成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.782 - 791, 2020/07
To evaluate the fracture resistance of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes during the long-term core cooling period following loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), laboratory-scale four-point-bend tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73 - 84 GWd/t: low-tin ZIRLO, M5, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). Three four-point-bend tests were performed on the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens subjected to the integral thermal shock tests which simulated LOCA conditions (ballooning and rupture, oxidation in high-temperature steam, and quench). During the four-point-bend tests, all the specimens that were oxidized at 1474 K to 9.9% - 21.5% equivalent cladding reacted exhibited brittle fractures. The maximum bending moments were comparable to those of the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube specimens. Furthermore, the effects of oxidation and hydriding on the maximum bending moment were comparable between the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens and the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube specimens. Therefore, it can be concluded that the post-LOCA fracture resistance of fuel cladding tubes is not significantly reduced by extending the burnup to 84 GWd/t and using the advanced fuel cladding tubes, though it may slightly decrease with increasing initial hydrogen concentration in a relatively lower ECR range ( 15%), as observed for the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes.
谷口 良徳; 宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 139, p.107188_1 - 107188_7, 2020/05
The fuel-failure-limit data obtained in the simulated reactivity-initiated-accident experiment SPERT-CDC 859 (SPERT859) has entailed a lot of discussions if it represents fuel-failure behavior of typical commercial LWRs for its specific pre-irradiation condition and fuel state. The fuel-rod conditions before and during SPERT859 were thus assessed by the fuel-performance codes FEMAXI-8 and RANNS with focusing on cladding corrosion and its effect on the failure limit of the test rod. The analysis showed that the fuel cladding was probably excessively corroded even when the influential calculation conditions such as fuel swelling and creep models were determined so that the lowest limit of the cladding oxide layer thickness was captured. Such assumption of excessive cladding corrosion during pre-irradiation well explains not only the test-rod state before pulse irradiation but also the fuel-failure limit observed. Such understanding undermines anew the representativeness of the test data as a direct basis of safety evaluation for LWR fuels.
宇田川 豊; 三原 武; 谷口 良徳; 垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 139, p.107268_1 - 107268_9, 2020/05
This paper reports a computer-code analysis on the base-irradiation behavior of the chromia-and-alumina-doped BWR rod irradiated to 64 GWd/t in Oskarshamn-3, Sweden, and subjected to the reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) test OS-1, which resulted in a fuel failure due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) at the lowest fuel-enthalpy increase in all the BWR tests ever performed. The inverse calculation which utilized post-irradiation examination data as its constraint conditions revealed that the OS-1 rod had very likely experienced more intense PCMI loading due to higher swelling rate during base irradiation than other BWR rods subjected to previous RIA tests and thus had been prone to experience enhanced radial-hydride formation. The significant difference in the cladding hoop-stress more than 50 MPa discriminates the OS-1 rod from other BWR rods and supports the interpretation that enhanced radial-hydrides formation differentiated the PCMI-failure behavior observed in the test OS-1 from the previous BWR-fuel tests.
垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹
日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 19(1), p.24 - 33, 2020/03
岡田 裕史; 天谷 政樹
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 136, p.107028_1 - 107028_9, 2020/02
In order to evaluate the fracture resistance of fuel rods against a seismic loading following a Loss-Of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA), the bending strength of fuel cladding which experienced a simulated LOCA has been investigated since the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, four-point-bending-tests were performed using Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes which experienced a simulated LOCA sequence in order to investigate the effects of oxidation and secondary hydriding occurring during a LOCA on the bending strength of fuel cladding. According to the obtained results, it was suggested that the maximum bending stress would be affected by the oxygen concentration in the prior-beta layer as well as the thickness of prior-beta layer. It was considered that the decrease in maximum bending stress by secondary hydriding is probably expressed by multiplying a factor of 0.37 by the maximum bending stress which solely takes account of the effect of oxidation.
成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(1), p.68 - 78, 2020/01
To evaluate the fracture limit of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, laboratory-scale integral thermal shock tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73 - 85 GWd/t: M-MDA, low-tin ZIRLO, M5, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). In total eight integral thermal shock tests were performed for these specimens, simulating LOCA conditions including ballooning and rupture, oxidation, hydriding, and quenching. During the tests, the specimens were oxidized to 10% - 30% equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) at approximately 1473 K and were quenched under axial restraint load of approximately 520 - 530 N. The effects of burnup extension and use of the advanced fuel cladding tubes on the ballooning and rupture, oxidation, and hydriding under LOCA conditions were inconsiderable. Further, the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens did not fracture in the ECR values equal to or lower than the fracture limits of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube reported in previous studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that the fracture limit of fuel cladding tubes is not significantly reduced by extending the burnup to approximately 85 GWd/t and using the advanced fuel cladding tubes, though it slightly decreases with increasing initial hydrogen concentration.
宇田川 豊; 杉山 智之; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(12), p.1063 - 1072, 2019/12
Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹
Oxidation of Metals, 92(5-6), p.439 - 455, 2019/12
The paper deals with the effect of air fraction in steam on the embrittlement of Zry-4 fuel cladding exposed under steam-air atmospheres (air fractions of 10-100%) in the temperature range of 1273-1573 K. Ring compression tests were carried out in order to evaluate the embrittlement of fuel cladding. Furthermore, the microhardness of prior -phase was measured and fractured surfaces were observed under SEM. The degree of the embrittlement was discussed against the results of metallographic and hydrogen analyses. The microstructure and the hydrogen pick-up were substantially affected by nitride formation. Accelerated oxidation kinetics enhanced shrinking of the prior -region. The enhanced hydrogen absorption resulted in the increased microhardness of prior -phase. The degree of fuel cladding embrittlement, expressed by the plastic strain at failure and the maximum load, correlated well with the microhardness and the thickness of prior -phase.
Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 524, p.263 - 277, 2019/10
The study deals with the oxidation behavior of fuel cladding under mixed steam-air atmospheres. Oxidation tests of Zry-4 were carried out at temperatures of 1273-1573 K. Post-test weight gain measurement along with metallographic examination were conducted to study separately the kinetics of the region where nitrides formed and the nitride-free region. The weight gain coming from the nitride-free region was estimated employing one-dimensional finite difference oxygen diffusion model and measured thicknesses of the metallic part of the oxidized specimen, the columnar oxide and the oxygen stabilized -Zr(O) as well as the fraction of the columnar oxide at the oxide/metal interface. Consequently, the weight gain related to the nitride formation has been assessed.
成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.912 - 921, 2019/09
To evaluate behavior of high-burnup advanced light-water-reactor fuel cladding tubes under loss-of-coolant accident conditions, laboratory-scale isothermal oxidation tests and integral thermal shock tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73-85 GWd/t: M-MDA, low-tin ZIRLO, M5textregistered, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). The isothermal oxidation tests were performed in steam-flowing conditions at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1473 K for durations between 120 and 4000 s. The oxidation kinetics of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens was comparable to or slower than that of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube and was slower than that given by the Baker-Just oxidation rate equation. Therefore, the oxidation kinetics is considered to be not significantly accelerated by extending the burnup and changing the alloy composition. During the integral thermal shock tests, the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens did not fracture under the oxidation condition equivalent to or lower than the fracture limit of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube. Therefore, the fracture limit of fuel cladding tubes is considered to be not significantly reduced by extending the burnup and changing the alloy composition, though it may slightly decrease with increasing initial hydrogen concentration.
天谷 政樹; 垣内 一雄; 三原 武
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.1048 - 1056, 2019/09
New fuel cladding alloys of which composition was changed from conventional ones have been developed by nuclear fuel vendors and utilities. Since the irradiation growth of fuel cladding is one of the most important parameters which determine the dimensional stability of fuel rod and/or fuel assembly during normal operation, the irradiation growth behavior of the improved Zr-based alloys for light-water reactor fuel cladding was investigated. The coupon specimens were prepared from fuel cladding tubes with various kinds of improved Zr-based alloys. The specimens were loaded into test rigs and had been irradiated in the Halden reactor in Norway under several coolant temperature conditions up to a fast-neutron fluence of 7.810 (n/cm, E 1 MeV). Irradiation conditions such as specimen temperatures had been continuously monitored during the irradiation. During and after the irradiation, the amount of irradiation growth of each specimen was evaluated as a part of the interim and final inspections. The effect of the difference in alloy composition on the amount of irradiation growth seemed insignificant if the other conditions e.g. the final heat treatment condition at fabrication and the irradiation temperature were the same.
三原 武; 宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹; 谷口 良徳; 垣内 一雄
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.544 - 550, 2019/09
In order to assess effects of additives for fuel pellet on the fuel behavior during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA), fuels with additives irradiated in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in Europe up to high burnup were subjected to pulse-irradiation experiments in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Two tests were performed: test LS-4 with chromia-doped UO and Zry-2 cladding with liner and test OS-1 with ADOPT (chromia-and-alumina-doped UO) pellet and Zry-2 cladding with liner. The test fuel rod of LS-4 did not fail. The test fuel rod of OS-1 was considered to be failed by hydride-assisted pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). The fuel failure limit in OS-1 was the lowest among the test results ever obtained at the NSRR in similar burnup range. The morphology of the hydrides precipitated in the fuel cladding of OS-1 was investigated by metallography and compared with previous results obtained in JAEA in connection focusing fuel failure limit. It was suggested that the observed lower limit of fuel failure was related to the amount and length of the hydride precipitated along the radial direction of cladding.
谷口 良徳; 宇田川 豊; 三原 武; 天谷 政樹; 垣内 一雄
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.551 - 558, 2019/09
A pulse-irradiation test CN-1 on a high-burnup MOX fuel with M5 cladding was conducted at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Although the transient signals obtained during the pulse-irradiation test did not show any signs of the occurrence of PCMI failure, the failure of the test fuel rod was confirmed from the visual inspection carried out after test CN-1. Analyses using fuel performance codes FEMAXI-8 and RANNS were also performed in order to investigate the fuel behavior during normal operation and pulse-irradiation regarding the test fuel rod of CN-1, and the results were consistent with this observation result. These experimental and calculation results suggested that the failure of test fuel rod of CN-1 was not caused by hydride-assisted PCMI but high-temperature rupture following the increase in rod internal pressure. The occurrence of this failure mode might be related to the ductility remained in the M5 cladding owing to its low content of the hydrogen absorbed during normal operation.
三原 武; 宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(8), p.724 - 730, 2019/08
Pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) under reactivity-initiated accident conditions may lead to failure of high-burnup fuel rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are subjected to biaxial stress states induced by PCMI loading. This type of stress state, specific to PCMI, presumably makes the tubes more susceptible to failure. To clarify the influence of the anisotropic mechanical properties of Zircaloy cladding tubes on their fracture behavior under biaxial stress conditions, biaxial tensile tests were performed, and the measured stresses and strains were converted to reduced parameters such as equivalent strain, equivalent stress, and stress triaxiality by using the anisotropic constants of the Hill yield function derived in our previous study. The minimum fracture strains for recrystallized (RX) and stress-relieved (SR) specimens were located where the stress ratio of axial to circumferential is 0.75 in the measured range. The equivalent plastic fracture strains tended to decrease monotonously with increasing stress triaxiality, which is a typical trend observed in ductile fracture, in the range of 0.65-0.78 for both specimens. In the case of SR specimens, however, the analysis with stress triaxiality did not reduce the fracture strains well to a single trend curve, showing that the anisotropic constants used in the present work or Hill yield function itself is not enough to describe the whole anisotropy involved in the fracture process of SR material.
成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(7), p.650 - 660, 2019/07
To evaluate the oxidation behavior of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes in high-temperature steam, laboratory-scale isothermal oxidation tests were conducted using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of up to 85 GWd/t: M-MDA, low-tin ZIRLO, M5, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). These oxidation tests were performed in steam-flowing conditions at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1473 K for durations between 120 and 4000 s, and the oxidation kinetics was evaluated. The oxidation kinetics of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens estimated by assuming the parabolic rate law was comparable to or slower than that of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube specimens reported in a previous study. It is considered that the protective effect of the corrosion layer hindered oxidation. Furthermore, no increase in the oxidation kinetics because of the pre-hydriding was observed. The onset times of the breakaway oxidations of these cladding tube specimens were comparable to those of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes reported in previous studies. Therefore, it is considered that the burnup extension up to 85 GWd/t and the use of the advanced fuel cladding tubes do not significantly increase the oxidation kinetics and do not significantly reduce the onset time of the breakaway oxidation.
宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.461 - 470, 2019/06
Li F.; 三原 武; 宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.432 - 439, 2019/05
Hydride precipitates are considered to affect cladding integrity adversely during pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) in a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA). This study aims to clarify the role of hydride precipitates in cladding failure under the biaxial stress condition. The amount and distribution of hydride precipitates (hydride morphology) were evaluated quantitatively and hydrogen content was measured to assess its effect on the decrease in outer surface hoop strain at failure (failure strain) of the samples. The decrease in failure strain of the hydrided samples was found to be more significant under lower strain ratios in the samples with shallower pre-crack. The failure strain of sample tended to be more sensitive to hydrogen content under the strain ratio with a higher axial component in the case of samples with hydrogen contents higher than ~150 wppm.
Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05
This work deals with oxidation behavior of Zry-4 fuel cladding exposed to steam at 1273 K. The condition corresponds to LOCA. The effect of the specimen surface roughness and experimental setting on the oxidation behavior was investigated by employing two experimental techniques for oxidation tests and metallographic analysis along with hydrogen pick-up measurement. Slower heating rate under steam flow led to significantly slower oxidation rate during the subsequent isothermal exposure. As a consequence, the breakaway was delayed substantially. The effect of the specimen surface roughness on the oxidation behavior seemed to be rather minor under the investigated conditions. On the other hand, hydrogen uptake was found to be substantially affected by both the specimen surface roughness and the tested experimental setting.
谷口 良徳; 垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹
核燃料, (54-1), p.16 - 19, 2019/03
日本原子力研究開発機構(JAEA)は、国内外の専門家との間で軽水炉燃料の安全性に係る情報交換や議論を目的とした国際会議「燃料安全研究国際会議(Fuel Safety Research Meeting: FSRM)」を開催している。本報は、2018年10月30-31日に茨城県水戸市で開催した、FSRM2018の概要について述べたものである。
宇田川 豊; 山内 紹裕*; 北野 剛司*; 天谷 政樹
JAEA-Data/Code 2018-016, 79 Pages, 2019/01