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Negative excursion of surface electric fields during gamma-ray glows in winter thunderstorms

和田 有希*; 鴨川 仁*; 久保 守*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 林 省吾*; 澤野 達也*; 米徳 大輔*; 土屋 晴文

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 128(21), p.e2023JD039354_1 - e2023JD039354_20, 2023/11

During the 2020-2021 winter season, we detected 6 gamma-ray glows at Kanazawa University, Japan. Negative surface electric fields (E-fields) were observed by a field mill during all the glow cases. In five of the six cases, the maximum E-field reached $$-$$12 $$mathrm{kV m}^{-1}$$, and the E-field during the glow detection was the strongest in 3 hours before and after the detection time. Therefore, negative charges should have been dominant in the thunderclouds that produced the gamma-ray glows, and electrons were probably accelerated and multiplied by the E-fields between a predominantly negative charge layer and a localized positive charge layer below. In addition, we extracted 8 non-detection cases in the 2020-2021 winter season, in which surface E-fields were stronger than $$-$$12 $$mathrm{kV m}^{-1}$$. In 5 of the 8 cases, radar echoes were inadequately developed, suggesting insufficient charge accumulation. On the other hand, the remaining 3 cases had well-developed radar echoes, and there was no significant difference from the detection cases.


Heterogeneous aggregation of humic acids studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

斉藤 拓巳*; 元川 竜平; 大窪 貴洋*; 三浦 大輔*; 熊田 高之

Environmental Science & Technology, 57(26), p.9802 - 9810, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Engineering, Environmental)

Aggregation of humic acids (HAs) were studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The combination of these techniques enables us to examine aggregation structures of heterogeneous HA particles. Two HAs with distinctive compositions were examined; a commercial HA (PAHA) and a HA extracted from deep sedimentary groundwater (HHA). While macroscopic coagulation tests showed that these HAs were stable in solutions except for HHA at pH $$<$$ 6, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that they formed aggregates with the sizes exceeding sub-micrometer length scale. The SAXS curves of PAHA remarkably varied with pD, whereas the SANS curves did not. With the help of theoretical fittings, it was revealed that PAHA aggregates consisted of two domains: poorly hydrated cores and well-hydrated proton-rich shells. The cores are (dis)aggregated with pD inside the aggregates of the shell. The SANS and SAXS curves of HHA resemble each other, and their intensities at low q increased with a decrease of pD, indicating the formation of homogeneous aggregates. This study revealed that distinctive aggregation behaviors exist in humic substances with heterogeneous structures like PAHA, which is invaluable for their roles in the fate of contaminants or nutrients in aqueous environments.


Development of nondestructive elemental analysis system for Hayabusa2 samples using muonic X-rays

大澤 崇人; 長澤 俊作*; 二宮 和彦*; 高橋 忠幸*; 中村 智樹*; 和田 大雅*; 谷口 秋洋*; 梅垣 いづみ*; 久保 謙哉*; 寺田 健太郎*; et al.

ACS Earth and Space Chemistry (Internet), 7(4), p.699 - 711, 2023/04



Pressure-modulated magnetism and negative thermal expansion in the Ho$$_2$$Fe$$_{17}$$ intermetallic compound

Cao, Y.*; Zhou, H.*; Khmelevskyi, S.*; Lin, K.*; Avdeev, M.*; Wang, C.-W.*; Wang, B.*; Hu, F.*; 加藤 健一*; 服部 高典; et al.

Chemistry of Materials, 35(8), p.3249 - 3255, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)



Regulatory implementation of the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye and underlying relevant efforts in Japan

横山 須美*; 浜田 信之*; 辻村 憲雄; 欅田 尚樹*; 西田 一隆*; 江崎 巌*; 加藤 昌弘*; 大久保 秀輝*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 99(4), p.604 - 619, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:23.74(Biology)



Chapter 5, Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs)/ Chapter 12, Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan

久保 重信; 近澤 佳隆; 大島 宏之; 上出 英樹

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition, p.173 - 194, 2023/03




普天間 章; 眞田 幸尚; 長久保 梓; 川崎 義晴*; 岩井 毅行*; 平賀 祥吾*; 萩野谷 仁*; 松永 祐樹*; 圷 雄一郎*; 卜部 嘉*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2022-027, 148 Pages, 2023/02




Magnetic structural analysis of nanocrystalline soft magnets by small-angle neutron scattering

間宮 広明*; 大場 洋次郎; 廣井 孝介; 宮武 孝之*; Gautam, R.*; Sepehri-Amin, H.*; 大久保 忠勝*

IEEE Magnetics Letters, 14, p.7100105_1 - 7100105_5, 2023/02

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

In nanocrystalline soft magnets, microscopic magnetic states inside the materials important for macroscopic soft magnetic properties. Therefore, we measured small-angle neutron scattering of the nanocrystalline soft magnets. The results clearly indicate the magnetic scattering of the nano-crystallized samples, while the as-quenched sample shows only featureless scattering. This provides essential information for the relationship between the magnetic nanostructures and the macroscopic magnetic softness.


New approach to understanding the experimental $$^{133}$$Cs NMR chemical shift of clay minerals via machine learning and DFT-GIPAW calculations

大窪 貴洋*; 武井 滉洋*; 舘 幸男; 深津 勇太; 出口 健三*; 大木 忍*; 清水 禎*

Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 127(4), p.973 - 986, 2023/02

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Chemistry, Physical)



Core and safety design for France-Japan common concept on sodium-cooled fast reactor

高野 和也; 大木 繁夫; 小澤 隆之; 山野 秀将; 久保 重信; 小倉 理志*; 山田 由美*; 小山 和也*; 栗田 晃一*; Costes, L.*; et al.

EPJ Nuclear Sciences & Technologies (Internet), 8, p.35_1 - 35_9, 2022/12



Present status of JAEA's R&D toward HTGR deployment

柴田 大受; 西原 哲夫; 久保 真治; 佐藤 博之; 坂場 成昭; 國富 一彦

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 398, p.111964_1 - 111964_4, 2022/11

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

大島 宏之; 森下 正樹*; 相澤 康介; 安藤 勝訓; 芦田 貴志; 近澤 佳隆; 堂田 哲広; 江沼 康弘; 江連 俊樹; 深野 義隆; et al.

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.3, 631 Pages, 2022/07

ナトリウム冷却高速炉(SFR: Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)の歴史や、利点、課題を踏まえた安全性、設計、運用、メンテナンスなどについて解説する。AIを利用した設計手法など、SFRの実用化に向けた設計や研究開発についても述べる。


Progress in conceptual design of a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan

加藤 篤志; 久保 重信; 近澤 佳隆; 宮川 高行*; 内田 昌人*; 鈴野 哲司*; 遠藤 淳二*; 久保 幸士*; 村上 久友*; 鵜澤 将行*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/04



Simulation-based dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of an internal flooding-initiated accident in nuclear power plant using THALES2 and RAPID

久保 光太郎; Zheng, X.; 田中 洋一; 玉置 等史; 杉山 智之; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O; Journal of Risk and Reliability, 11 Pages, 2022/04

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:74.52(Engineering, Multidisciplinary)

確率論的リスク評価(Probabilistic Risk Assessment: PRA)は、大規模かつ複雑なシステムのリスクを評価するために用いられる手法である。しかし、従来のイベントツリーやフォールトツリーを用いたPRAでは、原子力発電所の構造物、系統及び機器が損傷するタイミングを考慮することは困難である。そこで、この課題を解決するために、RAPID(Risk Assessment with Plant Interactive Dynamics)を用いて、熱水力解析と外部事象のシミュレーションを組み合わせた手法を提案した。加圧水型原子炉のタービン建屋内での内部溢水を表現するために、ベルヌーイの定理に基づいた溢水伝播モデルを適用した。加えて、溢水源の流量や緩和システムの故障基準などの不確実さを考慮した。シミュレーションでは、運転員がいくつか簡略化を行うことにより、運転員による溢水源の隔離操作と排水ポンプを用いた回復操作をモデル化した。その結果、隔離と排水を組み合わせることで、溢水発生時の条件付炉心損傷確率を約90%低減できることが示された。


オールジャパンでとりくむ地層処分のいま,4; 処分場の設計と工学技術(その2)

本島 貴之*; 松井 裕哉; 川久保 政洋*; 小林 正人*; 市村 哲大*; 杉田 裕

日本原子力学会誌ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(3), p.163 - 167, 2022/03



Variation in formation and migration of self-interstitial atom clusters in electron irradiated copper with material purity and specimen preparation method

佐藤 裕樹*; 阿部 陽介; 大久保 賢二*; 谷岡 隆志*

Philosophical Magazine, 102(12), p.1152 - 1172, 2022/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)



Space weather benchmarks on Japanese society

石井 守*; 塩田 大幸*; 垰 千尋*; 海老原 祐輔*; 藤原 均*; 石井 貴子*; 一本 潔*; 片岡 龍峰*; 古賀 清一*; 久保 勇樹*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.108_1 - 108_20, 2021/12

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:60.89(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)



PSTEP: Project for solar-terrestrial environment prediction

草野 完也*; 一本 潔*; 石井 守*; 三好 由純*; 余田 成男*; 秋吉 英治*; 浅井 歩*; 海老原 祐輔*; 藤原 均*; 後藤 忠徳*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.159_1 - 159_29, 2021/12

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:54.59(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)




明午 伸一郎; 中野 敬太; 大久保 成彰; 湯山 貴裕*; 石井 保行*

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (インターネット), p.296 - 301, 2021/10



Diffusion of tritiated water, $$^{137}$$Cs$$^{+}$$, and $$^{125}$$I$$^{-}$$ in compacted Ca-montmorillonite; Experimental and modeling approaches

深津 勇太; 四辻 健治*; 大窪 貴洋*; 舘 幸男

Applied Clay Science, 211, p.106176_1 - 106176_10, 2021/09

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:74.51(Chemistry, Physical)

Mechanistic understanding and predictive modeling of radionuclide diffusion in Na- and Ca-montmorillonite are essential to evaluate the long-term evolution of the bentonite barrier and their impact on radionuclide migration during geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Thus, the diffusion behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs$$^{+}$$, $$^{125}$$I$$^{-}$$, and tritiated water (HTO) in compacted Ca-montmorillonite was investigated as a function of porewater salinity and dry density via both experiments and models. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) followed in the order of $$^{137}$$Cs$$^{+}$$ $$>$$ HTO $$>$$ $$^{125}$$I$$^{-}$$. The De of $$^{137}$$Cs$$^{+}$$ decreased with increasing salinity, whereas the dependence of De of $$^{125}$$I$$^{-}$$ on salinity was uncertain. The cation excess and anion exclusion effects for Ca-montmorillonite were lower than those for Na-montmorillonite. The integrated sorption and diffusion (ISD) model, assuming the homogeneous pore structure and the electrical double layer (EDL) theory for 2:1 electrolyte (CaCl$$_{2}$$), could account for the observed trends for De in Ca-montmorillonite. The lower dependence of De on the porewater salinity in Ca-montmorillonite was caused by the reduction of the EDL thickness for divalent cations (Ca$$^{2+}$$) in comparison with that for monovalent cations (Na$$^{+}$$). The multipore model could improve the fit for De of $$^{125}$$I$$^{-}$$ at low salinity due to the reduction of interlayer pore volumes and anion exclusion effect, however, the disparity at higher densities was considerably larger. From these results, cation diffusion for compacted Ca-montmorillonite could be mainly explained by the electrostatic interactions in the homogeneous pore model; in contrast, anion diffusion was sensitive to both electrostatic interactions and heterogeneous pore structures. The proposed ISD model is an effective tool to evaluate the radionuclide diffusion and sorption behavior in both compacted Ca-montmorillonite and Na-montmorillonite.

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