Engineering Geology, 294, p.106369_1 - 106369_12, 2021/12
The transmissivities (T) of fractures can be related to the fracture roughness (), initial aperture (), effective normal stress ('), and the tensile strength (') of the intact rock, based on the Barton-Bandis model and their data, and the T (or ) can increase by shear-induced dilation. Previous studies revealed that the T of fractures in fault zones, detected as flow anomalies by borehole investigations at six sites, uniformly decreases with the increasing effective mean stress normalized to the '. If this uniform change in T can be explained by '-dependent fracture-normal-displacement following the Baron-Bandis model, the T represents the highest potential T of fractures in fault zones which can increase by shear-induced dilation. To verify this possibility, this study estimated the of the fractures using the T, ', and possible and '. Then, using this estimated , the changes in T were simulated, varying '. The results well reproduced the observed uniform change in T.
Asakura, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yusuke; Donomae, Yasushi; Abe, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Misao; Sakamoto, Naoki; Isozaki, Ryosuke; Onishi, Takashi; et al.
JAEA-Review 2021-020, 42 Pages, 2021/10
The disposal of radioactive waste from the research facility need to calculate from the radioactivity concentration that based on variously nuclear fuels and materials. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency Oarai Research and Development Institute, the study on considering disposal is being advanced among the facilities which generate radioactive waste as well as the facilities which process radioactive waste. This report summarizes a study result in FY2020 about the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Akiomi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; et al.
JAEA-Research 2021-007, 65 Pages, 2021/10
This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 6th fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. The current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.
Sakai, Toshihiro; Hayano, Akira
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-010, 243 Pages, 2021/10
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "R&D on Geological Disposal", and proceeds in three overlapping phases, "Phase I: Surface-based investigation", "Phase II: Construction" and "Phase III: Operation". The geological survey has been carried out at the shafts and the galleries in the Phase II. The geological survey was carried out during the excavation cycle, and the data were obtained for each an excavation cross section. This report shows the data which the individual geological data were integrated for the geological survey at the shafts and the galleries from the surface to a depth of 380m.
Saito, Tatsuo; Sato, Kazuhiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237, p.106708_1 - 106708_9, 2021/10
We succeeded at numerical reproduction of dissolved U concentrations from column experiments with PO-treated Hanford 300 Area sediment. The time-series curves of dissolved U concentrations under various Darcy flow rate conditions were reproduced by the numerical model in the present study through optimization of the following parameters:(i) the mass of U in mobile domain (on surface soil connected to the stream) and the rest of the total U left as precipitation in immobile domain (isolated in deep soil);(ii) the mixing ratio between immobile and mobile domains, to fit the final recovering curve of concentration; and (iii) the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and equilibrium constant (k) of the exchange reaction of UO and H on simulated soil surface (), to fit the transient equilibrium concentration, forming the bed of the bathtub curve.
Horiuchi, Yusuke; Watanabe, So; Sano, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Kida, Fukuka*; Arai, Tsuyoshi*
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 330(1), p.237 - 244, 2021/10
Applicability of tetra2-ehylhexyl diglycolamide (TEHDGA) impregnated adsorbent for minor actinide (MA) recovery from high level liquid waste (HLLW) in extraction chromatography technology was investigated through batch-wise adsorption and column separation experiments. Distribution ratio of representative fission product elements were obtained by the batch-wise experiments, and TEHDGA adsorbent was shown to be preferable to TODGA adsorbent for decontamination of several species. All Ln(III) supplied into the TEHDGA adsorbent packed column was properly eluted from the column, and the applicability of the adsorbent was successfully showed by this study.
Fukatsu, Yuta; Yotsuji, Kenji*; Okubo, Takahiro*; Tachi, Yukio
Applied Clay Science, 211, p.106176_1 - 106176_10, 2021/09
Takayama, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Hirohito*
Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, C (Chiken Kogaku) (Internet), 77(3), p.302 - 313, 2021/09
Numerous swelling pressure tests have been conducted to understand the swelling properties of benton-ite which is planned to be used as a buffer material in repositories for the geological disposal of radioac-tive waste. In this study, in order to clarify the cause of the decrease in swelling pressure during the swell-ing pressure test period, the change in wet density distribution inside the specimen during the swelling pressure test was observed by X-ray CT measurement. It was supposed that this phenomenon was caused by the collapse inside the specimen. Furthermore, in order to confirm that collapse is generated by water absorption, the swelling deformation test was carried out under various load conditions. As a result, it was confirmed that collapse occurs even under the load conditions that are equal to or slightly smaller than the swelling pressure. These test data are expected to be used for validation of coupled analysis codes for evaluating the mechanical behavior of disposal facilities during re-saturation period.
Noda, Atsushi*; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro*; Mizuno, Kiyohide*; Nagata, Mitsuhiro
GSJ Chishitsu Nyusu, 10(9), p.207 - 213, 2021/09
This paper is a brief explanation of the 1:50,000 Quadrangle Geological Map of "Ikeda". The geology of the Ikeda district which is located in the northern part of Shikoku, is divided into basement Late Cretaceous plutonic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, and covering Post-Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks. This area is known for the distribution of the Median Tectonic Line, which is the major geological fault in Japan. This map is not only geologically important, but also important from a disaster prevention perspective.
Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Koike, Katsuaki*
Joho Chishitsu, 32(3), P. 95, 2021/09
We received best presentation award GEOINROUM-2021 for the presentation on "Estimation of contaminated materials concentration by a geostatistical method with groundwater flow". We submit the comments of impression for getting the Award to Geoinformatics.
Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Okabe, Nobuaki*; Yokoyama, Yusuke*; Yoneda, Minoru*; Shibata, Yasuyuki*; Fujita, Natsuko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 235-236, p.106593_1 - 106593_10, 2021/09
For a contribution to developing the usage of iodine-129 (I) as a tracer of deep-seated fluid, I/I and C were measured for annual bands (AD 1931-1991) of a modern coral collected from Northwestern Australia; the measurements were performed using the JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV for I/I and an AMS facility of the University of Tokyo for C. Results indicate that both I/I and C distinctly increase from 1950s. The C increase can be ascribed to atmospheric nuclear tests, while the I/I increase is due to nuclear-fuel reprocessing as well as atmospheric nuclear tests. These results are in good agreement with previous studies, indicating that the I/I measurement by JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV has been further developed.
Kagami, Saya; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Umeda, Koji*
JAEA-Testing 2021-001, 49 Pages, 2021/08
To make a contribution to safety assessment for geological disposal of high level radioactive and/or TRU waste, we need to assess long-term stability of geological environment and predict long-term changes of geotectonic events that will occur in the future, especially for Quaternary period ( 2.6 million years ago-present). In the most case, we investigate chronological data of geological events by radiometric dating. When some geological samples have no objects to which radiometric dating method can be applied (e.g., zircon, biotite, wood fragments and plant residues), we can use tephrochronology, which is geological dating method using each layer of tephra (erupted volcanic ash), for dating of geological layers. This chronological method is essential in Japan, where volcanism is very active. Tephra is usually characterized by petrographic characteristics and/or chemical composition (mainly major elements) of volcanic glasses and/or minerals in tephra. In Tono Geoscience Center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), we develop an analytical technique of chemical composition including trace elements of volcanic glasses for detailed tephra identification. In this paper, we report a sample preparation procedure and analytical methods of chemical compositions of individual volcanic glass shards by using an electron probe microanalyzer and a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Shimada, Akiomi; Niwa, Masakazu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Ogita, Yasuhiro; et al.
JAEA-Review 2021-012, 48 Pages, 2021/08
This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in fiscal year 2021. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2021 are described in detail based on the JAEA 3rd Medium- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). In addition, the background of this research is described from the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress. The plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques.
Sakai, Toshihiro; Ishii, Eiichi
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-009, 13 Pages, 2021/08
Japan Atomic Energy Agency is performing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, which includes a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes, in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the sedimentary rock. The numerical data of 3D geological model in regional-scale was compiled in 2019 as JAEA-Data/Code 2019-007, and then this report updates a part of the numerical data of 3D geological model around the underground facilities.
Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki*; Ozaki, Yusuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 144, p.104737_1 - 104737_14, 2021/08
In this study, we investigated the methodology of modeling for fractured granite around the drift at a depth of 500 m in the Mizunami Underground Laboratory, Japan as a case study. As a result, we developed the fracture modeling method to estimate not only geological parameters of fractures but also hydraulic parameters based on the reproducibility of trace length distribution of fractures. By applying this modeling method, it was possible to construct a Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model that can accurately reproduce the statistical characteristics of fractures.
Niihara, Takafumi*; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Arai, Tomoko*; Misawa, Keiji*
Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 56(8), p.1619 - 1625, 2021/08
We have conducted petrological and mineralogical studies on an igneous clast in the Northwest Africa (NWA) 1685 (LL4) chondrite. In an earlier description, the meteorite contained similar clasts in the LL chondritic breccias Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), Bhola (LL3-6), and Kraehenberg (LL5). We carefully compared their textures as well as mineral and matrix compositions with those of alkali-rich clasts in the LL chondritic breccias. Olivine grains are embedded in glassy matrix and have no chemical. Shock melt veins and fractures were observed only in olivine grains and did not continue to matrix. Major and minor element compositions of olivine grains in the clast are homogeneous. Potassium abundance of matrix glasses of the NWA 1685 clast is lower than those of alkali-rich igneous clasts in Y-74442, Bhola, and Kraehenberg, indicating that the igneous clasts in NWA 1685 are different from the alkali-rich clasts previously reported in the LL chondritic breccias and that they could have formed during an impact melting event, quenched on the LL-chondrite parent body, and finally incorporated into breccia.
Yasuda, Hiroshi*; Fumoto, Hiromichi*; Saito, Tatsuo
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 63(8), p.610 - 614, 2021/08
Regarding the handling of uranium bearing waste, which is contaminated with uranium, which is a naturally occurring radionuclide, and its descendant nuclides, in recent years, the Japan Nuclear Regulatory Commission, etc. have been carefully and actively deliberated based on the knowledge of natural science and safety engineering. It was carried out, and as of March 2021, a certain policy has been shown. On the other hand, when disposing of uranium waste, which may cause dose exposure to future generations, the authors consider not only the science and engineering perspectives that have been conducted so far, but also the humanities and social science perspectives. We have been discussing with experts in related fields, thinking that it is necessary. In this report, we will introduce the background that brought about such an idea and the direction of future discussions.
Kochiyama, Mami; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro
JAEA-Technology 2021-010, 61 Pages, 2021/07
It is necessary to evaluate the radioactivity inventory in wastes in order to dispose of radioactive wastes generated from dismantling nuclear reactor in the shallow ground. In this report, we examined radioactivity evaluation method for near surface disposal about biological shield concrete near the core generated from the dismantling of JPDR. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete using the DORT code and the ORIGEN-S code, and we estimated radioactivity concentration Di (Bq/t). For DORT calculation, the cross-section library created from the MATXSLIB-J40 file from JENDL-4.0 was used, and for ORIGEN-S, the attached library of SCALE6.0 was used. As a result of comparing the calculation results of the radioactivity concentration with the past measured values in the radial direction and the vertical direction, we found that the trends were generally the same. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete Di (Bq/t), and we compared with the estimated Ci (Bq/t) equivalent to the dose criteria of trench disposal calculated for 140 nuclides. As a result we inferred that the except for about 2% of target waste could be disposed of in the trench disposal facility. We also preselected important nuclides for trench disposal based on the ratios (Di/Ci) for each nuclide, H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41, Co-60, Sr-90, Eu-152 and Cs-137 were selected as important nuclides.
JAEA-Review 2021-009, 54 Pages, 2021/07
The Horonobe URL Project is being pursued by the JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In 2021 fiscal year (2021/2022), JAEA continue to conduct research on "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", which are the important issues shown in the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year. The main studies to be conducted in 2021 fiscal year are as follows. As "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", we will shift to the test under the condition that the influence of heating is eliminated in the full scale EBS experiment. As "Demonstration of disposal concept", as a demonstration of the closure techniques, it details the conditions under which long-term transitions in the tunnel and surrounding bedrock have a significant impact on safety assessments. And we will continue engineering scale experiment to confirm the workability and performance of plugs and laboratory tests to examine the interaction between backfilling materials and buffer materials. As "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", we will analyze the results of the hydraulic disturbance test and continue to study the hydraulic disconnection of faults/fissures in the Wakkanai Formation. As an advancement of technology for investigating and evaluating areas where the flow of groundwater is extremely slow, a boring exploration will be conducted to confirm the three-dimensional distribution of the fossil seawater area.
Yoshinaka, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Takayuki
JAEA-Review 2021-008, 112 Pages, 2021/07
We had drastically been improving quality assurance system for Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), through applying new regulatory requirements, giving up ISO certification from FY2012 to 2019. In revising QA system, it is obviously necessary to satisfy the regulatory requirements, but it is important to continuously improve the QA system considering effectiveness to safety performance based on earlier experiences. In this report, the background of QA system revision, interpretation and thinking way of conformation and application to new regulation and "Application Guide to Quality Assurance Code for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants (JEAC 4111)" to TRP, issues considered. And matters that require attention for future QA activities are described. Key points are "in work processes planning, relationship with other sections and responsibility boundaries should be clearly defined with such as flow chart", "to manage decision-making processes is important, including input information, judgment criteria and so on", "concerning process monitoring and measurement, not only focusing on scheduling but also viewpoints toward conditions of facilities/systems, conformance to regulatory requirements and process improvement are necessary", and "in documentation, matching for existing system, clear relation to other fundamental documents are necessary".