Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Kondo, Akira*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 225, p.106452_1 - 106452_12, 2020/12
This study focused on the uncertainty of the factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and evaluated its impacts on the environmental fate of Cs simulated by a radiocesium transport model in the Abukuma River basin. The USLE has five physically meaningful factors: the rainfall and runoff factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover and management factor (C), and support practice factor (P). The simulation results showed total suspended sediment and Cs outflows were the most sensitive to C and P among the all factors. Therefore, land cover and soil erosion prevention act have the great impact on outflow of suspended sediment and Cs. Focusing on land use, the outflow rates of Cs from the forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields were large. This study indicates that land use, especially forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields, has a significant impact on the environmental fate of Cs.
Miyahara, Naoya; Miwa, Shuhei; Goullo, M.*; Imoto, Jumpei; Horiguchi, Naoki; Sato, Isamu*; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(12), p.1287 - 1296, 2020/12
In order to clarify the cesium iodide (CsI) transport behavior with a focus on the mechanisms of gaseous iodine formation in the reactor coolant system of LWR under a severe accident condition, a reproductive experiment of CsI transport behavior was conducted using a facility equipped with a thermal gradient tube. Various analyses on deposits and airborne materials during transportation could elucidate two mechanisms for the gaseous iodine formation. One was the gaseous phase chemical reaction in Cs-I-O-H system at relatively high-temperature region, which led to gaseous iodine transport to the lower temperature region without any further changes in gas species due to the kinetics limitation effects. The other one was the chemical reactions related to condensed phase of CsI, namely those of CsI deposits on walls with surface of stainless steel to form CsCrO compound and CsI aerosol particles with steam, which were newly found in this study.
Shimada, Kazumasa; Sakurahara, Tatsuya*; Reihani, S.*; Mohagehgh, Z.*
Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2020 (ASRAM 2020) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2020/11
Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (Level 3 PRA) and Traffic simulation were integrated to evaluate the effects of evacuation more realistically on radiation exposure to residents in the offsite consequence analysis. In this study, WinMACCS was used as the Level 3 PRA code. As a test case, the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) site, which was targeted by the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyzes (SOARCA) issued by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2017, was adopted. The MultiAgent Transport Simulation (MATSim) was used to simulate the evacuation of a Sequoyah NPP's 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone. For the transportation route choice, the route where each vehicle chooses the shortest distance and the route where the total evacuation time is shortened by iterative calculation were chosen. In the calculation of MACCS, the source term with the shortest release start time in the SOARCA report was adopted. As an example of the results, the radiation dose of the residents when the evacuation time was optimized was reduced by about 30% from the dose when the shortest distance was selected. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was conducted, and it was shown that the evacuation preparation time was the largest factor that contributed to the radiation dose to residents.
Task Force on Writing Textbook of Nuclear Fuel Materials
JAEA-Review 2020-007, 165 Pages, 2020/07
The present textbook was written by Task Force on Writing Textbook of Nuclear Fuel Materials at the Nuclear Science Research Institute in order to improve technological abilities of engineers and researchers who handle nuclear fuel materials. The taskforce consists of young and middle class engineers each having certification for chief engineer of nuclear fuel. The present textbook mainly deals with uranium and plutonium, and shows their nuclear properties, physical and chemical properties, and radiation effects on materials and human body. It also presents basic matters for safety handling of nuclear fuel materials, such as handling of nuclear fuel materials with hood and glovebox, important points in storage and transportation of nuclear fuel materials, radioactive waste management, radiation safety management, and emergency management. Furthermore, incident cases at domestic and foreign nuclear fuel materials facilities are compiled to learn from the past.
Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi; Matsumura, Taichi; Sakamoto, Masahiro
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00543_1 - 19-00543_8, 2020/06
Sugino, Kazuteru; Takino, Kazuo
JAEA-Data/Code 2019-011, 110 Pages, 2020/01
A deterministic discrete ordinates method (SN method) transport calculation code for three-dimensional hexagonal geometry has been developed as the MINISTRI code (Ver. 7.0). MINISTRI is based on the triangle-mesh finite difference method, which can perform neutron transport calculations with high accuracy for cores of fast power reactors and assemblies of the Russian BFS critical facility. The present study has derived a proper scheme for remarkably improving the convergence of MINISTRI by investigating the issue of previous MINISTRI (Ver. 1.1), which sometimes plays a poor convergence performance in calculations for large-scale power reactor cores. The verification test of improved MINISTRI has been carried out for various cores by setting the reference result as the multi-group Monte-Carlo calculation with the same cross-sections as used in MINISTRI. As a result, it is found that the agreements are within 0.1% for eigenvalues and within 0.7% for power distributions. Thus, the satisfying accuracy of MINISTRI has been confirmed. In order to reduce the calculation time, the initial diffusion calculation scheme and the parallel processing have been implemented. As a result, the calculation time is reduced to the approximately one tenth compared with previous MINISTRI. Furthermore, adoption of the treatment of the anisotropic cell streaming effect, preparation of the perturbation calculation tool, implementation of the function for specification of the triangle-mesh-wise material and merging of the hexagonal-mesh calculation code MINIHEX have been carried out. Thus, the versatility of MINISTRI has been enhanced.
Furuta, Takuya; El Basha, D.*; Iyer, S. S. R.*; Correa Alfonso, C. M.*; Bolch, W. E.*
Journal of Radiological Protection, 39(3), p.825 - 837, 2019/09
Despite large variation of human eye, only one computational eye model has been adopted in almost all the radiation transport simulation studies. We thus adopted a new scalable and deformable eye model and studied the radiation exposure by electrons, photons, and neutrons in the standard radiation fields such as AP, PA, RLAT, ROT, by using Monte Carlo radiation transport code PHITS. We computed the radiation exposure for 5 eye models (standard, large, small, myopic, hyperopic) and analyzed influence of absorbed dose in ocular structures on eye size and shape. Dose distribution of electrons is conformal and therefore the absorbed doses in ocular structures depend on the depth location of each ocular structure. We thus found a significant variation of the absorbed doses for each ocular structure for electron exposure due to change of the depth location affected by eye size and shape. On the other hand only small variation was observed for photons and neutrons exposures because of less conformal dose distribution of those particles.
Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05
Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(4), p.345 - 354, 2019/04
Particle transport simulations based on the Monte Carlo method have been applied to shielding calculations. Estimation of not only statistical uncertainty related to the number of trials but also systematic one induced by unclear physical quantities is required to confirm the reliability of calculated results. In this study, we applied a method based on analysis of variance to shielding calculations. We proposed random- and three-condition methods. The first one determines randomly the value of the unclear quantity, while the second one uses only three values: the default value, upper and lower limits. The systematic uncertainty can be estimated adequately by the random-condition method, though it needs the large computational cost. The three-condition method can provide almost the same estimate as the random-condition method when the effect of the variation is monotonic. We found criterion to confirm convergence of the systematic uncertainty as the number of trials increases.
Okuchi, Takuo*; Tomioka, Naotaka*; Purevjav, N.*; Shibata, Kaoru
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 51, p.1564 - 1570, 2018/12
It is demonstrated that quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is a novel and effective method to analyse atomic scale hydrogen transport processes occurring within a mineral crystal lattice. The method was previously characterized as sensitive for analysing the transport frequency and distance of highly diffusive hydrogen atoms or water molecules in condensed matter. Here are shown the results of its application to analyse the transport of much slower hydrogen atoms which are bonded into a crystal lattice as hydroxyls. Two types of hydrogen transport process were observed in brucite, Mg(OH) : a jump within a single two-dimensional layer of the hydrogen lattice and a jump into the next nearest layer of it. These transport processes observed within the prototypical structure of brucite have direct implications for hydrogen transport phenomena occurring within various types of oxides and minerals having layered structures.
Hamon, 28(4), p.204 - 207, 2018/11
A Neutron guide is one of the devices to transport neutron beam for long distance without sacrificing much neutrons; therefore, it can supply neutrons to many experimental instruments distributed in a large experimental hall. Also, by using a curved guide, only the neutrons in a required energy range can be transported, and rays and fast neutrons can be effectively eliminated, therefore the signal to background ratio is improved. In addition, a neutron beam can be branched by applying curved guides. Neutron guides are also used to control the divergence angle and intensity of the neutron beam supplied to the neutron instrument.
Takeda, Masaki; Ishii, Eiichi; Ono, Hirokazu; Kawate, Satoshi*
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 25(1), p.3 - 14, 2018/06
Fault zones and excavation damaged zones have the potential to act as flow paths, and the characterization of solute transport in such zones in mudstones is important for the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. However, few in situ tracer migration tests have been conducted on fractures in mudstones. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has conducted in situ tracer migration experiments using uranine, for fractures in siliceous mudstone of the Wakkanai Formation. 18 experiments were conducted under various conditions An injection flow rate that is slightly higher than the pumping flow rate is ideal for tracer migration experiments involving injection and pumping, as conducted in this study. In situ tracer migration experiments involving injection and pumping conducted in a groundwater environment with dissolved gases allow empirical evaluation of the relationship of the tracer recovery ratio and the groundwater degassing with the injection and pumping flow rate ratio. This evaluation is effective for the design of experimental conditions that account for degassing and ensure high levels of tracer recovery.
El Basha, D.*; Furuta, Takuya; Iyer, S. S. R.*; Bolch, W. E.*
Physics in Medicine & Biology, 63(10), p.105017_1 - 105017_13, 2018/05
With recent changes in the recommended annual limit on eye lens exposures to ionizing radiation by International Commission on Radiological Protection, there is considerable interest in predictive computational dosimetry models of the human eye and its various ocular structures. Several computational eye models to date have been constructed for this purpose but they are typically constructed of nominal size and of a roughly spherical shape associated with the emmetropic eye. We therefore constructed a geometric eye model that is both scalable (allowing for changes in eye size) and deformable (allowing for changes in eye shape), and that is suitable for use in radiation transport studies of ocular exposures and radiation treatments of eye disease. As an example, electron and photon anterior-posterior radiation transport with the constructed eye model was conducted and analyzed resultant energy-dependent dose profiles. Due to anterior-posterior irradiation, the energy dose response was shifted to higher energy for a larger-size eye or an axially deformed eye in prolate shape because the structures were located in deeper depth compared to the normal eye.
Aoyama, Michio*; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Nagai, Haruyasu
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 60(1), p.46 - 50, 2018/01
no abstracts in English
Shen, X.*; Sun, Haomin; Deng, B.*; Hibiki, Takashi*; Nakamura, Hideo
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 67(Part A), p.168 - 184, 2017/10
An experimental study on upward bubbly air-water flows in a vertical large-diameter square duct have been performed by mainly using four-sensor probes. Local measurements of interfacial area concentration (IAC), void fraction, 3D bubble velocity vector and bubble diameter at 3 axial positions were conducted. Although the interfacial area transport equation (IATE) and its bubble coalescence and breakup models have already played an important role in predicting the IAC in general two-phase flow fields, they are mainly developed based on the two-phase flow experimental data taken in round pipes or small diameter channels. To confirm their usability in large-diameter square duct, this study has evaluated the 1D one-group IATE with its 6 sets of bubble coalescence and breakup models with the presently-obtained database. It was found the relative error between the best prediction and the database was 25%.
Kitatani, Fumito; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Takamine, Jun; Hori, Junichi*; Sano, Tadafumi*
EPJ Web of Conferences, 146, p.09032_1 - 09032_3, 2017/09
Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Abe, Satoshi; Yonomoto, Taisuke
Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09
Miyahara, Naoya; Miwa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2017/09
This paper presents the development of a reproductive experimental setup for FP release and transport and an analysis tool considering chemical reaction kinetics for the construction of the FP chemistry database. The performance test of the reproductive experimental setup TeRRa using CsI compounds show that TeRRa can reproduce well a FP chemistry-related behavior such as aerosol formation, growth and deposition behavior. An analytical tool has been developed based on the commercial ANSYS-FLUENT code. Some additional models was added to evaluate detailed FP chemistry during release and transport in this study. A test analysis simulating the CsI heating test in steam atmosphere was carried out to demonstrate the performance of the improved code. The result shows the appropriateness of the additional models.
Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aso, Tomokazu; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Oi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; et al.
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.8_1 - 8_26, 2017/09
At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high intensity and narrow pulse width to promote researches on a variety of science in the Materials and life science experimental facility. It was designed to be driven by the proton beam with an energy of 3 GeV, a power of 1 MW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is world's highest power level. A mercury target and three types of liquid para-hydrogen moderators are core components of the spallation neutron source. It is still on the way towards the goal to accomplish the operation with a 1 MW proton beam. In this paper, distinctive features of the target-moderator-reflector system of the pulsed spallation neutron source are reviewed.
Mantica, P.*; Bourdelle, C.*; Camenen, Y.*; Dejarnac, R.*; Evans, T. E.*; Grler, T.*; Hillecheim, J.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Jakubowski, M.*; Ricci, P.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 57(8), p.087001_1 - 087001_19, 2017/08
This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 21st Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop, held in Leysin, Switzerland, during 5-8 September 2016. The workshop was organized under 8 topics: progress towards full-F kinetic turbulence simulation; high and low Z impurity transport, control and effects on plasma confinement; 3D effects on core and edge transport (including MHD, external fields and stellarators); predictive experimental design; electron heat transport and multi-scale integration; understanding power decay length in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL); role of the SOL in the L-H transition; validation of fundamental turbulence properties against turbulence measurements.