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Numerical analysis for FP speciation in VERDON-2 experiment; Chemical re-vaporization of iodine in air ingress condition

塩津 弘之; 伊藤 裕人*; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 163, p.108587_1 - 108587_9, 2021/12


In the late phase of severe accident in light water reactor nuclear power station, re-mobilization of fission products (FPs) has a significant impact on the source term because most portion of FPs is retained in reactor coolant system and/or containment vessel. Recently, VERDON-2 experiment showed noticeable re-vaporization, which was one of the re-mobilization phenomena, of iodine under air ingress condition, but this mechanism has not been identified yet. The present study numerically investigated the FPs behaviors in VERDON-2 experiment with the mechanistic FPs transport analysis code incorporating thermodynamic chemical equilibrium model in order to further understand nature for FPs behavior, especially iodine re-vaporization under air ingress condition. Consequently, this analysis reproduced the deposition profile of cesium, one of important FPs in the source term, along the thermal gradient tube (TGT) in the experiment, which revealed that cesium was transported as CsOH in early phase of FP release from fuel, and then formed Cs$$_{2}$$MoO$$_{4}$$ and Cs$$_{2}$$Te after the release of molybdenum and tellurium was activated. Regarding iodine as another important FP, formation of CsI was predicted in steam condition. The CsI was transported and partly deposited and condensed onto the TGTs and other components of the VERDON facility. Under the air ingress condition, the present analysis showed the agreement for iodine re-vaporization in the experiment and revealed its mechanism; the deposits of iodide were chemical re-vaporized as molecular iodine (I$$_{2}$$) gas by redox reaction with competitive elements such as molybdenum, chromium and tellurium.


Mechanical failure of high-burnup fuel rods with stress-relieved annealed and recrystallized M-MDA cladding under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

三原 武; 宇田川 豊; 杉山 智之; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(8), p.872 - 885, 2021/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To evaluate the effects of the hydride morphology and initial temperature of fuel cladding on the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions, RIA-simulated experiments were performed on high-burnup fuels with stress-relieved annealed (SR) and recrystallized (RX) M-MDA$$^{TM}$$ cladding at room and high ($$sim$$ 280$$^{circ}$$C) temperatures. The results demonstrated that the failure-limit trend of RX-cladded fuels being lower than that of SR-cladded fuels for a similar hydrogen content holds up to at least about 700 wtppm. The observation of the fracture surfaces of failed RX cladding suggests a contribution of radially-oriented hydrides to the crack formation and/or penetration, which coincides with the aforementioned failure-limit trend. The temperature effect, namely the failure-limit rise at a high temperature, is evident irrespective of the hydride morphology, while the degree of the temperature effect decreases as the hydrogen content increases.


Dynamic PRA of flooding-initiated accident scenarios using THALES2-RAPID

久保 光太郎; Zheng, X.; 田中 洋一; 玉置 等史; 杉山 智之; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Proceedings of 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (ESREL 2020 and PSAM-15) (Internet), p.2279 - 2286, 2020/11

確率論的リスク評価(PRA)は巨大かつ複雑なシステムをリスクを評価する手法の1つである。従来のPRA手法を用いて外部事象のリスクを評価する場合、構造物、系統及び機器の機能喪失時刻の取扱いが困難である。この解決策として、熱水力解析と外部事象評価シミュレーションをRAPID (Risk Assessment with Plant Interactive Dynamics)コードを用いて結合した。外部事象としてPWRプラントにおけるタービン建屋内での内部溢水を選定し、溢水進展評価にはベルヌーイ則に式を用いた。また、溢水源の流量及び緩和設備の没水基準に関する不確実さを考慮した。回復操作については、運転員による溢水源の隔離とポンプによる排水を仮定とともにモデル化した。結果として、隔離操作が排水と組み合わせることによりより有効になることが示された。


Simulation-based Level 2 multi-unit PRA using RAVEN and a simplified thermal-hydraulic code

Zheng, X.; Mandelli, D.*; Alfonsi, A.*; Smith, C.*; 杉山 智之

Proceedings of 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (ESREL 2020 and PSAM-15) (Internet), p.2176 - 2183, 2020/11

The paper introduces a simulation-based Level 2 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a multi-unit nuclear power plant. We propose the methodology by quantifying risk for a station-blackout accident scenario, initialized by a loss-of-offsite-power event. Contrary to classical PRA that applies static models such as event-tree/fault-tree, the analysis is seamlessly integrated with mechanistic simulation and PRA models, including: (1) a simplified thermal-hydraulic code for simulating system behaviors; (2) a Markovian model for the failure mechanism of decay-heat-removal systems, to investigate the interaction between mechanistic simulation and reliability analysis; and (3) classical containment event trees for evaluating containment performances and hydrogen-explosion risk under severe accident conditions. All dynamic and static models, including plant dependencies, are unified within the RAVEN computational framework, applying RAVEN components, External Model, Ensemble Model, and PRA Plugins. The study demonstrates an integrated assessment of risks by considering accident progression and inter-unit system interactions, both time dependent. Statistical data analysis is used to quantifying risk metrics, including core damage frequencies, large early release frequencies and plant damage status. The methodology pertains to modern risk-analysis methodologies such as risk-informed safety margin characterization (RISMC) and dynamic PRA.


Enhancement of the treatment of system interactions in a dynamic PRA tool

田中 洋一; 玉置 等史; Zheng, X.; 杉山 智之

Proceedings of 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (ESREL 2020 and PSAM-15) (Internet), p.2195 - 2201, 2020/11

One advantage of dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is that it can take into account the timing and ordering of event occurrences based on more explicit simulation of system dynamics. It is expected that dynamic PRA can lead us into a more realistic risk assessment, overcoming some limitations of conventional PRA. Multiple dynamic PRA tools have been developed worldwide, and applied to risk assessment of large industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants and crewed spacecrafts. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the dynamic PRA tool, RAPID (Risk Assessment with Plant Interactive Dynamics), considering the interaction between accident simulation and dysfunctional models of safety-related systems. This paper introduces a recent enhancement of RAPID to treat more complicated simulation interactions from the outside of severe accident codes. It is designed to feed back and forth plant information from simulators to the accident sequence generator. It discusses how the enhancement affects the results of risk assessment, with an example analyzing thermal failure of a safety relief valve in a station blackout accident occurred at a boiling water reactor plant.


Case study on sampling techniques using machine learning and simplified physical model for simulation-based dynamic probabilistic risk assessment

久保 光太郎; Zheng, X.; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2020 (ASRAM 2020) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2020/11



The Analysis for Ex-Vessel debris coolability of BWR

松本 俊慶; 岩澤 譲; 安島 航平*; 杉山 智之

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2020 (ASRAM 2020) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2020/11

本研究では、事前注水した格納容器内デブリの冷却確率を評価した。まず、落下溶融物条件を求めるため、シビアアクシデント解析コードMELCORによる不確かさ解析を行った。この解析では炉心の溶融・移行過程に関連する5つの不確かさパラメータを選択し、仮定された確率分布を用いて、ラテン超方格法(LHS)により入力パラメータセットを生成した。これを用いたMELCORによる多ケース解析の結果から落下溶融物条件を抽出した。次に、MELCOR解析結果をもとに、パラメータの確率分布を決定し、LHSにより生成した59個のパラメータセットを用いてJASMINEコードによる水中の溶融物挙動の解析を行った。水位の条件は0.5m, 1.0m及び2.0mとした。広がり半径とデブリ質量の解析結果からデブリの堆積高さを求め、判定基準と比較することで冷却の成否判定を行った。以上の一連の解析の結果、デブリ冷却の成功確率を求めた。また、MELCOR及びJASMINEを組み合わせた冷却性解析の課題について論じた。


A Comparative study of sampling techniques for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

久保 光太郎; Zheng, X.; 田中 洋一; 玉置 等史; 杉山 智之; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.308 - 315, 2020/10



Consistent robin boundary enforcement of particle method for heat transfer problem with arbitrary geometry

Wang, Z.; Duan, G.*; 松永 拓也*; 杉山 智之

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 157, p.119919_1 - 119919_20, 2020/08

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:55.31(Thermodynamics)

Enforcing accurate and consistent boundary conditions is a difficult issue for particle methods, due to the lack of information outside boundaries. Recently, consistent Neumann boundary condition enforcement is developed for the least squares moving particle semi-implicit method (LSMPS). However, the Robin boundary cannot be straightforwardly considered by that method because no computational variables are defined on the wall boundary. In this paper, a consistent Robin boundary enforcement for heat transfer problem is proposed. Based on the Taylor series expansion, the Robin boundary condition for temperature is converted to the fitting function of internal rather than boundary particles and incorporated into least squares approach for discretization schemes. Arbitrary geometries can be easily treated due to the use of polygons for wall boundary. A convergence study was firstly carried out to verify the consistency. Then, numerical tests of 1-D and 2-D heat conduction problems subjected to mixed boundary conditions were performed for verification, and good agreements with theoretical solutions were observed. Natural convection problems with different boundary conditions in an annulus were carried out for further validations of heat-fluid coupling. Excellent agreements between the present and literature results were demonstrated.


Development of a multiphase particle method for melt-jet breakup behavior of molten core in severe accident

Wang, Z.; 岩澤 譲; 杉山 智之

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2020/08

In a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant, there is a possibility that molten core released from the reactor vessel gets in contact with water in the containment vessel. In this so-called fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) process, the melt jet will breakup into fragments, which is one of the important factors for a steam explosion, as a potential threat to the integrity of the containment vessel. In order to investigate the melt-jet breakup with solidification processes, a multiphase particle method is developed in this study. Benefiting from its Lagrangian description and meshless framework, the large deformed interfaces could be directly and easily captured by the particle motions. A simple transient heat conduction test is firstly carried out. Two important multiphase instabilities, namely the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, are studied since they play important roles during the melt-jet breakup. After that, a bubble rising benchmark is performed to show the feasibility of modelling for deformation and collapse. The results achieved so far indicates that the developed particle method is capable to analyze the melt-jet breakup with solidification processes.


Computational study on the spherical laminar flame speed of hydrogen-air mixtures

Trianti, N.; 茂木 孝介; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2020/08

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been developed to analyze the correlation equation for laminar flame speed of hydrogen-air mixtures. This analysis was carried out on the combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures performed at the spherical bomb experiment facility consists of a spherical vessel equipped (563 mm internal diameter). The facility has been designed and built at CNRS-ICARE laboratory. The simulation was carried out using the reactingFoam solver, one of a transient chemical reaction solver in OpenFOAM 5.0. The LaunderSharmaKE model was applied for turbulent flow. The interaction of the chemical reaction with the turbulent flow was taken into account using PaSR (Partial Stirred Reactor) model with 19 elementary reactions for the hydrogen combustion. The initial condition of spherical flame analysis was set so as to be consistent with those of the experiment. The position of the flame front was detected by the steep drop of hydrogen mass fraction in the spherical radii, and the flame propagation velocity was estimated from the time-position relationship. The analysis result showed the characteristic of spherical flame acceleration was qualitatively reproduced even though it has a discrepancy with the experiment. After validating the calculation of spherical experiments, a laminar burning velocity correlation is presented using the same boundary conditions with the variation of hydrogen concentration, temperature, and pressure. The calculation of laminar flame speed of hydrogen-air mixtures by reactingFoam use reference temperature T$$_{rm ref}$$ = 293 K and reference pressure P$$_{rm ref}$$ = 1 atm with validated in the range of hydrogen concentration 6-20%; range of temperature 293-493 K; and range of pressure 1-3 atm.


Experimental and analytical investigation of formation and cooling phenomena in high temperature debris bed

堀田 亮年*; 秋葉 美幸*; 森田 彰伸*; Konovalenko, A.*; Vilanueva, W.*; Bechta, S.*; Komlev, A.*; Thakre, S.*; Hoseyni, S. M.*; Sk$"o$ld, P.*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.353 - 369, 2020/04

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:41.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Key phenomena in the cooling states of debris beds under wet cavity conditions were classified into several groups based on the complicated geometry, nonhomogeneous porosity and volumetric heat of debris beds. These configurations may change due to the molten jet breakup, droplet agglomeration, anisotropic melt spreading, two-phase flow in a debris bed, particle self-leveling and penetration of molten metals into a particle bed. The modular code system THERMOS was designed for evaluating the cooling states of underwater debris beds. Three additional tests, DEFOR-A, PULiMS and REMCOD were employed to validate implemented models. This paper summarizes the entire test plan and representative data trends prior to starting individual data analyses and validations of specific models that are planned to be performed in the later phases. It also tries to report research questions to be answered in future works, such as various scales of melt-coolant interactions observed in the PULiMS tests.


Thresholds for failure of high-burnup LWR fuels by pellet cladding mechanical interaction under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

宇田川 豊; 杉山 智之; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(12), p.1063 - 1072, 2019/12

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:58.77(Nuclear Science & Technology)



CFD analysis of hydrogen flame acceleration with burning velocity models

茂木 孝介; Trianti, N.; 松本 俊慶; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.4324 - 4335, 2019/08

Hydrogen managements under severe accidents are one of the most crucial problems and have attracted a great deal of attention after the occurrence of hydrogen explosions in the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011. The primary purpose of our research is improvements in computational fluid dynamics techniques to simulate hydrogen combustion. Our target of analysis is ENACCEF2 hydrogen combustion benchmark test conducted in the framework of ETOSON-MITHYGENE project. Flame acceleration experiments of hydrogen premixed turbulent combustions were simulated by the Turbulent Flame Closure (TFC) model. We implemented several laminar flame speed correlations and turbulent flame speed models on XiFoam solver of OpenFOAM and compared the results to investigate the applicability of these correlation and model equations. We found that all the laminar flame speed correlations could predict qualitative behavior of the flame acceleration, but Ravi & Petersen laminar flame speed correlation that is originally implemented in OpenFOAM underestimated the maximum flame speed for the lean hydrogen concentration. Zimont model and G$"u$lder model of the turbulent flame speed could reasonably simulate the flame acceleration behavior and maximum pressure peaks. The flame velocities calculated with G$"u$lder model tend to be faster than that calculated with Zimont model.


Analysis for the accident at unit 1 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS with THALES2/KICHE code in BSAF2 project

玉置 等史; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.72 - 82, 2019/08



Analysis for the accident at unit 2 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS with THALES2/KICHE code in BSAF2 project

玉置 等史; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.100 - 111, 2019/08



Analysis for the accident at Unit 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS with THALES2/KICHE Code in BSAF2 project

石川 淳; 玉置 等史; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.536 - 547, 2019/08

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is pursuing the development and application of the integrated severe accident analysis code, THALES2/KICHE for analysis of severe accident progression and source term. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) from units 1 to 3 were analyzed using THALES2/KICHE code for better understanding of the accident in the OECD/NEA BSAF2 project. This paper describes three week analysis for the accident at unit 3. The leakage through the drywell head flange and an equipment hutch was assumed in order to reproduce the tendency of drywell pressure history in addition to the intermittent activation of the containment vessel venting system via the suppression chamber. As for the source term analysis, the dominant chemical forms for cesium and iodine were assumed to be cesium iodine (CsI) and cesium molibdate (Cs$$_{2}$$MoO$$_{4}$$) based on the insights of the PHEBUS/FP experiments. The iodine chemical reaction kinetics in the containment aqueous phase, which were associated with the production of molecular iodine and organic iodide, were taken into consideration in the present analysis. The released iodine and cesium within three weeks after the earthquake were predicted to be approximately 3% and 6% of the initial inventory, respectively.


Outline of the OECD/NEA/ARC-F Project

中塚 亨; 前田 敏克; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.1650 - 1656, 2019/08



Formation of agglomerated debris in jet-breakup experiment using metallic melts

岩澤 譲; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結; 金子 暁子*; 阿部 豊*

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2019/05

For evaluation of the debris coolability, agglomeration, which is merging of melt particles with the others and formation of massive debris, is critical in the severe accidents in light water reactors. We carried out small-scale experiments of agglomerated debris formation using metallic melt to establish a data base for modelling and validation. Molten metal of low melting point was ejected into a test section filled with water though a nozzle. A high-speed video camera recorded images of settlement of the melt particles generated form a melt jet onto a plate located in the test section. After the melt injection, we collected the debris and investigated detailed shapes of the debris. Based on the results, we assessed the feasibility of the experiments of agglomeration using the metallic melt.


Analysis of transport behaviors of cesium and iodine in VERDON-2 experiment for chemical model validation

塩津 弘之; 伊藤 裕人*; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2018/11

The VERDON-2 experiment for FPs transport in steam environment was analyzed with the mechanistic FPs transport code incorporating thermodynamic chemical equilibrium model in order to assess its predictive capability for transport behavior of key FPs, especially for highly volatile FPs such as Cs and I. The present analysis reproduced well the Cs deposition profile obtained from the experiment, which revealed that Cs was transported as CsOH in early phase of FP release from fuel, and then formed Cs$$_{2}$$MoO$$_{4}$$ after increasing Mo release. On the other hand, the deposition peak of I was predicted to appear at 720 K, which was significantly higher than the experimental result at 600 K. This discrepancy was potentially caused by the following two points: lack of the other stable species in thermodynamics database for thermodynamic chemical equilibrium model, or failure of chemical equilibrium assumption for iodide species.

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