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Journal Articles

Difference in expansion and dehydration behaviors between NH$$_4$$- and K-montmorillonite

Kawakita, Ryohei; Saito, Akito*; Sakuma, Hiroshi*; Anraku, Sohtaro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke*; Otake, Tsubasa*; Sato, Tsutomu*

Applied Clay Science, 231, p.106722_1 - 106722_7, 2023/01

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Accurate and precise measurement of uranium content in uranium trioxide by gravimetry; Comparison with isotope dilution mass spectrometry and its uncertainty estimation

Yamamoto, Masahiko; Horigome, Kazushi; Kuno, Takehiko

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 190, p.110460_1 - 110460_7, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Gravimetric measurement of U content in UO$$_{3}$$ with ignition in the air has been investigated. The ignition temperature, ignition time and aliquot sample mass are optimized as 900$$^{circ}$$C, 60 minutes, and 1 g, respectively. The method is validated by IDMS with uncertainty estimation. The obtained result by gravimetry is 0.78236$$pm$$0.00051 g/g (k=2) and agreed with IDMS value within its uncertainty. It has been found that U in UO$$_{3}$$ can be measured accurately and precisely by gravimetry.

Journal Articles

Numerical reproduction of the seasonal variation in dissolved uranium in Lake Biwa

Saito, Tatsuo; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Mochizuki, Akihito

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.107035_1 - 107035_14, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The seasonal variation of dissolved U (DU) in Lake Biwa was reproduced by the following model and parameter research. The introduced models are the water-DU mass balance, and the ion exchange between UO$$_{2}$$$$^{2+}$$ and H$$^{+}$$ on the lakeshore soil. The optimized parameters were the CEC of the lakeshore, TU as the sum of DU and AU (soil adsorbed U), kads and kdes as the first order reaction rate coefficients during rapid soil adsorption and desorption of U, respectively. Tabulated by the chemical equilibria constituting DU and analyzed the contribution of each chemical species, it is shown that the seasonal variation of DU is caused by the seasonal variation of pH. A correction to the ion-exchange equilibrium to shift to first order rate reaction only when the daily AU ratio increased above kads or decreased below kdes, improved the reproducibility of DU measurements and reproduced the delay of the DU peak from the pH peak.

Journal Articles

Advanced thermal-hydraulic experiments and instrumentation for heavy liquid metal reactors

Pacio, J.*; Van Tichelen, K.*; Eckert, S.*; Wondrak, T.*; Di Piazza, I.*; Lorusso, P.*; Tarantino, M.*; Daubner, M.*; Litfin, K.*; Ariyoshi, Gen; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 399, p.112010_1 - 112010_15, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Heavy-liquid metals (HLMs), such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), are proposed as primary coolants in accelerator driven systems and next-generation fast reactors. In Europe, the reference systems using HLMs are MYRRHA (LBE) and ALFRED (lead). This article presents an overview of recent experiences and ongoing activities on pool-type and loop-type HLM experiments. Pool tests include the measurement of forced- and natural-circulation flow patterns in several scenarios representative of nominal and decay heat removal conditions. Loop tests are focused on the evaluation of specific components, like mockups of the fuel assembly, control rod and heat exchangers. They involve the measurement of global variables, such as flow rate and pressure difference, and local quantities like temperature, velocity and vibrations. Advanced instrumentation, capable of sustaining high temperatures and corrosion, is necessary for accurate measurements, often in compact geometries. In addition to traditional techniques, other instrumentation based on optical fibers, ultrasonic and electromagnetic methods are discussed.

Journal Articles

The New 300 kV multi-element AMS system at the TONO Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu*; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Klein, M.*; Scognamiglio, G.*; Mous, D. J. W.*; Columna, E. L.*; Shimada, Akiomi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 533, p.91 - 95, 2022/12

In the Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigation of deep underground environments for R&D program related to the geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste has been performed by using various dating systems including an AMS system. In response to the increasing demand for our AMS measurements especially from a newly established R&D program supporting development of technology for geological disposal of HLW, a state-of-the-art multi-nuclide AMS system was installed. This system is equipped with a 300 kV AMS. The system has capability to measure four nuclides: carbon-14, beryllium-10, aluminium-26 and iodine-129. The system structure and features, as well as the results of performance test will be presented.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2022 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2022-026, 66 Pages, 2022/11


The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In fiscal year 2022, we continue to conduct research on "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rocks to natural perturbations", which are the important issues shown in the Horonobe underground research plan from fiscal year 2020. The main studies to be conducted in fiscal year 2022 are as follows. As "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", we will continue to the test under the simulated condition in which the heat generation by the high-level radioactive waste has subsides in the full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) performance experiment. We will also conduct solute transport experiment with model testing that take into account the effects of organic matter, microbes, and colloids, and initiate borehole investigation to evaluate solute transport experiments on fractures distribute in Koetoi formation. As "Demonstration of repository design concept", we will continue experiment and analysis of concrete deterioration in the underground environment as a demonstration of remote technique for emplacement and retrievable. As a demonstration of the closure techniques, laboratory tests will be continued to investigate the mechanism of bentonite runoff behaviour, which could be a factor in changing the performance of backfill material, and to expand data on swelling and deformation behaviour. In addition, in-situ borehole closure tests will be conducted to evaluate the applicability of the closure method. As "Understanding of buffering behaviour of

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation report for the 2021 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2022-025, 164 Pages, 2022/11


The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The main aim of this project is to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste through a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program in the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe in Hokkaido, north Japan. In fiscal year 2021, we continued R&D on three important issues specified in the "Horonobe Underground Research Plan from Fiscal Year 2020", which involve "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations". Specifically, "full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) performance experiment" and "solute transport experiment with model testing" were carried out as part of "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment". "Demonstration of engineering feasibility of repository technology" and "evaluation of EBS behaviour over 100$$^{circ}$$C' were addressed for "Demonstration of repository design options". A study on "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations" was also implemented in two areas, "evaluation of intrinsic buffering against endogenic and exogenic processes" and "development of techniques for evaluating excavation damaged zone (EDZ) self-sealing behaviour after backfilling". The results of the R&D, along with those obtained in other departments of JAEA, will reinforce the technical basis for both repository implementation and safety regulation. For the sake of this, we will steadily proceed with this project in collaboration with relevant organizations and universities both domestically and internationally and also widely publish the plans and results of the R&D to ensure their transparency and technical reliability.

JAEA Reports

Assessment report of research and development activities in FY2021; Activity of "Research and Development on Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste" (Post- and pre-review report)

Geological Disposal Research and Development Department

JAEA-Evaluation 2022-007, 81 Pages, 2022/11


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted the advisory committee, "Evaluation Committee on Research and Development (R&D) Activities for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste", for post- and pre-review assessment of R&D activities on high-level radioactive waste disposal in accordance with "General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R&D) Activities" by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, "Guideline for Evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology" and JAEA's "Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R&D Activities". In response to JAEA's request, the Committee reviewed mainly the progress of the R&D project on geological disposal, the relevance of the project outcome and the efficiency of the project implementation during the period of the current and next plan. This report summarizes the results of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached.

JAEA Reports

Assessment report of research and development activities in FY2021; Activity "Implementation and technological development of decommissioning of nuclear facilities" and "Implementation and technological development of radioactive waste processing" (Result evaluation, in-advance evaluation)

Sector of Nuclear Fuel, Decommissioning and Waste Management Technology Development

JAEA-Evaluation 2022-002, 172 Pages, 2022/11


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as "JAEA") consulted the "Evaluation Committee on Research and Development Activities for Decommissioning" (hereinafter referred to as "Committee") about the ex-post evaluation result for the implementation of the 3rd mid- and long-term objectives period and the ex-ante evaluation of R&D plan for the 4th mid- and long-term objectives period concerning "Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and development of technologies for the treatment of related radioactive waste" project in accordance with the "Guideline for evaluation of government R&D activities", the "Guideline for evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)" and the "Operational rule for evaluation of R&D activities" by JAEA. In response, the Committee evaluated the results of research and development during the 3rd mid- and long-term objectives period (April 2015 to March 2022) and the research and development plan for the 4th mid- and long-term objectives period (April 2022 to March 2029) according to the evaluation method established by the committee.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of the radioactivity concentrations in radioactive waste generated from JRR-3, JRR-4 and JRTF facilities

Tobita, Minoru*; Konda, Miki; Omori, Takeshi*; Nabatame, Tsutomu*; Onizawa, Takashi*; Kurosawa, Katsuaki*; Haraga, Tomoko; Aono, Ryuji; Mitsukai, Akina; Tsuchida, Daiki; et al.

JAEA-Data/Code 2022-007, 40 Pages, 2022/11


Radioactive wastes generated from nuclear research facilities in Japan Atomic Energy Agency are planning to be buried in the near surface disposal field. Therefore, it is required to establish the method to evaluate the radioactivity concentrations of radioactive wastes until the beginning of disposal. In order to contribute to this work, we collected and analyzed concrete, ash, ceramic and brick samples generated from JRR-3, JRR4 and JRTF facilities. In this report, we summarized the radioactivity concentrations of 24 radionuclides ($$^{3}$$H, $$^{14}$$C, $$^{36}$$Cl, $$^{41}$$Ca, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, $$^{90}$$Sr, $$^{94}$$Nb, $$^{99}$$Tc, $$^{rm 108m}$$Ag, $$^{129}$$I, $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{133}$$Ba, $$^{152}$$Eu, $$^{154}$$Eu, $$^{rm 166m}$$Ho, $$^{234}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{238}$$Pu, $$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{240}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{243}$$Am, $$^{244}$$Cm) which were obtained from radiochemical analysis of the samples in fiscal years 2020-2021.

Journal Articles

Constant-head step injection tests to quantify the stress dependence of fracture transmissivity in an excavation damaged zone; A Case study from the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Ishii, Eiichi

International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 159, p.105229_1 - 105229_17, 2022/11

 Times Cited Count:0

In an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal, fracture transmissivity in an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) along tunnels or deposition holes can decrease during the post-closure period via processes such as self-sealing by clay-swelling at the EDZ's fracture surface or an increase in effective normal stress acting on the fractures owing to swelling of backfilling or buffer materials. Hydromechanical coupling models for the stress-dependence of fracture transmissivity are helpful to estimate the change in an EDZ's fracture transmissivity after closure. The applicability of the applied models should be confirmed by in situ tests at the given site; this appears to be facilitated by using constant-head step injection tests. However, injection testing is rarely applied to EDZ fractures. To investigate the applicability of injection tests, the present study performed them on single, tensile EDZ fractures in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory hosted by poorly swelling mudstone. Furthermore, the Barton-Bandis normal stress-dependent fracture-closure model quantified the stress-dependence of EDZ facture transmissivity. The fracture's hydraulic aperture increased gradually during injection, and its variation was well reproduced by fitting the model. Although the model requires the normal stress, this parameter was reasonably estimated by the fitting analyses. Constant-head step injection tests coupled with the Barton-Bandis model is believed to be a convenient method for preliminarily quantifying or verifying the stress dependence of EDZ fracture transmissivity, at least for poorly self-sealed, tensile EDZ-fractures.

Journal Articles

Structural change by phosphorus addition to borosilicate glass containing simulated waste components

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Shimamura, Keisuke*; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Nagai, Takayuki; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 570, p.153962_1 - 153962_13, 2022/11

Simulated nuclear waste glass samples containing phosphorus, which increase the solubility of molybdenum, were prepared and analyzed using synchrotron X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) analysis for some constituent elements and Raman spectroscopic analysis of their complex structure. Changes in local structure and chemical state due to different phosphorus additions and waste loading rates were systematically studied. Consequently, no crystalline phase due to the molybdate compound was observed even at a maximum waste content of 30 wt% (corresponding to 1.87 mol% MoO$$_3$$). Oxidation proceeded when the waste-loading rate was increased, whereas the reduction proceeded when phosphorus was added. In some cases, the effects of oxidation and reduction were offset. The local structure around specific elements can be classified as follows; Zn that is affected mainly by the waste-loading rate, Ce that is affected by both the waste-loading rate and phosphorus addition, and Zr element that is not affected by either of them. From the comparison between the analytical results of Mo and other elements, it was considered that the added phosphorus exists as a free PO$$_4$$ structural unit and may deprive the alkali metal coordinated to the molybdate ion.

JAEA Reports

Demonstration of the groundwater observation network system in backfilled underground facility

Murakami, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Iwatsuki, Teruki

JAEA-Technology 2022-022, 34 Pages, 2022/10


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the hydro-pressure and hydrochemical monitoring for more than two decades to understand the hydrochemical disturbance due to the excavation of tunnels at Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). To understand the environmental influence due to the backfilling of research tunnels that started in 2019, environmental monitoring of groundwater has been performed and recovery status of groundwater is being confirmed. In order to observe the deep-groundwater environment from the ground, the groundwater pressure monitoring and sampling, which have been performed in the research tunnel, are to be performed from the ground. However, backfilling of a large-scale underground facilities such as MIU is globally unprecedented, thus it was necessary to develop a new observation system. Accordingly, we developed a new observation network to observe the environment around the research tunnels of the MIU. This system enables monitoring of groundwater pressure and water sampling of the backfilled tunnel from the ground while utilizing the existing-monitoring system installed in the tunnels. Accordingly, we demonstrated its technology through the environmental monitoring of groundwater. The results of the environmental monitoring and the existing groundwater data of MIU indicate that this system is able to monitor the groundwater environment in the backfilled tunnels.

JAEA Reports

Experiment of incineration for Trans-Uranic (TRU) wastes containing chlorides

Yamashita, Kiyoto; Yokoyama, Aya*; Takagai, Yoshitaka*; Maki, Shota; Yokosuka, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Masahiro; Iemura, Keisuke

JAEA-Technology 2022-020, 106 Pages, 2022/10


Radioactive solid wastes generated by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station disaster may contain high levels of salt from the tsunami and seawater deliberately released into the area. It is assumed that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products may be used for decommissioning work and for containment of radioactive wastes in the future. Among the method of handling them, incineration is one method that needs to be investigated as it is good method for reduction and stabilization of wastes. But in order to dispose of Trans-Uranic (TRU) solid waste containing chlorides, it is necessary to select the structure and materials of the facility based on the information such as the movement of nuclides and chlorides in the waste gas treating system and the corrosion of equipment due to chlorides. Therefore, we decided to get various data necessary to design a study of the incineration facilities. And we decided to examine the transfer behavior of chlorides to the waste gas treatment system, the corrosion-resistance of materials in the incineration facilities, and the distribution survey of plutonium in them obtained using the Plutonium-contaminated Waste Treatment Facility (PWTF), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, which is a unique incinerating facility in Japan. This report describes the transfer behavior of chlorides in the waste gas treatment system, the evaluation of corrosion-resistance materials and the distribution survey of plutonium in the incineration facilities obtained by these tests using the Plutonium-contaminated Waste Treatment Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories.

JAEA Reports

Structural investigation of borosilicate glasses by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region, 2 (Joint research)

Nagai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Hirona*; Kojima, Kazuo*; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2022-008, 37 Pages, 2022/10


The local structure of glass-forming elements and waste elements in borosilicate glasses varies with its chemical composition. In this study, borosilicate glass frit and simulated waste glass samples were prepared and the chemical state regarding boron (B), silicon (Si) and waste elements of iron (Fe), cesium (Cs) were estimated by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of simulated waste glass surfaces after immersion test to investigate the long chemical stability. (1) As the leaching time of glass samples in immersion test passed, the Cs M$$_{5}$$, M$$_{4}$$-edge XANES spectra disappeared and the Fe L$$_{3}$$, L$$_{2}$$-edge spectra changed. (2) A new compound was formed on the sample surface after the immersion test, and these changes in the surface state were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. However, it became difficult to obtain a clear B K-edge XANES spectrum by forming a compound on glass surfaces. The Si K-edge XANES spectra of borosilicate glass frits with different Na$$_{2}$$O content were measured, and following was confirmed. (1) As the Na$$_{2}$$O concentration increases in borosilicate glass frit, the K-edge peak of Si shifts to the low energy side. (2) The intensity of the Si K-edge peak is maximum when the Na$$_{2}$$O content in glass frits was about 7wt%.

JAEA Reports

A GIS-based approach for geomorphological analysis of volcanic edifices to estimate latent magma plumbing system (Contract research)

Nishiyama, Nariaki; Goto, Akira*; Tsukahara, Yuzuko; Kawamura, Makoto; Umeda, Koji*; Niwa, Masakazu

JAEA-Testing 2022-003, 51 Pages, 2022/09


Advancement of the evaluation technology of the magma activity range is essential as one of the technical issues related to volcanic and igneous activities in the evaluation of the long-term stability of the geological environment in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As an effective method, topographical analysis of volcanic edifices is expected to be used to determine the distribution area of dikes. In recent years, the development of computer-based topographic analysis technology has made it possible to simply perform a large volume of work that would otherwise be difficult due to the manual handling. This report describes an analysis method for the shape of contour lines that forms volcanic edifices using GIS software.

JAEA Reports

Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste (Scientific program for fiscal year 2022)

Sasao, Eiji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Akiomi; Shimada, Koji; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Ogita, Yasuhiro; et al.

JAEA-Review 2022-022, 29 Pages, 2022/09


This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in fiscal year 2022. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2022 are described in detail based on the JAEA 4th Medium- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2022-2028). In addition, the background of this research is described from the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress. The plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques

Journal Articles

Clearance measurement for concrete waste generated by the decommissioning of uranium processing facilities

Yokoyama, Kaoru; Ohashi, Yusuke

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 175, p.109240_1 - 109240_7, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Decommissioning is planned at nuclear facilities that have been discontinued. We examined the evaluation method of uranium radioactivity for concrete waste generated by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Since the peaks of Ac-228, Tl-208, and K- 40 are derived from concrete waste, it is difficult to distinguish the 1001 keV peak emitted from the uranium source. We have derived a formula to correct gamma rays from concrete and the environment, and the amount of uranium was quantified. When the weight of concrete waste is about 300 kg, if the weight of uranium is 3 g or more, it can be quantified within a relative error of about 30%. Measurement tests were performed using homogeneous simulated concrete waste. Since uranium contamination is on the concrete surface at the uranium processing facility and small chunks generated by scraping the concrete surface will be stored in a drum and measured, it seems that the test of homogeneous concrete reflects the actual waste.

Journal Articles

U-Pb zircon dates from the Utaosa Rhyolite of the Teragi Group

Nagata, Mitsuhiro; Fukuda, Shoma; Sueoka, Shigeru; Nakajima, Toru; Kajita, Yuya*; Minami, Saki*; Okamoto, Akira*; Tagami, Takahiro*

Fisshion, Torakku Nyusureta, (35), p.15 - 18, 2022/09

We performed U-Pb dating on zircons from the Utaosa Rhyolite of the Teragi Group as part of the search for standard materials for dating of zircons. Previous studies about Utaosa Rhyolite have reported ca. 2.30-2.77 Ma zircon fission track, zircon (U-Th)/He, and biotite K-Ar ages. U-Pb dating was carried out on the multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with a laser ablation system. The weighted mean $$^{238}$$U-$$^{206}$$Pb ages of 2.65$$pm$$0.16 Ma and 2.66$$pm$$0.15 Ma were obtained from two samples. These ages are consistent with the ages from the previous studies. Therefore the results show that zircons from the Utaosa Rhyolite may be effective as a standard material.

Journal Articles

Variation in fault hydraulic connectivity with depth in mudstone; An Analysis of poroelastic hydraulic response to excavation in the Horonobe URL

Ozaki, Yusuke; Ishii, Eiichi; Sugawara, Kentaro*

Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment, 31, p.100311_1 - 100311_13, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Energy & Fuels)

This study analyzed the long-term hydraulic pressure data during the excavation of Horonobe URL to estimate the variation of effective-hydraulic-conductivity. We performed the numerical simulation with the poroelastic effect for the estimation because the observed hydraulic pressure is highly affected by the Mandel-Cryer effect. The evaluation of the observed data based on our simulation results showed that the effective-hydraulic-conductivity gradually decreases from 400 m to 500 m in depth and is as low as the intact rock at depths greater than 500 m. Not only the analysis based on our simulation results but also the analysis based on analytical solution indicate the domain with different hydraulic properties in the Wakkanai Formation. These results suggest that the fracture-hydraulic-connectivity changes not abruptly but gradually over several tens of meters around the predicted boundary.

11404 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)