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Gradient residual stress and fatigue life prediction of induction hardened carbon steel S38C axles; Experiment and simulation

Qin, T. Y.*; Hu, F. F.*; 徐 平光; Zhang, H.*; Zhou, L.*; Ao, N.*; Su, Y. H.; 菖蒲 敬久; Wu, S. C.*

International Journal of Fatigue, 185, p.108336_1 - 108336_13, 2024/08

Gradient distribution of triaxial residual stresses to a depth of several millimeters is retained in middle carbon steel S38C axles after high-frequency induction hardening, which has become a critical concern for fatigue structural integrity. To address this, the axial, hoop, and radial gradient residual strains inside the axles were measured for the first time by advanced neutron diffraction. The SIGINI Fortran subroutine was then adopted to reconstruct the global initial residual stress field from the measured data. Experimental and simulation results show that residual stresses of about -520 MPa (axial), -710 MPa (hoop), and -40 MPa (radial) residual stress were retained below the axle surface. Subsequently, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of S38C axles was numerically investigated in the framework of fracture mechanics. The calculated results clearly show that the compressive residual stresses at a depth of 0?3 mm from the axle surface lead to a low crack growth driving force, and that fatigue cracks do not propagate as long as the crack depth is less than 3.7 mm for hollow S38C axles. These results further indicate that the maximum defect size allowed in routine inspections is acceptable from a safety and economic point of view. Accurate measurement and characterization of the global gradient residual stress field through experiments and simulations can provide an important reference for optimizing the mileage intervals of nondestructive testing (NDT) of surface defects in these surface-strengthened railway axles.


Probing deformation behavior of a refractory high-entropy alloy using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction

Zhou, Y.*; Song, W.*; Zhang, F.*; Wu, Y.*; Lei, Z.*; Jiao, M.*; Zhang, X.*; Dong, J.*; Zhang, Y.*; Yang, M.*; et al.

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 971, p.172635_1 - 172635_7, 2024/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.00(Chemistry, Physical)

The grain orientation-dependent lattice strain evolution of a (TiZrHfNb)$$_{98}$$$$N_2$$ refractory high-entropy alloy (HEA) during tensile loading has been investigated using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction. The equivalent strain-hardening rate of each of the primary $$<hkl>$$-oriented grain families was found to be relatively low, manifesting the macroscopically weak work-hardening ability of such a body-centered cubic (BCC)-structured HEA. This finding is indicative of a dislocation planar slip mode that is confined in a few single-slip planes and leads to in-plane softening by high pile-up stresses.


System of radiological protection; Towards a consistent framework on earth and in space

R$"u$hm, W.*; 伴 信彦*; Chen, J.*; Li, C.*; Dobynde, M.*; Durante, M.*; El-Jaby, S.*; 込山 立人*; 小笹 晃太郎*; 佐藤 達彦; et al.

Journal of Medical Physics - Zeitschrift f$"u$r medizinische Physik -, 10 Pages, 2024/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.12



Gradient residual strain measurement procedure in surface impacted railway steel axles by using neutron scattering

Zhou, L.*; Zhang, H.*; Qin, T. Y.*; Hu, F. F.*; 徐 平光; Ao, N.*; Su, Y. H.; He, L. H.*; Li, X. H.*; Zhang, J. R.*; et al.

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 11 Pages, 2024/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

High-speed railway S38C axles undergo surface induction hardening for durability, but are susceptible to fatigue cracks from foreign object impact. The neutron diffraction method was employed to measure the residual strain in S38C axles, obtaining microscopic lattice distortion data, for the gradient layer at a depth of 8 mm under the surface. The results showed that after induction-hardening, the microscopic lattice distortion had a gradient distribution, decreasing with the distance from the surface. However, in the case of impacting speed of 600 km/m, the average microscopic lattice distortion increased with the distance from the surface, reaching a maximum augmentation of 55 pct. These findings indicate a strong experimental basis, and improve our understanding of the relationship between macroscopic residual stress and decision-making, in regard to operation and maintenance.


Chiral Dirac fermion in a collinear antiferromagnet

Zhang, A.*; Deng, K.*; Sheng, J.*; Liu, P.*; Kumar, S.*; 島田 賢也*; Jiang, Z.*; Liu, Z.*; Shen, D.*; Li, J.*; et al.

Chinese Physics Letters, 40(12), p.126101_1 - 126101_8, 2023/12

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:72.40(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In a Dirac semimetal, the massless Dirac fermion has zero chirality, leading to surface states connected adiabatically to a topologically trivial surface state as well as vanishing anomalous Hall effect. Recently, itis predicted that in the nonrelativistic limit of certain collinear antiferromagnets, there exists a type of chiral "Dirac-like" fermion, whose dispersion manifests four-fold degenerate crossing points formed by spin-degenerate linear bands, with topologically protected Fermi arcs. Here, by combining with neutron diffraction and first-principles calculations, we suggest a multidomain collinear antiferromagnetic configuration, rendering the existence of the Fermi-arc surface states induced by chiral Dirac-like fermions.


3D-printed epidermal sweat microfluidic systems with integrated microcuvettes for precise spectroscopic and fluorometric biochemical assays

Yang, D. S.*; Wu, Y.*; Kanatzidis, E. E.*; Avila, R.*; Zhou, M.*; Bai, Y.*; Chen, S.*; 関根 由莉奈; Kim, J.*; Deng, Y.*; et al.

Materials Horizons, 10(11), p.4992 - 5003, 2023/09



Pressure-modulated magnetism and negative thermal expansion in the Ho$$_2$$Fe$$_{17}$$ intermetallic compound

Cao, Y.*; Zhou, H.*; Khmelevskyi, S.*; Lin, K.*; Avdeev, M.*; Wang, C.-W.*; Wang, B.*; Hu, F.*; 加藤 健一*; 服部 高典; et al.

Chemistry of Materials, 35(8), p.3249 - 3255, 2023/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:40.78(Chemistry, Physical)



Fatigue crack non-propagation behavior of a gradient steel structure from induction hardened railway axles

Zhang, H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Ao, N.*; Zhang, J. W.*; Li, H.*; Zhou, L.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.

International Journal of Fatigue, 166, p.107296_1 - 107296_11, 2023/01

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:56.68(Engineering, Mechanical)

Abnormal damages in railway axles can lead to a significant hazard to running safety and reliability. To this end, a surface treatment was selected to effectively inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. In this study, a single edge notch bending fatigue test campaign with artificial notches was conducted to elucidate the fatigue crack non-propagation behavior in railway S38C axles subjected to an induction hardening process. The fatigue cracking behavior in the gradient structure was revealed by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and fractography. The microhardness distribution was measured using a Vickers tester. The obtained results show that the microhardness of the strengthening layer is nearly triple that of the matrix. Owing to the gradient microstructures and hardness, as well as compressive residual stress, the fatigue long crack propagates faster once it passes through the hardened zone (approximately 2.0 mm in the radial depth). Thereafter, local retarding (including deflection, branching, and blunting) of the long crack occurs because of the relatively coarse ferrite and pearlite in the transition region and matrix. Totally, this fatigue cracking resistance is reasonably believed to be due to the gradient microstructure and residual stress. These findings help to tailor a suitable detection strategy for maximum defects or cracks in railway axles.


Martensitic transformation in CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at cryogenic temperature

Naeem, M.*; Zhou, H.*; He, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; Zhu, Y.*; Wang, X.-L.*

Applied Physics Letters, 119(13), p.131901_1 - 131901_7, 2021/09

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:63.89(Physics, Applied)

We investigated the in situ deformation behavior of the CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at a cryogenic temperature of 140 K and compared it with deformation at room temperature. The sample exhibited higher strength and larger ductility at the cryogenic temperature. The CrCoNi alloy remained single-phase face-centered cubic at room temperature, while deformation at 140 K resulted in a martensitic transformation to the hexagonal close-packed structure. The phase transformation, an additional deformation mechanism to stacking faults, twinning, and dis- location slip, resulted in a higher work hardening at cryogenic temperature. The study addresses the structure metastability in the CrCoNi alloy, which led to the formation of epsilon-martensite from the intrinsic stacking faults.


Quasifree neutron knockout reaction reveals a small $$s$$-Orbital component in the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B

Yang, Z. H.*; 久保田 悠樹*; Corsi, A.*; 吉田 数貴; Sun, X.-X.*; Li, J. G.*; 木村 真明*; Michel, N.*; 緒方 一介*; Yuan, C. X.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(8), p.082501_1 - 082501_8, 2021/02


 被引用回数:45 パーセンタイル:96.73(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

ボロミアン核であり中性子ハロー構造が期待される$$^{17}$$Bに対する($$p$$,$$pn$$)反応実験を行った。断面積の運動量分布を分析することで、$$1s_{1/2}$$$$0d_{5/2}$$軌道の分光学的因子を決定した。驚くべきことに、$$1s_{1/2}$$の分光学的因子は9(2)%と小さいことが明らかになった。この結果は、連続状態を含むdeformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov理論によってよく説明された。本研究の結果によると、現在知られているハロー構造を持つとされる原子核の中で$$^{17}$$Bは$$s$$および$$p$$軌道の成分が最も小さく、$$s$$または$$p$$軌道成分が支配的であることが必ずしもハロー構造の前提条件ではない可能性を示唆している。


Clades of huge phages from across Earth's ecosystems

Al-Shayeb, B.*; Sachdeva, R.*; Chen, L.-X.*; Ward, F.*; Munk, P.*; Devoto, A.*; Castelle, C. J.*; Olm, M. R.*; Bouma-Gregson, K.*; 天野 由記; et al.

Nature, 578(7795), p.425 - 431, 2020/02

 被引用回数:223 パーセンタイル:99.47(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Phage typically have small genomes and depend on their bacterial hosts for replication. We generated metagenomic datasets from many diverse ecosystems and reconstructed hundreds of huge phage genomes, between 200 kbp and 716 kbp in length. Thirty four genomes were manually curated to completion, including the largest phage genomes yet reported. Expanded genetic repertoires include diverse and new CRISPR-Cas systems, tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, tRNA modification enzymes, initiation and elongation factors and ribosomal proteins. Phage CRISPR have the capacity to silence host transcription factors and translational genes, potentially as part of a larger interaction network that intercepts translation to redirect biosynthesis to phage-encoded functions. Some phage repurpose bacterial systems for phage-defense to eliminate competing phage. We phylogenetically define seven major clades of huge phage from human and other animal microbiomes, oceans, lakes, sediments, soils and the built environment. We conclude that large gene inventories reflect a conserved biological strategy, observed across a broad bacterial host range and resulting in the distribution of huge phage across Earth's ecosystems.


Fine structure in the $$alpha$$ decay of $$^{223}$$U

Sun, M. D.*; Liu, Z.*; Huang, T. H.*; Zhang, W. Q.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ding, B.*; Wang, J. G.*; Liu, X. Y.*; Lu, H. Y.*; Hou, D. S.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 800, p.135096_1 - 135096_5, 2020/01

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:78.07(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Fine structure in the $$alpha$$ decay of $$^{223}$$U was observed in the fusion-evaporation reaction $$^{187}$$Re($$^{40}$$Ar,p3n) by using fast digital pulse processing technique. Two $$alpha$$-decay branches of $$^{223}$$U feeding the ground state and 244 keV excited state of $$^{219}$$Th were identified by establishing the decay chain $$^{223}$$U$$rightarrow$$$$^{219}$$Th$$rightarrow$$$$^{215}$$Ra$$rightarrow$$$$^{211}$$Rn. The $$alpha$$-particle energy for the ground-state to ground-state transition of $$^{223}$$U was determined to be 8993(17) keV, 213 keV higher than the previous value, the half-life was updated to be 62$$^{+14}_{-10} mu$$s. Evolution of nuclear structure for $$N$$=131 even-$$Z$$ isotones from Po to U was discussed in the frameworks of nuclear mass and reduced $$alpha$$-decay width, a weakening octupole deformation in the ground state of $$^{223}$$U relative to its lighter isotones $$^{219}$$Ra and $$^{211}$$Th was suggested.


Ag nanoparticles embedded in Nd:YAG crystals irradiated with tilted beam of 200 MeV Xe ions; Optical dichroism correlated to particle reshaping

Li, R.*; Pang, C.*; 雨倉 宏*; Ren, F.*; H$"u$bner, R.*; Zhou, S.*; 石川 法人; 大久保 成彰; Chen, F.*

Nanotechnology, 29(42), p.424001_1 - 424001_8, 2018/10

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:24.68(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)



Scaling of memories and crossover in glassy magnets

Samarakoon, A. M.*; 高橋 満*; Zhang, D.*; Yang, J.*; 片山 尚幸*; Sinclair, R.*; Zhou, H. D.*; Diallo, S. O.*; Ehlers, G.*; Tennant, D. A.*; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 7(1), p.12053_1 - 12053_8, 2017/09


 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:49.54(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Glassiness is ubiquitous and diverse in characteristics in nature. Understanding their differences and classification remains a major scientific challenge. Here, we show that scaling of magnetic memories with time can be used to classify magnetic glassy materials into two distinct classes. The systems studied are high temperature superconductor-related materials, spin-orbit Mott insulators, frustrated magnets, and dilute magnetic alloys. Our bulk magnetization measurements reveal that most densely populated magnets exhibit similar memory behavior characterized by a relaxation exponent of $$1-n$$ $$approx$$ $$0.6$$(1). This exponent is different from $$1-n$$ $$approx$$ $$1/3$$ of dilute magnetic alloys that was ascribed to their hierarchical and fractal energy landscape, and is also different from $$1-n=1$$ of the conventional Debye relaxation expected for a spin solid, a state with long range order.


Precise determination of $$^{12}_{Lambda}$$C level structure by $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy

細見 健二; Ma, Y.*; 味村 周平*; 青木 香苗*; 大樂 誠司*; Fu, Y.*; 藤岡 宏之*; 二ツ川 健太*; 井元 済*; 垣口 豊*; et al.

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Internet), 2015(8), p.081D01_1 - 081D01_8, 2015/08

 被引用回数:14 パーセンタイル:66.24(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

$$gamma$$線分光によって$$^{12}_{Lambda}$$Cハイパー核のレベル構造を精密に測定した。ゲルマニウム検出器群Hyperball2を用いて、$$^{12}$$C$$(pi^{+}, K^{+}gamma)$$反応からの4本の$$gamma$$線遷移を同定することに成功した。基底状態スピン二重項$$(2^{-}, 1^{-}_{1})$$のエネルギー間隔は直接遷移$$M1$$$$gamma$$線により、$$161.5pm0.3$$(stat)$$pm0.3$$(syst)keVと測定された。また、励起準位である$$1^{-}_{2}$$$$1^{-}_{3}$$について、それぞれ、$$2832pm3pm4$$, keVと$$6050pm8pm7$$, keVと励起エネルギーを決定した。これらの測定された$$^{12}_{Lambda}$$Cの励起エネルギーは反応分光による$$lambda$$ハイパー核の実験研究において決定的な基準となる。


Overview of plasma-material interaction experiments on EAST employing MAPES

Ding, F.*; Luo, G.-N.*; Pitts, R.*; Litnovsky, A.*; Gong, X.*; Ding, R.*; Mao, H.*; Zhou, H.*; Wampler, W. R.*; Stangeby, P. C.*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 455(1-3), p.710 - 716, 2014/12

 被引用回数:25 パーセンタイル:87.95(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A movable material probe system (Material and Plasma Evaluation System: MAPES) with an independent pumping system and a sample exchange chamber has been developed and installed on a horizontal port of the EAST tokamak for studies of plasma material interaction (PMI). In the 2012 experimental campaign, deposition and erosion were studied for three samples: mock-up of the outer first wall panels (FWPs) in ITER, castellated tungsten, and molybdenum mirrors. The FWPs with carbon deposition layer were exposed to helium plasmas. The maximum erosion rate of the carbon was valuated to be 8 nm/s. The castellated tungsten with rectangular cells and roof-like shaped cells was exposed to deuterium plasmas to compare amount of deposits on the gap surface. The amount of carbon and boron impurities on the gap surface of the roof-like shaped cells were reduced to less than 30% compared with that of the rectangular cells. The molybdenum mirrors of which protective ducts are installed in front were exposed to deuterium plasmas in order to investigate effects of length of the ducts. It was found that the reflectivity of the mirrors with 60 mm-long protective ducts is kept the initial reflectivity.


In-beam $$gamma$$ spectroscopy of the even-even nucleus $$^{190}$$Pt

Li, G. S.*; Liu, M. L.*; Zhou, X. H.*; Zhang, Y. H.*; Liu, Y. X.*; Zhang, N. T.*; Hua, W.*; Zheng, Y. D.*; Fang, Y. D.*; Guo, S.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 89(5), p.054303_1 - 054303_9, 2014/05

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:37.68(Physics, Nuclear)

タンデム加速器で88MeVにまで加速された$$^{18}$$Oビームを用いて$$^{176}$$Yb($$^{18}$$O, 4$$n$$)反応を起こし、$$^{190}$$Ptの高スピン準位を調べた。その結果、$$nu$$ $$i^{-2}_{13/2}$$ $$nu$$ $$h^{-1}_{9/2}$$ $$nu$$ $$j^{-1}$$1(ここで$$nu j$$$$nu p_{3/2}$$もしくは$$nu f_{5/2}$$)配位による正パリティバンドを大幅に拡張するとともに新しく負パリティバンドを同定し、$$nu$$ $$i^{-3}_{13/2}$$ $$nu$$ $$j^{-1}$$配位を持つことを明らかにした。また、イラスト準位においてスピンの増加に伴い振動から回転へと構造変化を起こしている可能性について議論した。さらにバンド特性を明らかにするためにTotal Routhian surface計算を行った。


Rotational band properties of $$^{173}$$W

Wang, H. X.*; Zhang, Y. H.*; Zhou, X. H.*; Liu, M. L.*; Ding, B.*; Li, G. S.*; Hua, W.*; Zhou, H. B.*; Guo, S.*; Qiang, Y. H.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 86(4), p.044305_1 - 044305_11, 2012/10


 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:33.26(Physics, Nuclear)

High-spin states in $$^{173}$$W have been studied using the $$^{150}$$Nd($$^{28}$$Si,5$$n$$)$$^{173}$$W reaction at beam energies of 135 and 140 MeV. The previously known bands associated with the 7/2$$^+$$[633], 5/2$$^-$$[512], and 1/2$$^-$$[521] configurations are extended significantly, and the unfavored signature branch of the 1/2$$^-$$[521] band is established for the first time. The band properties, such as level spacings, band-crossing frequencies, alignment gains, and signature splittings, are discussed with an emphasis on the low-spin signature inversion observed in the 5/2$$^-$$[512] band. By comparing the experimental $$B$$($$M$$1)/$$B$$($$E$$2) ratios with the theoretical values, we conclude that the configuration of the 5/2$$^-$$[512] band is quite pure at low spins without appreciable admixture of the 5/2$$^-$$[523] orbit, in conflict with the particle rotor model calculated results.


High-j proton alignments in $$^{101}$$Pd

Zhou, H. B.*; Zhou, X. H.*; Zhang, Y. H.*; Zheng, Y.*; Liu, M. L.*; Zhang, N. T.*; Chen, L.*; Wang, S. T.*; Li, G. S.*; Wang, H. X.*; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 47(9), p.107_1 - 107_7, 2011/09

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:32.55(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{101}$$Pd原子核の高スピン状態を、タンデム加速器及び多重$$gamma$$線検出装置GEMINI-IIを用いて、インビーム$$gamma$$線核分光法で調べた。既知の$$d$$$$_{5/2}$$バンド, 1/2$$^-$$[550]バンドをより高スピン状態まで拡張した。発見されたバンド交差は$$g$$$$_{9/2}$$陽子の整列によるものであると解釈した。$$^{101}$$Pdの回転バンドの性質を周辺の核、及びcranked shell modelと比較・議論した。


Signature inversion in the 7/2$$^-$$[503] band of $$^{185}$$Pt

Li, G. S.*; Zhou, X. H.*; Zhang, Y. H.*; Zheng, Y.*; Liu, M. L.*; Hua, W.*; Zhou, H. B.*; Ding, B.*; Wang, H. X.*; Lei, X. G.*; et al.

Journal of Physics G; Nuclear and Particle Physics, 38(9), p.095105_1 - 095105_9, 2011/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:11.64(Physics, Nuclear)


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