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JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute (FY2019)

Asakura, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yusuke; Donomae, Yasushi; Abe, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Ryoichi

JAEA-Review 2020-015, 66 Pages, 2020/09


The disposal of radioactive waste from the research facility need to calculated from the radioactivity concentration that based on variously nuclear fuels and materials. In Japan Atomic Energy Oarai Research and Development Institute, the study on considering disposal is being advanced among the facilities which generate radioactive waste as well as the facilities which process radioactive waste. This report summarizes a study result in FY2019 about the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute.

JAEA Reports

Review and evaluation on the surface area of vitrified products of high-level waste; Surface area increase factors due to fracturing and their bases for the performance assessment of geological disposal

Igarashi, Hiroshi

JAEA-Review 2020-006, 261 Pages, 2020/09


A literature review was conducted on the increase in surface area of vitrified products of HLW due to the fracturing caused by cooling during glass pouring process and by mechanical impact, from the perspective of a parameter of the radionuclide release model in the performance assessment of geological disposal system studied overseas. The review was focused on the value of surface area increase factor set as a parameter in the model, the experimental work to evaluate an increase in surface area, and how the parameters on surface area were determined based on the experimental results. The surface area obtained from the experiments executed in Japan was also discussed in comparison with the overseas studies. On the basis of the investigation, the effects of various conditions on the surface area were studied, such as a diameter of vitrified product, cooling condition during and after the glass pouring, impact on vitrified products during their handling, environment after the closure of disposal facility, and others. The causes of fracturing are associated with the phenomena or events in the waste management process such as production, transport, storage, and disposal. The surface area increase factors set in the nuclide release model of the glass and their bases were reviewed. In addition, the measured values and the experimental methods for surface increase factors published so far were compared. Accordingly, the methods for measuring surface area as the bases were identified for these factors set in the models. The causes of fracturing and features of these factors were studied with respect to the relation with the waste management process. The results from the review and assessment can contribute to the expanding the knowledge for the conservative and realistic application of these factors to performance assessment, and to the developing and upgrading of safety case as a consequence.

JAEA Reports

Structural investigation of simulated waste glass samples by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region (Joint research)

Nagai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Hirona*; Ota, Toshiaki*; Kojima, Kazuo*; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2020-009, 48 Pages, 2020/09


The local structure of glass-forming elements and waste elements in waste glass varies with its chemical composition. In this study, borosilicate glass frit and simulated waste glass samples were prepared and the local structure and chemical state regarding boron (B), oxygen (O), and waste elements of cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs) were estimated by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of prepared glass frit and simulated waste glass samples: (1) The existence ratio of four coordinate sp$$^{3}$$ structure (BO$$_{4}$$) tends to increase with increasing Na$$_{2}$$O content in glass samples. (2) The height of a pre-edge which appears by K-edge XANES spectrum of O is so high that the Fe content in glass samples. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of simulated waste glass samples after immersion test to investigate long chemical stability. (1) The existence ratio of four coordinate sp$$^{3}$$ structure (BO$$_{4}$$) increases by immersion test. (2) Ce which exists in the surface layer is oxidized by immersion test, and much of Cs in surface layer is lost after leach testing. Even if the glass frit form (fiber cartridge or beads) and manufacturing method were changed and a glass sample of the similar chemical composition was prepared, these observed Raman spectra of samples were different.

Journal Articles

Using natural systems evidence to test models of transformation of montmorillonite

Savage, D.*; Wilson, J.*; Benbow, S.*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Oda, Chie; Walker, C.*; Kawama, Daisuke*; Tachi, Yukio

Applied Clay Science, 195, p.105741_1 - 105741_11, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0

Safety functions for the clay buffer in a repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are fulfilled if the presence of montmorillonite with high swelling capacity and low permeability is maintained in the long-term. The transformation of montmorillonite to the non-swelling mineral likely illite is addressed in most safety assessments by using simple semi-empirical kinetic models, but this approach contrasts with more complex reactive-transport simulations. In the present study, reactive-transport simulations are compared with simple semi-empirical kinetic models. Results suggest that reactive-transport simulations err on the side of conservatism, but may produce unrealistic estimates of illitization. This comparison demonstrates that reactive-transport models may be carefully applied to simulate the long-term evolution of near field environment for HLW disposal.

Journal Articles

A Coupled modeling simulator for near-field processes in cement engineered barrier systems for radioactive waste disposal

Benbow, S. J.*; Kawama, Daisuke*; Takase, Hiroyasu*; Shimizu, Hiroyuki*; Oda, Chie; Hirano, Fumio; Takayama, Yusuke; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Crystals (Internet), 10(9), p.767_1 - 767_33, 2020/09

Details are presented of the development of a coupled modeling simulator for assessing the evolution in the near-field of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal where concrete is used as a backfill. The simulator uses OpenMI, a standard for exchanging data between simulation software programs at run-time, to form a coupled chemical-mechanical-hydrogeological model of the system. The approach combines a tunnel scale stress analysis finite element model, a discrete element model for accurately modeling the patterns of emerging cracks in the concrete, and a finite element and finite volume model of the chemical processes and alteration in the porous matrix and cracks in the concrete, to produce a fully coupled model of the system. Combining existing detailed simulation software in this way with OpenMI has the benefit of not relying on simplifications that might be necessary to combine all of the modeled processes in a single piece of software.

Journal Articles

A Conventional straddle-sliding-packer system as a borehole extensometer; Monitoring shear displacement of a fault during an injection test

Ishii, Eiichi

Engineering Geology, 275, p.105748_1 - 105748_12, 2020/09

A constant-head step injection test using a conventional straddle-packer system was performed for a normal fault in siliceous mudstone. The test applied a new method whereby axial displacements of isolated test sections in a borehole during injection are monitored by measuring the pressures of sliding packers and the pore pressure in the test section. The measured pressures and axial displacement, and the injection flow rate, were used to estimate the hydraulic aperture, shear displacement, normal compliance, normal stress, shear stiffness and hydraulic dilation angle of the fault during the test. The injection successfully yielded a large shear displacement during normal faulting of up to 13.3-49.5 mm (including the estimation error), which left residual shear displacement of 2.8-10.4 mm after a remarkable shear-slip event. The shear stiffness during faulting is estimated to be 2.3 $$times$$ 10$$^{7}$$ to 8.4 $$times$$ 10$$^{7}$$ Pa m$$^{-1}$$ (considering the estimation error), which is consistent with empirically predicted values based on previous studies. The hydraulic dilation angle was inferred to be effectively zero as the residual shear displacement did not leave any increase in hydraulic aperture. The experimental method applied here does not require specialized equipment and could aid in the investigation of the hydromechanical behavior of subsurface fractures or aquifers.

Journal Articles

Synchronized gravitational slope deformation and active faulting; A Case study on and around the Neodani fault, central Japan

Komura, Keitaro*; Kaneda, Heitaro*; Tanaka, Tomoki*; Kojima, Satoru*; Inoue, Tsutomu*; Nishio, Tomohiro

Geomorphology, 365, p.107214_1 - 107214_22, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geography, Physical)

On the basis of pit excavations and sediment cores at an off-fault deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) site and a trench excavation across the active Neodani fault at a nearby site, we examined the records of DGSD and surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes of the Neodani fault. We found the four most recent DGSD events and the four most recent surface-rupturing earthquakes, respectively and conclude that the ages of events are overlapped each other. We infer that static crustal strain from repeated seismogenic faulting plays an important role in the occurrence of DGSD events, at least in the immediate vicinity of active faults, although coseismic severe shaking would have at least some effect on them. Our case study suggests that off-fault DGSDs can be used to reconstruct or refine the paleoseismic history of a nearby active fault.

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of Information and Opinion Exchange Conference on Geoscientific Study, 2019

Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Shimizu, Mayuko; Iyatomi, Yosuke; Hama, Katsuhiro

JAEA-Review 2020-013, 59 Pages, 2020/08


The Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting geoscientific study in order to establish a scientific and technological basis for the geological disposal of HLW. Technical information of the result on the geoscientific study conducted at TGC is provided at the annual Information and Opinion Exchange Conference on Geoscientific Study of TGC for exchanging opinions among researchers and engineers from universities, research organizations and private companies. This document compiles the research presentations and posters of the conference in Mizunami on November 20, 2019.

JAEA Reports

Data of long term hydro-pressure monitoring on Tono Regional Hydrogeological Study; Project for fiscal year 2019

Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-008, 41 Pages, 2020/08


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. This study aims to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. The Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project is a one of the geoscientific research program at Tono Geoscience Center. This project started since April 1992 and main investigations were finished to FY2004. Since FY2005, hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring have been continued using the existing monitoring system. Furthermore, these monitoring were ceased at the end of FY2019 due to the completion of the RHS project. This report describes the results of the long term hydro-pressure monitoring for FY2019.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of the radioactivity concentrations in low-level radioactive waste generated from JPDR and JRR-4

Aono, Ryuji; Mitsukai, Akina; Haraga, Tomoko; Ishimori, Kenichiro; Kameo, Yutaka

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-006, 70 Pages, 2020/08


Radioactive wastes which generated from research and testing reactors in Japan Atomic Energy Agency are planning to be buried at the near surface disposal field. Therefore, it is required to establish the method to evaluate the radioactivity concentrations of radioactive wastes by the time it starts disposal. In order to contribute to this work, we collected and analyzed the samples generated from JPDR and JRR-4. In this report, we summarized the radioactivity concentrations of 19 radionuclides ($$^{3}$$H, $$^{14}$$C, $$^{36}$$Cl, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, $$^{90}$$Sr, $$^{94}$$Nb, $$^{99}$$Tc, $$^{rm 108m}$$Ag, $$^{129}$$I, $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{152}$$Eu, $$^{154}$$Eu, $$^{234}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{238}$$Pu, $$^{239+240}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{244}$$Cm) which were obtained from radiochemical analysis of those samples.

Journal Articles

Analysis of the distribution of microfractures and micropores within granitic rock using simultaneous polarization-fluorescence microscopy

Yuguchi, Takashi*; Usami, Akane*; Ishibashi, Masayuki

Heliyon (Internet), 6(8), p.e04815_1 - e04815_6, 2020/08

The analysis of the distribution of microfractures and micropores is important to accurately characterise mass transfer within a rock body. In this paper, a new "simultaneous polarization-fluorescence microscopy" method is presented, which can be used to analyse the distribution of microscopic voids, including microfractures and micropores, in granitic rock. In this method, thin sections prepared with fluorescent dye are analysed under a polarizing microscope equipped with a fluorescent reflected light source. Using both the transmitted and the fluorescent light sources, both the distribution of microfractures and micropores, and petrographic characteristics (mineral occurrences) can be determined efficiently and simultaneously. The distribution of microfractures and micropores observed in images of granites obtained using simultaneous polarization-fluorescence microscopy is consistent with the distribution observed in backscattered electron images.

Journal Articles

Structural change of borosilicate glass by boron isotope composition

Nagai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*; Sekimoto, Shun*

KURNS Progress Report 2019, P. 257, 2020/08

To understand the influence of glass structural change by neutron irradiation and boron isotope composition, glass samples were made from enrichment boric acid reagents and neutron irradiation of those samples was carried out in Pn-2 of KUR. The structural change of glass sample after the irradiation will be estimated in 2020FY. Before neutron irradiation test of glass samples, the Si-O bridging structure difference by boron isotope composition compared by using a Raman spectrometry.

Journal Articles

Research on activation assessment of a reactor structural materials for decommissioning, 2

Seki, Misaki; Ishikawa, Koji*; Sano, Tadafumi*; Nagata, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Kaoru; Omori, Takazumi; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Ide, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Fujihara, Yasuyuki*; et al.

KURNS Progress Report 2019, P. 279, 2020/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Microscopic analyses on Zr adsorbed IDA chelating resin by PIXE and EXAFS

Arai, Yoichi; Watanabe, So; Ono, Shimpei; Nomura, Kazunori; Nakamura, Fumiya*; Arai, Tsuyoshi*; Seko, Noriaki*; Hoshina, Hiroyuki*; Hagura, Naoto*; Kubota, Toshio*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 477, p.54 - 59, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Instruments & Instrumentation)

JAEA Reports

Treatment of waste oil with steam reforming system 2018

Sakashita, Koichi; Ishii, Naoyuki; Kijima, Jun; Aoyagi, Yoshitaka; Hagiwara, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Mineo

JAEA-Testing 2020-003, 20 Pages, 2020/07


Steam reforming method has been developed for the treatment of organic wastes which are not suitable materials (halogenated oil) for the incineration. This method consists of the gasification process in which organics are vaporized and decomposed with superheated steam and the oxidation process in which vaporized organics are decomposed by oxidizing reaction with heated air. In the gasification process, nonvolatile radionuclides are separated from vaporized waste. Therefore it can be expected that treatment of liquid waste generated from an off-gas treatment system and maintenance operation of the off-gas treatment system become easy to perform. 1,500L of waste oil contaminated with halogen, solvent and uranium was treated using the demonstration scale steam reforming system to examine the performance of the system in 2018. Results obtained this study were as follows; (1) The temperature in the steam reforming system was controlled under the self-regulation temperature. (2) The concentration of CO and NO$$_{X}$$ in the off-gas were controlled less than 100 ppm and 250 ppm respectively. (3) The gasification ratio of waste oil was more than 99%. (4) Concentration of fluorine oil in waste oil is needed to be less than 20wt% to perform stable continuance treatment.

JAEA Reports

Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste (Scientific program for fiscal year 2020)

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Shimada, Koji; Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; et al.

JAEA-Review 2020-010, 46 Pages, 2020/07


This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in fiscal year 2020. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2020 are described in detail based on the JAEA 3rd Medium- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). In addition, the background of this research is described from the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress. The plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques.

JAEA Reports

Study on sample description, composition, and preparation for dating of altered volcanic rocks

Niwa, Masakazu; Ueki, Tadamasa*; Hoshi, Hiroyuki*; Sugisaki, Yuichi*

JAEA-Research 2020-003, 33 Pages, 2020/07


Ages of volcanic rocks are helpful information to understand the impact of volcanism concerning a site characterization and a safety assessment for geological disposal. In this study, mineralogical and geochemical data of altered volcanic rocks were collected using a polarizing microscope, X-ray diffractometer, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, X-ray analytical microscope, and electron probe microanalyzer, to select targets suitable for reliable K-Ar dating. In addition, sample preparation procedures such as freeze-thawing and HCl treatment were examined to concentrate unaltered plagioclase which is one of major phenocrysts in volcanic rocks. These data and procedures were compiled in this report.

Journal Articles

A Geochemical approach for identifying marine incursions; Implications for tsunami geology on the Pacific coast of northeast Japan

Watanabe, Takahiro; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi*; Yamasaki, Shinichi*; Sawai, Yuki*; Hosoda, Norihiro*; Nara, Fumiko*; Nakamura, Toshio*; Komai, Takeshi*

Applied Geochemistry, 118, p.104644_1 - 104644_11, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Possible tsunami inundation areas can be predicted from the distribution of paleo tsunami deposits, which are mainly composed of marine-derived sands and muds on land. Such exotic sandy and muddy layers have been identified by multiple approaches. However, there still remain uncertainties and other useful proxies need to be investigated for the identification of tsunami deposits. Here we show the geochemical signatures of modern tsunami deposits from the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan (2011 Tohoku tsunami), as well as those paleo tsunami deposits, which were taken from the Tohoku District (Jogan, ca. 1080 calibrated ages before present [cal BP] and Yayoi, ca. 2000 cal BP). A geochemical ternary diagram (Seawater-Rock-(As+Metals)) enables the weathering trend of tsunami deposits over ca. 2000 years in the Sendai Plain in the Tohoku to be shown. In the paleo tsunami layers from the Tohoku, the Na/Ti atomic ratios markedly increased to 23.4, and the average values were 19.3$$pm$$3.0 (Jogan and Yayoi tsunami deposits), which were clearly higher than those of other layers (soil deposits, 10.3$$pm$$3.5 on average). These results show that the Na/Ti ratio is a useful indicator of marine incursions in our case. Our rapid and simple method using the Na/Ti ratio can be easily applied to the Tohoku, and it may contribute to the detection of unrecorded muddy tsunami deposits.

Journal Articles

Purification of anionic fluorescent probes through precise fraction collection with a two-point detection system using multiple-stacking preparative capillary transient isotachophoresis

Haraga, Tomoko; Tsujimura, Hiroto*; Miyauchi, Saori*; Kamimura, Takuya*; Shibukawa, Masami*; Saito, Shingo*

Electrophoresis, 41(13-14), p.1152 - 1159, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Biochemical Research Methods)

A novel combination of CE-based separation techniques was used for the precise fractionation of ionic compounds from impurities. The combination of on-capillary concentration and separation using transient isotachophoresis, with multiple injections and a two-point detection system provided higher efficiency, and accuracy at a microliter-scale injection volume, than when CE was individually used for purification. In this paper, we present successful applications of the CE fractionation techniques for the purification of fluorescein, fluorescein-4-isothiocyanate, two fluorescent metal ion probes, and a fluorescein-modified DNA aptamer. The purity of the isolated fluorescent probes ranged from 95 to 99%. The purified probe solutions were practical for use as purified stock solutions. The method developed was useful for the purification of anionic fluorescent reagents to be of ultratrace analytical grade for use with CE-LIF.

JAEA Reports

Maintenance of the Evaporator-II in Waste Treatment Facility No.2 (FY2015)

Handa, Yuichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Yonekawa, Akihisa*; Takatsu, Kazuki; Kinoshita, Junichi; Irie, Hirobumi; Suzuki, Hisao*

JAEA-Technology 2020-005, 22 Pages, 2020/06


The Evaporator-II is installed in Waste Treatment Facility No.2. The evaporator system treats intermediate level radioactive liquid waste for Nuclear Science Research Institute and more. It is maintenance the evaporator can once/3years by the maintenance plan. The evaporator can is important unit of the Evaporator-II system. This report summarizes record of maintenance the Evaporator-II in FY2015.

10679 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)