028, 33 Pages, 2022/02


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has two facilities of accelerator mass spectrometry, JAEA-AMS-TONO and JAEA-AMS-MUTSU at Tono Geoscience Center and Aomori Research and Development Center, respectively. In this report, characteristics of each facility and results of standard samples in the inner-comparison test of carbon isotope measurement will be described. Both facilities have been used for research by not only JAEA's staff but also researchers who belong to universities and other institutes on the shared use program of JAEA facilities. Recently, researchers trend to use both facilities with the expansion of demand for the carbon isotope measurement by using the accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). However, each facility has a spectrometer made by a different manufacturer and equipped with different mechanical components. There is a difference in each ability to the carbon isotope measurement such as background level. This is, for example, due to different ion injection system adapted at each spectrometer. Further, each facility uses a different analytical method adjusted to each main research field. When a researcher uses both facilities, the researcher understands more about the characteristics and need to make a suitable choice of a facility for samples and the analytical method. The report presents a detailed information of characteristics of the spectrometer, sample preparation method and analytical method, and of ability of the measurement based on the inner-comparison test.

Journal Articles

Decrease of radionuclide sorption in hydrated cement systems by organic ligands; Comparative evaluation using experimental data and thermodynamic calculations for ISA/EDTA-actinide-cement systems

Ochs, M.*; Dolder, F.*; Tachi, Yukio

Applied Geochemistry, 136, p.105161_1 - 105161_11, 2022/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Various types of radioactive wastes and environments contain organic substances that can stabilize the aqueous complexes with radionuclides and therefore lead to a decrease of sorption. The present study focuses on testing a methodology to quantify sorption reduction factors (SRFs) in the presence of organic ligands for cement systems. Three approaches for the estimation of SRFs; (1) analogy with solubility enhancement factors, (2) radionuclide speciation based on the thermodynamic calculations, and (3) experimental sorption data in ternary systems, were coupled and tested for the representative organic ligands (ISA and EDTA) and selected key radionuclides (actinides). Our approach allows to critically evaluate the dependence of SRFs for various systems on the chosen method of quantification, in accordance with the data availability for a given systems. The reliable SRFs can only be derived from the sorption measurements in ternary systems. SRF often need to be derived in the absence of such direct evidence, and estimations need to be made based on analogies and speciation information. However, such estimates may be subject to substantial uncertainties.

Journal Articles

Fe, Mn and $$^{238}$$U accumulations in ${it Phragmites australis}$ naturally growing at the mill tailings pond; Iron plaque formation possibly related to root-endophytic bacteria producing siderophores

Nakamoto, Yukihiro*; Doyama, Kohei*; Haruma, Toshikatsu*; Lu, X.*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Fukuyama, Kenjin; Fukushima, Shigeru; Ohara, Yoshiyuki; Yamaji, Keiko*

Minerals (Internet), 11(12), p.1337_1 - 1337_17, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Mine drainage is a vital water problem in the mining industry worldwide because of the heavy metal elements and low pH. Rhizofiltration using wetland plants is an appropriate method to remove heavy metals from the water via accumulation in the rhizosphere. ${it Phragmites australis}$ is one of the candidate plants for this method because of metal accumulation, forming iron plaque around the roots. At the study site, which was the mill tailings pond in the Ningyo-toge uranium mine, ${it P. australis}$ has been naturally growing since 1998. The results showed that ${it P. australis}$ accumulated Fe, Mn, and $$^{238}$$U in the nodal roots without/with iron plaque compared with other plant tissues. Among the 837 bacterial colonies isolated from nodal roots, 88.6% showed siderophore production activities. Considering iron plaque formation around ${it P. australis}$ roots, we hypothesized that microbial siderophores might influence iron plaque formation because bacterial siderophores have catechol-like functional groups. The complex of catechol or other phenolics with Fe was precipitated due to the networks between Fe and phenolic derivatives. The experiment using bacterial products of root endophytes, such as ${it Pseudomonas}$ spp. and ${it Rhizobium}$ spp., showed precipitation with Fe ions, and we confirmed that several ${it Ps.}$ spp. and ${it R.}$ spp. produced unidentified phenolic compounds. In conclusion, root-endophytic bacteria such as ${it Pseudomonas}$ spp. and ${it R.}$ spp., isolated from metal-accumulating roots of ${it P. australis}$, might influence iron plaque formation as the metal accumulation site. Iron plaque formation is related to tolerance in ${it P. australis}$, and ${it Ps.}$ spp. and ${it R.}$ spp. might indirectly contribute to tolerance.

Journal Articles

Characterizing the reactivation mechanisms of coseismic surface ruptures associated with the 2011 Mw 6.7 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake in Japan through borehole hydromechanical testing

Guglielmi, Y.*; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Cook, P.*; Soom, F.*; Cappa, F.*; Tanaka, Yukumo

Tectonophysics, 819, p.229084_1 - 229084_22, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

The reactivation mechanisms of coseismic surface ruptures associated with the 2011 Mw 6.7 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake in Japan are investigated using in-situ controlled hydraulic injections in subsurface boreholes. Two fault segments were selected for reactivation studies, one across a coseismic rupture, the Shionohira site, and one across a non-coseismically ruptured segment, the Minakami-kita site. A series of water injections in sealed sections of boreholes set across the fault progressively bring the fault to rupture by a step-by-step decrease of the effective normal stress clamping the fault. While the fault is rupturing during these hydraulic stimulations, borehole displacements, fluid pressure and injection flowrate are continuously monitored. Then, the tests were analyzed using fully coupled hydromechanical modeling. The model was calibrated on field data, and a parametric study was conducted to examine the modes of fault reactivation. Coseismic surface rupture of the Shionohira fault showed a pure dilatant slip response to hydraulic tests, while the tectonically un-activated Itozawa fault (South) indicated a complex hybrid response to tests related to both a higher frictional and cohesive strengths of the fault. The analysis of the induced Shionohira slip event showed that it is reasonably modeled as a Coulomb rupture with an eventual dependency of friction on slip velocity, in good accordance with laboratory-derived rate-and-state friction data on the Shinohira gouge samples. In contrast, the Itozawa fault reactivation mechanism appears dominated by tensile failure with limited Coulomb shear failure. Thus, the applied protocol proves to be able to isolate significant differences in fault physical properties and rupture mechanisms between two segments of the same fault system, opening perspectives to better assess near-surface rupture effects, and therefore the safety of structures subject to large earthquakes.

Journal Articles

A Scaling approach for retention properties of crystalline rock; Case study of the in-situ long-term sorption and diffusion experiment (LTDE-SD) at the $"A$sp$"o$ Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden

Tachi, Yukio; Ito, Tsuyoshi*; Gylling, B.*

Water Resources Research, 57(11), 20 Pages, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.04(Environmental Sciences)

This paper focuses on the scaling approach for sorption and diffusion parameters from laboratory to in-situ conditions using the dataset of LTDE-SD experiment performed at the $"A$sp$"o$ HRL. The near-surface heterogeneities at both fracture surface and rock matrix could be evaluated by conceptual model with high porosity and diffusivity, and sorption capacity, and their gradual change at the near-surface zones. The modelling results for non-sorbing Cl-36 and weak-sorbing Na-22 could validate the model concept and the parameter estimation of porosity and diffusivity, by considering the disturbed zone of 5 mm thickness with gradual parameter changes. The De values of these cationic and anionic tracers showed typical cation excess and anion exclusion effects. The modelling results for high sorbing tracers (Cs-137, Ra-226, Ni-63 and Np-237) with different sorption mechanism could confirm the validity of the scaling approaches of Kd values as a function of particle size and their relation to the near-surface disturbances.

Journal Articles

Quantifying the porosity of crystalline rocks by in situ and laboratory injection methods

M$"o$ri, A.*; Mazurek, M.*; Ota, Kunio; Siitari-Kauppi, M.*; Eichinger, F.*; Leuenberger, M.*

Minerals (Internet), 11(10), p.1072_1 - 1072_17, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:65.14(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Journal Articles

Implications of the $$Z_{cs}$$(3985) and $$Z_{cs}$$(4000) as two different states

Meng, L.*; Wang, B.*; Wang, G.-J.*; Zhu, S.-L.*

Science Bulletin, 66(20), p.2065 - 2071, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:91.77(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Two recently found tetraquark resonances $$Z_{cs}$$(3985) and $$Z_{cs}$$(4000) are studied in a solvable nonrelativistic effective field theory. We include the possible violations of heavy quark spin symmetry and SU(3) flavor symmetry in a comprehensive approach. Our results show that the decay rates can be used to judge whether these resonances can be different states or not.

Journal Articles

Concepts and basic designs of various nuclear fuels, 5; Fuels for high temperature gas-cooled reactor and molten salt reactor

Ueta, Shohei; Sasaki, Koei; Arita, Yuji*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(8), p.615 - 620, 2021/08

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Study on the radioactivity evaluation method of biological shielding concrete of JPDR for near surface disposal

Kochiyama, Mami; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-010, 61 Pages, 2021/07


It is necessary to evaluate the radioactivity inventory in wastes in order to dispose of radioactive wastes generated from dismantling nuclear reactor in the shallow ground. In this report, we examined radioactivity evaluation method for near surface disposal about biological shield concrete near the core generated from the dismantling of JPDR. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete using the DORT code and the ORIGEN-S code, and we estimated radioactivity concentration Di (Bq/t). For DORT calculation, the cross-section library created from the MATXSLIB-J40 file from JENDL-4.0 was used, and for ORIGEN-S, the attached library of SCALE6.0 was used. As a result of comparing the calculation results of the radioactivity concentration with the past measured values in the radial direction and the vertical direction, we found that the trends were generally the same. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete Di (Bq/t), and we compared with the estimated Ci (Bq/t) equivalent to the dose criteria of trench disposal calculated for 140 nuclides. As a result we inferred that the except for about 2% of target waste could be disposed of in the trench disposal facility. We also preselected important nuclides for trench disposal based on the ratios (Di/Ci) for each nuclide, H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41, Co-60, Sr-90, Eu-152 and Cs-137 were selected as important nuclides.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of brittle crack arrest toughness for highly-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

Iwata, Keiko; Hata, Kuniki; Tobita, Toru; Hirota, Takatoshi*; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Proceedings of ASME 2021 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2021) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/07

Journal Articles

Fission gas release from irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pellet during simulated reactivity-initiated accident conditions; Results of BZ-3 and BZ-4 tests

Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 155, p.108171_1 - 108171_11, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Feasibility study on tritium recoil barrier for neutron reflectors of research and test reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Ho, H. Q.; Sakamoto, Naoki*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 164, p.112181_1 - 112181_5, 2021/03

Tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and the JRR-3M (Japan Research Reactor-3M) had been studied. It is found that the recoil release by $$^{6}$$Li(n$$_{t}$$,$$alpha$$)$$^{3}$$H reaction, which comes from a chain reaction of beryllium neutron reflectors, is dominant. To prevent tritium recoil release, the surface area of beryllium neutron reflectors needs to be minimum in the core design and/or be shielded with other material. In this paper, as the feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors, various materials such as Al, Ti, V, Ni, and Zr were evaluated from the viewpoint of the thickness of barriers, activities after long-term operations, and effects on the reactivities. From the results of evaluations, Al would be a suitable candidate as the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors.

JAEA Reports

Development of stable solidification technique of ALPS sediment wastes by apatite ceramics (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2020-060, 116 Pages, 2021/02


JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project in FY2019. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of Stable Solidification Technique of ALPS Sediment Wastes by Apatite Ceramics" conducted in FY2019.

JAEA Reports

Backfill material characteristics using the bentonite/excavated rock mixture in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Contract research)

Sugita, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Hirohito*; Hoshino, Emiko*

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-017, 39 Pages, 2021/01


In Japan, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will be buried in a purpose built repository in deep underground. In the vertical disposal concept of HLW, nuclear waste canisters will be emplaced in excavated vertical disposal holes, surrounded by bentonite/sand mixture. And the galleries will be backfilled with bentonite/excavated rock mixture, which will be isolated with a concrete plug. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has performed swelling test, permeability test, thermal property measurement, uniaxial compression test, water potential measurement and infiltration tests to identify coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical behavior that will operate in the backfill material using excavated rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The obtained data will be used to support an ongoing full scale, in-situ experiment being conducted in the Horonobe URL.

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