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論文

Experimental analysis on dynamics of liquid molecules adjacent to particles in nanofluids

橋本 俊輔*; 中島 健次; 菊地 龍弥*; 蒲沢 和也*; 柴田 薫; 山田 武*

Journal of Molecular Liquids, 342, p.117580_1 - 117580_8, 2021/11

 被引用回数:0

エチレングリコール水溶液中に二酸化ケイ素(SiO$$_{2}$$)ナノ粒子を分散したナノ流体の準弾性中性子散乱測定(QENS)およびパルス磁場勾配核磁気共鳴分析(PFGNMR)を行った。研究目的は、このナノ流体の熱伝導率が理論値を超えて増加するメカニズムを解明することだった。得られた実験結果は、SiO$$_{2}$$ナノ粒子の周りの液体分子の運動が非常に制限されているため、SiO$$_{2}$$ナノ粒子の添加により、エチレングリコール水溶液中の液体分子の自己拡散係数が低下していることを示す。そして温度一定の条件で、SiO$$_{2}$$ナノ流体中で、液体分子の自己拡散係数が減少するにつれて、熱伝導率が増加した。

論文

Advanced concepts in TRISO fuel

湊 和生; 小川 徹

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, 2nd Edition, Vol.5, p.334 - 360, 2020/08

高温ガス炉燃料として、微小燃料核を熱分解炭素及び炭化ケイ素で四重に被覆したTRISO被覆粒子燃料が開発されてきた。ここでは、TRISO被覆粒子燃料の高温での性能向上、核分裂生成物による被覆層腐食の抑制及び核分裂生成物の保持能力の向上、並びに高速中性子体系で使用できる燃料など、種々の先進的な被覆粒子燃料について、燃料概念,製造,検査方法,照射挙動等の結果を体系的にとりまとめた。2012年に刊行されたComprehensive Nuclear Materialsに掲載された同名論文の内容に、その後の研究開発の進展を加筆したものである。

論文

Study on chemisorption model of cesium hydroxide onto stainless steel type 304

中島 邦久; 西岡 俊一郎*; 鈴木 恵理子; 逢坂 正彦

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00564_1 - 19-00564_14, 2020/06

軽水炉シビアアクシデント時、ステンレス鋼(SS304)に化学吸着したセシウム量を推定するために、セシウム化学吸着モデルが構築されている。しかし、既存の化学吸着モデルは、実験結果をうまく再現することができていない。そのため、本研究では、化学反応を伴う気液系の物質移動理論(浸透説)や気相固相界面における水酸化セシウム(CsOH)の分解反応に対する質量作用の法則を組合せることで、SS304中のケイ素濃度や気相中の水酸化セシウム濃度の影響を考慮したモデルを構築した。その結果、既存モデルを用いた場合よりも、本研究で得られた修正モデルの方が、実験データをより正確に再現できることが分かった。

論文

Promising neutron irradiation applications at the high temperature engineering test reactor

Ho, H. Q.; 本多 友貴*; 濱本 真平; 石井 俊晃; 高田 昌二; 藤本 望*; 石塚 悦男

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021902_1 - 021902_6, 2020/04

High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR), a prismatic type of the HTGR, has been constructed to establish and upgrade the basic technologies for the HTGRs. Many irradiation regions are reserved in the HTTR to be served as a potential tool for an irradiation test reactor in order to promote innovative basic researches such as materials, fusion reactor technology, and radiation chemistry and so on. This study shows the overview of some possible irradiation applications at the HTTRs including neutron transmutation doping silicon (NTD-Si) and iodine-125 ($$^{125}$$I) productions. The HTTR has possibility to produce about 40 tons of doped Si-particles per year for fabrication of spherical silicon solar cell. Besides, the HTTR could also produce about 1.8$$times$$10$$^{5}$$ GBq/year of $$^{125}$$I isotope, comparing to 3.0$$times$$10$$^{3}$$ GBq of total $$^{125}$$I supplied in Japan in 2016.

論文

An Experimental investigation of influencing chemical factors on Cs-chemisorption behavior onto stainless steel

西岡 俊一郎; 中島 邦久; 鈴木 恵理子; 逢坂 正彦

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(11), p.988 - 995, 2019/11

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:75.46(Nuclear Science & Technology)

シビアアクシデント(SA)解析コードで用いられているCs化学吸着モデルの改良に資する知見取得のため、セシウムの鋼材への化学吸着挙動に影響を与える化学的要因(温度・雰囲気・関係する元素のの濃度など)を実験的に評価した。その結果、既存のCs化学吸着モデルで使用されている表面反応速度定数が、既に知られている温度依存性だけでなく、雰囲気,気相中の水酸化セシウム(CsOH)濃度、SUS304中に含まれるケイ素(Si)濃度にも影響を受け、Cs化学吸着モデルの改良においてはこれらの化学的要因を考慮すべきであることがわかった。加えて、873K程度の比較的低温での化学吸着においてはCs-Fe-O化合物が主な化合物として生成し、Cs-Si-Fe-Oが主に生成する1073K以上の化学吸着とは挙動が異なることがわかった。

論文

Oxidation of silicon carbide in steam studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; 古本 健一郎*; 佐藤 寿樹*; 石橋 良*; 山下 真一郎

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.670 - 674, 2019/09

Silicon carbide (SiC) has recently attracted much attention as a potential material for accident tolerant fuel cladding. To investigate the performance of SiC in severe accident conditions, study of steam oxidation at high temperatures is necessary. However, the study focusing on steam oxidation of SiC at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C is still certainly limited due to lack of test facilities. With the extreme oxidation/corrosion environment in steam at high temperatures, current refractory materials such as alumina and zirconia would not survive during the tests. Application of laser heating technique could be a great solution for this problem. Using laser heating technique, we can localize the heat and focus them on the test sample only. In this study, we developed a laser heating facility to investigate high-temperature oxidation of SiC in steam at temperature range of 1400-1800$$^{circ}$$C for 1-7 h. The oxidation kinetics is then being studied based on the weight gain and observation on cross-sectioned surface of tested sample using field emission scanning electron microscope. Off-gas measurement of hydrogen (H$$_{2}$$) and carbon monoxide (CO) generated during the test is also being conducted via a sensor gas chromatography. Current results showed that the SiC sample experienced a mass loss process which obeyed paralinear laws. Parabolic oxidation rate constant and linear volatilization rate constant of the process were calculated from the mass change of the samples. The apparent activation energy of the parabolic oxidation process was calculated to be 85 kJ.mol$$^{-1}$$. The data of the study also indicated that the mass change of SiC under the investigated conditions reached to its steady stage where hydrogen generation became stable. Above 1800$$^{circ}$$C, a unique bubble formation on sample surface was recorded.

論文

Feasibility study of new applications at the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Ho, H. Q.; 本多 友貴*; 濱本 真平; 石井 俊晃; 高田 昌二; 藤本 望*; 石塚 悦男

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/10

Besides the electricity generation and hydrogen production, HTGRs have many advantages for thermal neutron irradiation applications such as stable operation in longterm, large space available for irradiation target, and high thermal neutron economy. This study summarized the feasibility of new irradiation applications at the HTGRs including neutron transmutation doping silicon and I-125 productions. The HTTR located in Japan was used as a reference HTGR in this study. Calculation results show that HTTR could irradiate about 40 tons of doped Si particles per year for fabrication of spherical silicon solar cell. Besides, the HTTR could also produce about 1.8x105 GBq in a year of I-125, comparing to 3.0x103 GBq of total I-125 supplied in Japan in 2016.

論文

Proposal of a neutron transmutation doping facility for n-type spherical silicon solar cell at high-temperature engineering test reactor

Ho, H. Q.; 本多 友貴; 元山 瑞樹*; 濱本 真平; 石井 俊晃; 石塚 悦男

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 135, p.12 - 18, 2018/05

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:72.04(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

The p-type spherical silicon solar cell is a candidate for future solar energy with low fabrication cost, however, its conversion efficiency is only about 10%. The conversion efficiency of a silicon solar cell can be increased by using n-type silicon semiconductor as a substrate. This study proposed a new method of neutron transmutation doping silicon (NTD-Si) for producing the n-type spherical solar cell, in which the Si-particles are irradiated directly instead of the cylinder Si-ingot as in the conventional NTD-Si. By using a screw, an identical resistivity could be achieved for the Si-particles without a complicated procedure as in the NTD with Si-ingot. Also, the reactivity and neutron flux swing could be kept to a minimum because of the continuous irradiation of the Si-particles. A high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR), which is located in Japan, was used as a reference reactor in this study. Neutronic calculations showed that the HTTR has a capability to produce about 40 ton of 10 $$Omega$$ cm resistivity Si-particles for fabrication of the n-type spherical solar cell.

論文

Technical basis of accident tolerant fuel updated under a Japanese R&D project

山下 真一郎; 永瀬 文久; 倉田 正輝; 野澤 貴史; 渡部 清一*; 桐村 一生*; 垣内 一雄*; 近藤 貴夫*; 坂本 寛*; 草ヶ谷 和幸*; et al.

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

我が国では、事故耐性燃料の技術基盤を整備するために2015年に軽水炉の事故耐性燃料等(ATFs)に関する研究開発プロジェクトが立ち上がった。日本原子力研究開発機構は、国内のプラントメーカ, 燃料メーカ, 大学等が有する国内軽水炉においてジルカロイを商用利用した際の経験、知識を最大限活用するために、これらの機関と協力して本プロジェクトを実施するとともに取りまとめを行っている。プロジェクトの中で検討されているATF候補材料は、微細な酸化物粒子を分散することで強化されたFeCrAl鋼(FeCrAl-ODS鋼)と炭化ケイ素(SiC)複合材料であり、通常運転時の燃料性能は同等かそれ以上で、事故時にはジルカロイよりも長い時間原子炉炉心においてシビアアクシデント条件に耐えることが期待されている。本論文では、日本のプロジェクトで実施中の研究開発の進捗について報告する。

論文

Activation and control of visible single defects in 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC by oxidation

Lohrmann, A.*; Castelletto, S.*; Klein, J. R.*; 大島 武; Bosi, M.*; Negri, M.*; Lau, D. W. M.*; Gibson, B. C.*; Prawer, S.*; McCallum, J. C.*; et al.

Applied Physics Letters, 108(2), p.021107_1 - 021107_4, 2016/01

 被引用回数:26 パーセンタイル:81.53(Physics, Applied)

Creation and characterisation of single photon emitters near the surface of 4H- and 6H-silicon carbide bulk substrates and 3C-SiC epitaxially grown on silicon substrates were investigated. These single photon emitters can be created and stabilized by thermal annealing in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures above 550 $$^{circ}$$C. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment is shown to effectively annihilate the emission from defects and to restore an optically clean surface. However, the emission from the defects can be obtained after re-oxidation above 550 $$^{circ}$$C. By measuring using standard confocal microscopy techniques, the excited state lifetimes for the emitters are found to be in the nanosecond regime in all three polytypes, and the emission dipoles are aligned with the lattice.

論文

Swelling of radiation-cured polymer precursor powder for silicon carbide by pyrolysis

武山 昭憲; 出崎 亮; 杉本 雅樹; 吉川 正人

Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies (Internet), 3(4), p.402 - 406, 2015/12

Ceramic yield, density, volume change and pore size distribution were measured for radiation- and thermally cured (poly carbo silan) PCS powder when they were pyrolyzed in the temperature ranges between 673 and 973 K. Higher ceramic yield was obtained for radiation-cured powder due to smaller amount of evolved gas. Temperature dependence of volume change and the total pore volume show the formation and disappearance of pores in the powders were determined by the volume shrinkage and evolution of decomposed gases. Volume shrinkage narrowed the pore size distribution for radiation-cured powder. For thermally cured powder, the narrowing of size distribution was disturbed by aggregated pores. Smaller amount of evolved gas from radiation-cured powder relative to thermally cured powder prevented the aggregation of pores and provided the narrow size distribution.

論文

Defect engineering in silicon carbide; Single photon sources, quantum sensors and RF emitters

Kraus, H.; Simin, D.*; Fuchs, F.*; 小野田 忍; 牧野 高紘; Dyakonov, V.*; 大島 武

Proceedings of 11th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Applications (RASEDA-11) (Internet), p.176 - 179, 2015/11

Quantum centers in silicon carbide (SiC) have already transcended their former reputation as mere performance-hampering defects. Especially the silicon vacancies, but also other point defects offer a variety of quantum applications, completing and complementing the successful NV centers in diamond. We aim to provide an overview over the research activities on quantum centers in silicon carbide, from fundamental knowledge on the 3/2 spin multiplicity, over microwave emission and single photon sources, to axis-aware magnetic field sensing and temperature sensing. Finally, we discussed creating tailored defects in SiC using different radiation parameters.

論文

A Development of super radiation-hardened power electronics using silicon carbide semiconductors; Toward MGy-class radiation resistivity

土方 泰斗*; 三友 啓*; 松田 拓磨*; 村田 航一*; 横関 貴史*; 牧野 高紘; 武山 昭憲; 小野田 忍; 大久保 秀一*; 田中 雄季*; et al.

Proceedings of 11th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Applications (RASEDA-11) (Internet), p.130 - 133, 2015/11

In order to develop semiconductor devices with MGy radiation resistivity, we are developing power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors. The $$gamma$$-ray irradiation responses of power SiC-MOSFETs were studied under various irradiation temperatures and humidity with various gate-bias conditions. Making comparisons between these responses, the optimum device operating condition and a better device structure were derived and MGy resistivity was achieved. Besides, $$gamma$$-ray irradiation tests for a motor-driver circuits consisting of SiC-MOSFETs were carried out, and as a result, their continuous operation up to 2 MGy was confirmed.

論文

In-situ monitoring of ion-beam luminescence of Si-O-C(-H) ceramics under proton-beam irradiation

成澤 雅紀*; 江夏 昌志; 武山 昭憲; 杉本 雅樹; 出崎 亮; 佐藤 隆博; 外薗 洋樹*; 河相 武利*; 岩瀬 彰宏*

Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 123(9), p.805 - 808, 2015/09

Two kinds of Si-O-C(-H) ceramics particles having intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) spectra were prepared from silicone resin microspheres by heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere at 800 or 1100$$^{circ}$$C. The obtained particles were painted on a Si substrate using a binder, and ion-beam-luminescence spectra were observed under proton beam irradiation with an acceleration energy in the ranges of 1-3 MeV. Observed spectra had peaks at wavelength of 520-540 nm. These peak wavelengths were larger than those observed under UV light irradiation. The luminescence of H$$_{2}$$ 1100 (sample decarbonized at 1100$$^{circ}$$C) was bright, and that of H$$_{2}$$ 800 (sample decarbonized at 800$$^{circ}$$C) was faint. However, the intensity of luminescence decreased rapidly at an early stage of the beam irradiation. In air, a sharp luminescence band with a peak at 300 nm appeared together with the main emission with a peak in the range of 520-540 nm. The existence of the sharp band at 300 nm was apparent in the H$$_{2}$$ 800 spectra, whereas it appeared as a minor peak in the H$$_{2}$$ 1100 spectra in air.

論文

Isolated electron spins in silicon carbide with millisecond coherence times

Christle, D.*; Falk, A.*; Andrich, A.*; Klimov, P.*; Hassan, J.*; Son, N. T.*; Janz$'e$n, E.*; 大島 武; Awschalom, D.*

Nature Materials, 14(2), p.160 - 163, 2015/02

 被引用回数:244 パーセンタイル:99.22(Chemistry, Physical)

Carbon vacancy - silicon vacancy pair (V$$_{C}$$-V$$_{Si}$$) in silicon carbide (SiC) is regarded as a promising candidate for a qubit for quantum computing since V$$_{C}$$-V$$_{Si}$$ is thought to have electronic states with sharp optical and spin transitions. However, single spin operation using V$$_{C}$$-V$$_{Si}$$ has not yet been succeeded although it was revealed that V$$_{C}$$-V$$_{Si}$$ shows the characteristics as a single photon source (SPS). In this study, we studied spin properties of V$$_{C}$$-V$$_{Si}$$ created in SiC by 2 MeV-electron irradiation. First, we found V$$_{C}$$-V$$_{Si}$$ in SiC using a confocal microscope (CFM) and measured their optical detected magnet resonance (ODMR) at 20 K. Then, their spin coherence was measured from the standard two-pulse Hahn-echo sequence using ODMR. As a result, the spin coherence time exceeding 1 ms was obtained.

論文

Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature

Widmann, M.*; Lee, S.-Y.*; Rendler, T.*; Son, N. T.*; Fedder, H.*; Paik, S.*; Yang, L.-P.*; Zhao, N.*; Yang, S.*; Booker, I.*; et al.

Nature Materials, 14(2), p.164 - 168, 2015/02

 被引用回数:309 パーセンタイル:99.49(Chemistry, Physical)

Single silicon vacancy (V$$_{Si}$$) in silicon carbide (SiC) was studied from the point of view of single photon source for quantum computing. The V$$_{Si}$$ centers were created in high purity semi-insulating hexagonal (4H)-SiC by 2 MeV electron irradiation with fluences up to 5$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ /cm$$^{2}$$. No subsequent annealing was carried out. A couple of solid immersion lens (SIL) with 20 $$mu$$m diameter were created on samples by ion milling using 40 keV Ga focused ion beam. A typical home-built confocal setup was used after optimizing for emission in the wavelength range around 900 nm. As a result, optically detected electron spin resonance (ODMR) for V$$_{Si}$$ was observed at room temperature (RT). Using ODMR, Rabi oscillations were also observed, and the Rabi frequency increased with increasing applied-magnetic field. In addition, spin relaxation time T$$_{1}$$ and T$$_{2}$$ were detected to be 500 $$mu$$s and 160 $$mu$$s, respectively.

論文

Room temperature quantum emission from cubic silicon carbide nanoparticles

Castelletto, S.*; Johnson, B. C.*; Zachreson, C.*; Beke, D.*; Balogh, I.*; 大島 武; Aharonovich, I.*; Gali, A.*

ACS Nano, 8(8), p.7938 - 7947, 2014/08

Single Photon Sources (SPSs) in cubic (3C) Silicon Carbide (SiC) Nano Particles (NPs) were investigated. As a result, photo luminescence (PL) with broad emission at wavelength ranges between 600 and 800 nm was observed from 3C-SiC NPs at room temperature. The second order photon auto-correlation measurements revealed that defect with the PL characteristic is SPSs. The intensity and stability of the PL increased when samples were irradiated with electrons and subsequently annealed at 500 $$^{circ}$$C. From PL measurements at low temperature and theoretical analysis using spin-polarized density functional theory, the defect can be identified as carbon-antisite carbon-vacancy pair (C$$_{Si}$$V$$_{C}$$).

論文

Investigation of single-event damages on silicon carbide (SiC) power MOSFETs

水田 栄一*; 久保山 智司*; 阿部 浩之; 岩田 佳之*; 田村 貴志*

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61(4), p.1924 - 1928, 2014/08

 被引用回数:55 パーセンタイル:98.76(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Radiation effects in silicon carbide power MOSFETs caused by heavy ion and proton irradiation were investigated. In the case of ions with high LET, permanent damage (increase in both drain and gate leakage current with increasing LET) was observed and the behavior is similar to the permanent damage observed for SiC Schottky Barrier diodes in our previous study. In the case of ions with low LET, including protons, Single Event Burnouts (SEBs) were observed suddenly although there was no increase in leakage current just before SEBs. The behavior has not been observed for Si devices and thus, the behavior is unique for SiC devices.

論文

Observation of deep levels and their hole capture behavior in p-type 4H-SiC epilayers with and without electron irradiation

加藤 正史*; 吉原 一輝*; 市村 正也*; 畑山 智亮*; 大島 武

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53(4S), p.04EP09_1 - 04EP09_5, 2014/04

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:16.04(Physics, Applied)

Deep levels in p-type hexagonal (4H) silicon carbide (SiC) epilayers irradiated with and without electrons at 160 keV and subsequent annealing at 1000 $$^{circ}$$C were investigated. Current deep level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS) was applied to investigate deep levels. As a result, Deep levels with activation energies less than 0.35 eV which are located near the valence band were detected. Also, two deep levels (AP1 and AP2) existed in all samples. Other deep levels appeared after the electron irradiation. Since electrons with an energy of 160 keV can knock-on only carbon atoms from the lattice site of SiC, it was concluded that the deep levels observed after irradiation were related to carbon vacancy V$$_{C}$$.

論文

Annealing of electron irradiated, thick, ultrapure 4H SiC between 1100$$^{circ}$$C and 1500$$^{circ}$$C and measurements of lifetime and photoluminescence

Klahold, W. M.*; Devaty, R. P.*; Choyke, W. J.*; 河原 洸太朗*; 木本 恒暢*; 大島 武

Materials Science Forum, 778-780, p.273 - 276, 2014/02

Ultra-pure n-type (8$$times$$10$$^{13}$$ cm$$^{-3}$$), 99 $$mu$$m thick epitaxial layers of hexagonal (4H) silicon carbide (SiC) were irradiated with electrons either at 170 keV with a fluence of 5$$times$$10$$^{16}$$ cm$$^{-2}$$ or at 1 MeV with a fluence of 1$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ cm$$^{-2}$$ in various geometries. Low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) spectra and microwave photoconductance ($$mu$$PCD) lifetime measurements were carried out for all samples before and after annealing in argon in free standing mode or on a POCO carbon (Poco Graphite, Inc.) platform, every 50 $$^{circ}$$C from 1100 $$^{circ}$$C to 1500 $$^{circ}$$C. However, no improvement in carrier lifetime was observed although previous studies reported that carbon diffused into SiC during high temperature treatment improves carrier lifetime. The result obtained in this study suggests that simple carbon diffusion model cannot be applied and more study is required to understand the injection of carbon interstitials into the SiC lattice.

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