Novello, L.*; Cara, P.*; Coletti, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Maistrello, A.*; 松川 誠; Philipps, G.*; Tomarchio, V.*; 山内 邦仁
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 26(2), p.4700507_1 - 4700507_7, 2016/03
The voltage transient appearing across and inside the toroidal field (TF) coils of JT-60SA in case of fast voltage variation, such as a safety discharge operated by the quench protection circuit (QPC), can be significantly high. In fact, the voltage distribution between coils and inside the winding can be not uniform during fast transient, being influenced by the presence of parasitic capacitances. A simplified electrical model of the TF coils has been developed to investigate this aspect. The obtained model has been used in conjunction with an electrical model of the TF circuit elements, including a simplified model of the QPC. The worst case in terms of transient voltage applied to the winding has been identified, corresponding to a fault to ground occurring just after QPC operation. It has been verified that the resulting voltage is largely inside the coil insulation capability defined by performed insulation voltage tests.
Lampasi, A.*; Zito, P.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Burini, F.*; Kuate-Fone, Y.*; Taddia, G.*; Tenconi, S.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1098 - 1102, 2015/10
In JT-60SA, the first SNU (prototype), consisting of six cubicles, was assembled in 2013. The factory tests on this system, including tests at full current and voltage, are being performed throughout 2014. The manufacturing of the remaining three SNUs will proceed after the success of such tests. The main characteristics of the developed SNU are; (1) Snchronized use of an electronic static circuit breaker (SCB) in parallel with an electromechanical bypass switch (BPS), (2) Nominal voltage of 5 kV, with a specific circuit to limit the transient voltage to 5.5 kV, (3) DC current interruption up to 20 kA, (4) Light BPS with opening and closing times shorter than 15 ms and 65 ms, respectively, (5) Breakdown resistance adaptable from 0.25 to 3.75 by four selectors, (7) Fully electronic making switch (MS) and (8) Breakdown resistors that could dissipate much more than 90 MJ.
Zito, P.*; Lampasi, A.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Cinarelli, D.*; Portesine, M.*; Dorronsoro, A.*; Vian, D.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1191 - 1196, 2015/10
In JT-60SA, Fast Plasma Position Control Coils Power Supplies (FPPCC PSs) control vertical position of the plasma during a plasma shot, against Vertical Displacements Event (VDE). For this task, the FPPCC PSs have to be as fast as possible and provide as much voltage as possible. Further, these will be open loop feed forward voltage controlled. The main characteristics are: 4-quadrant AC/DC converter 12-pulse with circulating current, DC load voltage 1000 V and DC load current 5 kA. The induced overvoltage in FPPC coil during a plasma disruption can reach 10 kV and it is bounded by a nonlinear resistor in parallel to the crowbar. All these technical characteristics have strongly influenced the design of the FPPC converter and of the FPPC transformers, that have been validated by simulation model of FPPCC PS. The outcomes of the simulation have allowed to finalize the performances and dynamic behavior of voltage response.
Novello, L.*; Baulaigue, O.*; Coletti, A.*; Dumas, N.*; Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Lampasi, A.*; Maistrello, A.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1122 - 1126, 2015/10
JT-60SA, the superconducting tokamak under construction in Japan, will be equipped with a mix of new and reused Power Supplies (PS). Most of the new PS are procured by European Voluntary Contributors under the framework of Broader Approach agreement between F4E and JAEA. For the toroidal circuit, the 6 pulses ac/dc converter will be procured by CEA. It is rated 25.7 kA and 80 V dc, and will work in steady state condition. For the poloidal circuits the procurement of ten ac/dc converters, rated 20 kA and about 1 kV is shared between CEA and ENEA. They are 24 pulses four quadrant converters, with back to back thyristor bridges. Plasma initiation requires a fast variation of current in the Central Solenoids, obtained with the insertion of a settable resistor in series to the coils. This is achieved with the operation of four Switching Network Units procured by ENEA, producing up to 5 kV at the nominal 20 kA. The protection of superconducting magnets, both toroidal and poloidal, is assured by 13 Quench Protection Circuits procured by Consorzio RFX, rated 20 kA and 3.8 kV for poloidal QPCs and 25.7 kA and 2.8 kV for toroidal ones. The present status of the aforementioned PS is described in the paper: their detailed design has been completed and some systems have been already manufactured and tested.
Burini, F.*; Kuate-Fone, Y.*; Taddia, G.*; Tenconi, S.*; Lampasi, A.*; Zito, P.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*
Proceedings of 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2014), p.5035 - 5040, 2014/10
This paper describes the design and implementation of the Switching Network Unit (SNU) for the superconducting Central Solenoid coils of the international nuclear fusion experiment JT-60SA to be built in Naka, Japan. The SNU can interrupt a current up to 20 kA in less than 1 ms to create a voltage up to 5 kV. It is realized with a hybrid switch integrating an electro-mechanical device and a solid state Static Circuit Breaker, parallel connected. SNU resistance can be pre-arranged and dynamically reduced by a solid state making switch. Preliminary test results confirmed the current balance of the multiple parallel branches constituting the solid state switch and proper behavior of the devices, confirming simulations results. Further applications could be medium voltage DC networks (either naval or land based); higher DC voltages are practicable.
島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 山内 邦仁; 松川 誠; Baulaigue, O.*; Coletti, R.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*
Plasma Science and Technology, 15(2), p.184 - 187, 2013/02
In JT-60SA, the four thyristor converters in poloidal field coil (PFC) power supplies are used for plasma initiation. In this case, the large reactive power fluctuation induced by the "Booster PS" is the cause of large voltage fluctuation across the terminals of the motor-generator. To minimize the reactive power fluctuation during plasma initiation, an asymmetric control method and a sequential timing control to start/stop each "Booster PS" are foreseen. To evaluate the effectiveness of above control methods for the "Booster PS," the reactive power has been simulated by using "PSCAD/EMTDC" code. From the simulation it results that the reactive power induced by the four units of the "Booster PS" can be dramatically reduced. In addition, the voltage fluctuation of the motor-generator connected to the "Booster PS" is expected to be suppressed to less than 10%, which ensures the stable control of JT-60SA magnet power supplies.
山内 邦仁; 島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 松川 誠; Coletti, R.*; Lampasi, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*
Plasma Science and Technology, 15(2), p.148 - 151, 2013/02
One of the most essential issues for designing a power supply system of superconducting coil is to avoid any overvoltage. Here, the most concerned overvoltage can appear between turns due to the transiently concentrated voltage distribution inside the coil, which is mainly caused by parasitic capacitances and high dv/dt. For this reason, the coil power supply, especially fast high voltage generation circuit, should equip proper snubber(s) in order to suppress the dv/dt. However, it is too complicated to accurately evaluate the transient voltage in the coil because of the distributed parameters of the mutual inductance between turns and the capacitance between adjacent conductors. In this study, such a complicated system is modeled with reasonably detailed circuit network with lumped ones, and is integrated into the overall simulation model of JT-60SA PF coil circuit. Then a detailed circuit analysis is conducted in order to evaluate the possible voltage transient in the coil circuit. As a result, appropriate circuit parameters in the coil power supply including the snubbers are obtained.
Gaio, E.*; Maistrello, A.*; Coffetti, A.*; Gargano, T.*; Perna, M.*; Novello, L.*; Coletti, A.*; 松川 誠; 山内 邦仁
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 40(3), p.557 - 563, 2012/03
This paper describes the detailed design of the quench protection circuits (QPC) for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets of the Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which will be installed in Naka, Japan. The nominal currents to be interrupted and the maximum reapplied voltages are 25.7 kA and 2.8 kV for the TF QPCs and 20 kA and 5 kV for PF QPCs. The innovative solution proposed in the QPC design is based on a hybrid circuit breaker (CB) composed of a mechanical Bypass Switch for conducting the continuous current, in parallel to a static CB for current interruption. The main choices of the final design are presented and discussed, either to confirm or to update and complete the study performed at the conceptual design level.
島田 勝弘; Baulaigue, O.*; Cara, P.*; Coletti, A.*; Coletti, R.*; 松川 誠; 寺門 恒久; 山内 邦仁
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.1427 - 1431, 2011/10
In the initial research phase of JT-60SA, the plasma heating operation of 30MW-60s or 20MW-100s is planned for 5.5 MA single null divertor plasmas. To achieve this operation, AC power source of the medium voltage of 18 kV and 7 GJ has to be provided in total to the poloidal field coil power supplies and additional heating devices such as Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Electron Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ECRF). In this paper, the proposed AC power supply system in JT-60SA was estimated from the view point of available power, and harmonic currents based on the standard plasma operation scenario during the initial research phase. This AC power supply system consists of the reused JT-60 power supply facilities including motor generators with flywheel, AC breakers, and harmonic filters, etc. to make it cost effective. In addition, the conceptual design of the upgraded AC power supply system for the ultimate heating power of 41MW-100s in the extended research phase is also described.
Coletti, A.*; Baulaigue, O.*; Cara, P.*; Coletti, R.*; Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; 松川 誠; Novello, L.*; Santinelli, M.*; 島田 勝弘; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.1373 - 1376, 2011/10
JT-60SA is a joint international research and development project involving Japan and Europe, in the frame of the "Broader Approach Agreement", for the construction and operation of a new tokamak intended to prepare and support ITER operation. JT-60SA is to be built in Naka, Japan, using existing infrastructures and subsystems of the former JT-60U experiment, as much as possible. SA, as "super advanced", refers to the use of Superconducting Coils Magnets (SCM) and to the study of advanced modes in plasma operation. The SCM system includes Toroidal and Poloidal Field Coils (TFC and PFC respectively). In addition the machine features a number of normal conducting coils: Fast Plasma Control Coils (FPCC), a Resistive Wall Mode Control Coils and the Error Field Correction Coils. The paper describes the main features of the JT-60SA SCM Power Supply System (SCMPS) with special regard to coil current regulation mode and SCM protection.
島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 松川 誠; Cara, P.*; Baulaigue, O.*; Gaio, E.*; Coletti, R.*; Candela, G.*; Coletti, A.*
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.163 - 168, 2010/08
This paper describes the stable coil current control method of back-to-back thyristor converters as a design study. The back-to-back thyristor converter is applied to "Base PS" which is low-voltage power supply for PF coil in JT-60SA. This converter has six arms of anti-parallel connected thyristor devices to enable to operate with 4 quadrant operation. The dead beat control method is applied on the current feedback control algorithm. In addition, the non-interacting control method is adopted between coil current and circulating current among converters, which is necessary for smooth reversing of the coil current polarity. The rate limiter for control angles of thyristor converter is introduced to suppress the excessive current unbalance between converters. To estimate the proposed coil current control method, the real "Base PS" models are simulated by "PSCAD/EMTDC" code. From the simulation results, the stable control capability was obtained.
山内 邦仁; 島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 松川 誠; Cara, P.*; Gaio, E.*; Santinelli, M.*; Coletti, R.*; Coletti, A.*
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.220 - 225, 2010/08
High current of about 500 kA will be induced in the passive structures such as vacuum vessel and stabilizing plate at plasma initiation in JT-60SA, because the total resistance of the passive structure is approximately 16 and the breakdown electric field of 0.5 V/m is expected for stable plasma initiation from the experiments of JT-60U. Therefore, a precise evaluation of the magnetic field performance using the accurate circuit analysis model has to be conducted to obtain stable plasma breakdown and for designing the detail of power supply system. In this paper, the preparation procedure of the analysis model will be presented. Then, some circuit analysis results of plasma breakdown will be given using ideal power supply and actual thyristor converter model for comparison. The delay effect of converter voltage control and the discrepancy of current control would be summarized as the first achievement. The voltage fluctuation of generator (H-MG, 400 MVA) at plasma initiation will be also described, because large reactive power fluctuation may cause large voltage fluctuation and sudden phase shift of the AC source voltage of thyristor converter.
松川 誠; 寺門 恒久; 山内 邦仁; 島田 勝弘; Cara, P.*; Gaio, E.*; Novello, L.*; Ferro, A.*; Coletti, R.*; Santinelli, M.*; et al.
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.264 - 269, 2010/08
Reliable plasma initiation is very important in the nuclear fusion devices especially in superconducting tokamaks. Applicable breakdown electric field would be limited up to level of 0.5 V/m to suppress large AC losses in the superconducting magnet. Furthermore, induced current in the passive structure such as vacuum vessel and stabilizing plate would increased easily to the comparable level of plasma current with several hundred kA even in the case of ECH assist breakdown. Therefore, optimization of the applied voltage to the poloidal field coil is necessary for stable plasma initiation. In this paper, the rationalized plasma initiation scenario using cost effectively designed power supply system will be provided.
松川 誠; 菊池 満; 藤井 常幸; 藤田 隆明; 林 孝夫; 東島 智; 細金 延幸; 池田 佳隆; 井手 俊介; 石田 真一; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 83(7-9), p.795 - 803, 2008/12
山内 邦仁; Baulaigue, O.*; Coletti, A.*; Coletti, R.*; Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Lampasi, A.*; 松川 誠; Novello, L.*; 島田 勝弘; et al.
no journal, ,
The JT-60SA tokamak device consists of superconducting toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) coils, and some in-vessel coils. All of 18 TF coils are connected in series and powered by a low-voltage unidirectional DC power supply (PS), while three Quench Protection Circuits (QPCs) are inserted for every six TF coils. Meanwhile, each PF coil circuit is independent from the others, and a bidirectional DC current is driven for plasma current ramp-up and sustainment by series-connected Base PS, and Switching Network Unit or Booster PS. TF coils are energized by commercial electric power grid directly, but the rest of the coils are planned to be powered by the existing motor-generator of JT-60. This paper describes the key features and the expected performances of the main PS system for the superconducting magnets in JT-60SA.