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Journal Articles

Deep groundwater physicochemical components affecting actinide migration

Kirishima, Akira*; Terasaki, Mariko*; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Daisuke*

Chemosphere, 289, p.133181_1 - 133181_12, 2022/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Sorption of Cs$$^{+}$$ and Eu$$^{3+}$$ ions onto sedimentary rock in the presence of gamma-irradiated humic acid

Zhao, Q.*; Saito, Takeshi*; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Taishi*; Sasaki, Takayuki*

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 428, p.128211_1 - 128211_10, 2022/04

The influence of humic acid and its radiological degradation on the sorption of Cs$$^{+}$$ and Eu$$^{3+}$$ by sedimentary rock was investigated to understand the sorption process of metal ions and humic substances. Aldrich humic acid (HA) solution was irradiated with different doses of gamma irradiation using a Co-60 gamma-ray source prior to the contact between the metal ions and the solid sorbent. The HA molecule decomposed to smaller molecules with a lower complexation affinity. Batch sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiated HA on the sorption of Cs$$^{+}$$ and Eu$$^{3+}$$ ions. The addition of non-irradiated HA weakened the sorption of Eu because of the lower sorption of the neutral or negatively charged Eu-HA complexes compared with free Eu ions. The sorption of monovalent Cs ions was barely affected by the presence of HA and its gamma irradiation. The concentration ratio of HA complexed species and non-complexed species in the solid and liquid phases was evaluated by sequential filtration and chemical equilibrium calculations. The ratios supported the minimal contribution of HA to Cs sorption. However, the concentration ratio for Eu$$^{3+}$$ in the liquid phase was high, indicating that the complexing ability of HA to Eu$$^{3+}$$ was higher than that of HA to Cs$$^{+}$$ ions. Therefore, the sorption of free Eu$$^{3+}$$ would predominate with the gamma irradiation dose applied to the HA solution under a radiation field near the HLW package.

JAEA Reports

Data of groundwater chemistry obtained in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (FY2021)

Miyakawa, Kazuya

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-021, 23 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-021.pdf:2.0MB

In the Horonobe underground research laboratory (HURL) project, groundwater chemistry was analyzed to investigate changes due to the excavation of the underground facility and to review geochemical models until the fiscal year 2019. From the fiscal year 2020, to proceed remaining important issues deduced from the conclusion of the investigations during the fiscal year 2015-2019, primary data such as groundwater chemistry need to be successively acquired. Here, the chemical analysis of 54 groundwater samples in 2021 from boreholes drilled in the 140 m, 250 m, 350 m gallery in the HURL, and water rings settled in three vertical shafts is presented. Analytical results include groundwater chemistry such as physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity), dissolved ions (Na$$^{+}$$, K$$^{+}$$, Li$$^{+}$$, NH$$_{4}$$$$^{+}$$, Cl$$^{-}$$, Br$$^{-}$$, NO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$, SO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$, PO$$_{4}$$$$^{3-}$$, Ca$$^{2+}$$, Mg$$^{2+}$$, Sr$$^{2+}$$, P, Total-Mn, Si, Total-Fe, Al, B, F$$^{-}$$, I$$^{-}$$, alkalinity, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, CO$$_{3}$$$$^{2-}$$, HCO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$, Ba, Fe$$^{2+}$$, sulfide), $$delta$$$$^{18}$$O, $$delta$$D, and tritium content along with a detailed description of analytical methods.

JAEA Reports

Records of physicochemical parameters by geochemical monitoring system in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (FY2017-FY2019)

Dei, Shuntaro; Mochizuki, Akihito; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-005, 54 Pages, 2021/06

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-005.pdf:4.95MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2021-005-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:5.42MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency had been conducting "geoscientific study" and "research and development on geological disposal" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Groundwater pressure, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential in the deep groundwater have been continuously monitored with monitoring systems which were developed in the Horonobe URL Project. This report presents the physicochemical parameters of groundwater which have been obtained by the monitoring systems installed at the 140 m, 250 m and 350 m gallery. The data acquired from April 2017 to the end of March 2020 was summarized along with related information such as the specifications of boreholes.

JAEA Reports

Data of groundwater chemistry obtained in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (FY2020)

Miyakawa, Kazuya

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-003, 25 Pages, 2021/05

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-003.pdf:1.91MB

Development of technologies to investigate properties of deep geological environment and model development of geological environment have been pursued in "Geoscientific Research" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (HURL) project. In the fiscal year 2020, to proceed remaining important issues which were deduced from the conclusion of the investigations during the fiscal year 2015-2019, basic data such as groundwater chemistry need to be successively acquired. In the fiscal year 2020, groundwater was sampled from boreholes drilled in the 140 m, 250 m, 350 m gallery in the HURL, and water rings settled in three each vertical shaft, and groundwater chemistries of 41 samples were analyzed. Here, analytical results of groundwater chemistry such as physicochemical parameters, dissolved ions, oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios, and tritium content, which were obtained in the fiscal year 2020, were reported along with a detailed description of analytical methods.

JAEA Reports

A Numerical simulation study of the desaturation and oxygen infusion into the sedimentary rock around the tunnel in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-002, 26 Pages, 2021/05

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-002.pdf:2.14MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2021-002-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:40.99MB

Investigations employing numerical simulation have been conducted to study the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into sedimentary formations. By mimicking the conditions of the Horonobe underground research laboratory, numerical simulations aided geoscientific investigation of the effects of dissolved gas content and rock permeability on the desaturation (Miyakawa et al., 2019) and mechanisms of oxygen intrusion into the host rock (Miyakawa et al., 2021). These simulations calculated multi-phase flow, including flows of groundwater and exsolved gas, and conducted sensitivity analysis changing the dissolved gas content, rock permeability, and humidity at the gallery wall. Only the most important results from these simulations have been reported previously, because of publishers' space limitations. Hence, in order to provide basic data for understanding the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into rock, all data for 27 output parameters (e.g., advective fluxes of heat, gas, and water, diffusive fluxes of water, CH$$_{4}$$, CO$$_{2}$$, O$$_{2}$$, and N$$_{2}$$, saturation degree, water pressure, and mass fraction of each component) over a modeling period of 100 years are presented here.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of oxygen infusion into desaturation resulting from artificial openings in sedimentary formations

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.609 - 614, 2021/01

Desaturation is expected due to excavation of an underground repository, especially in the newly created fractures zone (EDZ). During the construction and operation of facilities, the air in the gallery infuses into the rock around the gallery though the excavation affected area and causes oxidation of host rock and groundwater, which increase nuclide mobilities. In the Horonobe underground research laboratory (HURL), which is excavated in the Neogene sedimentary formations, no pyrite dissolution or precipitation of calcium sulfates was found from the cores drilled in the rock around the gallery. The reason for no oxidation is estimated that the release of dissolved gases from groundwater due to pressure decrease flows against the air infusion. In this research, the mechanism of O$$_{2}$$ intrusion into the rock was investigated by numerical multiphase flow simulation considering advection and diffusion of groundwater and gases. In the simulation, only Darcy's and Henry's laws were considered, that is, chemical reaction related to oxidation was not handled. The effects of dissolved gas and rock permeability on O$$_{2}$$ infusion into the rock were almost identical. Decreasing humidity with relatively low permeability leads to extensive accumulation of O$$_{2}$$ into the EDZ even though with a relatively large amount of dissolved gas. In the HURL, the shotcrete attenuates O$$_{2}$$ concentration and keeps 100% humidity at the boundary of the gallery wall, which inhibits O$$_{2}$$ infusion. Without the shotcrete, humidity at the gallery wall decreases according to seasonal changes and ventilation, which promotes O$$_{2}$$ intrusion into the EDZ but the chemical reaction related to O$$_{2}$$ buffering such as pyrite oxidation consumes O$$_{2}$$.

Journal Articles

A Proposed method to discriminate a gas derived from deep underground by focusing on the relationship between changes in methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Shimo, Michito*; Niwa, Masakazu; Amano, Kenji; Tokunaga, Tomochika*; Tonokura, Kenichi*

Fukada Chishitsu Kenkyujo Nempo, (22), p.139 - 153, 2021/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Estimation of gas migration pathways around faults based on the distribution of atmospheric methane near ground surface

Shimo, Michito*; Niwa, Masakazu; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Amano, Kenji; Tonokura, Kenichi*; Tokunaga, Tomochika*

Fukada Chishitsu Kenkyujo Nempo, (22), p.119 - 137, 2021/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Determination of humic substances in deep groundwater from sedimentary formations by the carbon concentration-based DAX-8 resin isolation technique

Terashima, Motoki; Endo, Takashi*; Miyakawa, Kazuya

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.380 - 387, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Synthesis report on the R&D for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory; Project carried out during fiscal years 2015-2019

Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi; Kimura, Shun; Mochizuki, Akihito; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ono, Hirokazu; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Masaki; Hayano, Akira; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2019-013, 276 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Research-2019-013.pdf:18.72MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the project will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The present report summarizes the research and development activities of these 3 important issues carried out during 3rd Medium to Long-term Research Phase.

JAEA Reports

Data of groundwater chemistry obtained in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (FY2017-FY2019)

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Mezawa, Tetsuya*; Mochizuki, Akihito; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-001, 41 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2020-001.pdf:3.75MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2020-001-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:0.34MB

Development of technologies to investigate properties of deep geological environment and model development of geological environment have been pursued in "Geoscientific Research" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) project. A geochemical model which is a part of geological environment model requires the data of groundwater chemistry around the Horonobe URL for the development. This report summarizes the data obtained for 3 years from the fiscal year 2017 to 2019, especially for the results for measurement of physico-chemical parameters and analysis of groundwater chemistry, in the Horonobe URL project.

Journal Articles

Mudstone redox conditions at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Hokkaido, Japan; Effects of drift excavation

Mochizuki, Akihito; Ishii, Eiichi; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

Engineering Geology, 267, p.105496_1 - 105496_11, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:29.33(Engineering, Geological)

The mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks around mine drifts change significantly during the construction and operation of a radioactive-waste repository, with air intrusion causing the oxidation of rock and groundwater in excavation-damaged zones (EDZ). Redox conditions in such zones associated with niches excavated in mudstone at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), which is believed to be generally representative of conditions that could exist in the EDZ of a repository, were studied with the aim of improving our understanding of factors that control redox conditions in such rock-groundwater systems. Groundwater Eh values around the niches have reducing values of less than -150 mV. The SO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$ concentration, regarded as an oxidation indicator, is consistently as low as 1 $$mu$$mol L$$^{-1}$$. Gas occupies more than 50% of zone volumes, including CH$$_{4}$$ and CO$$_{2}$$ with traces of N$$_{2}$$ and O$$_{2}$$. Cores drilled from host rock around a URL gallery were analyzed, with no pyrite dissolution or precipitation of calcium sulfates being found. It is concluded that oxidizing conditions do not exist in the excavation-damaged zones, which is attributed to the suppression of air intrusion by the release of CH$$_{4}$$ and CO$$_{2}$$ from groundwater as pressures decreased and their accumulation in fractures. The modeling of oxygen diffusion into host rock further indicates that a reducing environment is maintained around the URL drifts.

JAEA Reports

Groundwater pressure records by geochemical monitoring system in the 350 m gallery of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (FY 2016-2018)

Mochizuki, Akihito; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2019-014, 56 Pages, 2020/02

JAEA-Data-Code-2019-014.pdf:6.56MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2019-014-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:5.81MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "geoscientific study" and "research and development on geological disposal" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Groundwater pressure and geochemical parameters such as pH and oxidation-reduction potential in the deep groundwater have been continuously monitored with monitoring systems which were developed in the Horonobe URL Project. This report presents the data of groundwater pressure which have been obtained by the monitoring systems installed at the 350 m gallery. The data obtained from April 1, 2016 until March 31, 2019 was summarized along with related information such as the specifications of boreholes and the excavation of the URL.

Journal Articles

The Effect of dissolved gas on rock desaturation in artificial openings in geological formations

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

Proceedings of 5th ISRM Young Scholars' Symposium on Rock Mechanics and International Symposium on Rock Engineering for Innovative Future (YSRM 2019 and REIF 2019) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2019/12

The construction and operation of geological repositories require excavation and ventilation of galleries, with significant groundwater drainage. Desaturation of rock around galleries is unavoidable and may affect hydraulic properties and redox conditions. This study used numerical modeling to assess the influence of dissolved gas on the degree of saturation of rock surrounding excavated galleries, focusing on siliceous mudstone rock in the 140 m, 250 m, and 350-m-deep galleries of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Based on previous ${it in situ}$ electrical survey, the degree of saturation in the 250 m gallery was higher than that in the 140 m and 350 m galleries. In the Horonobe area, deep groundwater contains high concentrations of dissolved methane, and exsolution of this methane from pore water can affect desaturation. Simple numerical modeling, including simulation of multiphase flows, was undertaken for each gallery to confirm the effect of dissolved gas and rock permeability on desaturation. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying dissolved gas contents and permeability. Results indicate that the dissolved gas content affects both the degree of saturation and its spatial extent, whereas rock permeability affects only the latter. Higher dissolved gas concentrations result in lower degrees of saturation with a greater spatial extent of desaturation, and higher permeability leads to greater extents of desaturation. It is therefore likely that gas content, rather than rock permeability, caused the observed variations in the saturation degree.

Journal Articles

Degassing behavior of noble gases from groundwater during groundwater sampling

Nakata, Kotaro*; Hasegawa, Takuma*; Solomon, D. K.*; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Tomioka, Yuichi*; Ota, Tomoko*; Matsumoto, Takuya*; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ono, Masahiko*; et al.

Applied Geochemistry, 104, p.60 - 70, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:26.9(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Thermodynamic study of the complexation of humic acid by calorimetry

Kimuro, Shingo; Kirishima, Akira*; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Sato, Nobuaki*

Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 132, p.352 - 362, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:53.99(Thermodynamics)

A combination of potentiometry and calorimetry was used for the determination of the thermodynamic quantities of complexation of generic and groundwater humic acid (HA), which was isolated from deep groundwater at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan, with copper (II) ions and uranyl (VI) ions. The apparent complexation constant of Horonobe HA was independent of the pH, whereas that of generic HA was dependent on the pH. This observation indicates that the polyelectrolyte effect of Horonobe HA is negligible because of its small molecular size. In addition, the effect of the heterogeneity of Horonobe HA was not significant. Moreover, the complexation enthalpy of Horonobe HA was consistent with that of homogeneous poly(acrylic acid), which means the complexation of Horonobe HA was not affected by the functional group heterogeneity. Consequently, the characteristic complexation mechanism of Horonobe HA was revealed based on the determined thermodynamic quantities.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of uncertainty of redox potential in deep groundwater; A Case study in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido

Mochizuki, Akihito; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Mezawa, Tetsuya*; Miyakawa, Kazuya

Chikasui Gakkai-Shi, 61(1), p.3 - 20, 2019/02

Redox potential of deep groundwater in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, was measured, and uncertainty of the measurement and thermodynamic interpretation was evaluated. The redox potential of groundwater obtained using monitoring units in the Underground Research Laboratory ranged between -250 and -100 mV, and the effect of the excavation of drifts on the redox potential is considered to be small in spite of its temporal variation. The redox potential is controlled by the reaction of chemical pairs of SO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$/FeS$$_{2}$$, SO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$/HS$$^{-}$$ and CO$$_{2}$$(aq)/CH$$_{4}$$(aq). The comparison between the equilibrium potential for these reactions and the measured redox potentials suggests that $$pm$$50 mV of uncertainty for the measurement of the redox potential is appropriate.

Journal Articles

Improvements in drill-core headspace gas analysis for samples from microbially active depths

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Okumura, Fumiaki*

Geofluids, 2018, p.2436814_1 - 2436814_11, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:15.51(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of $$delta^{2}$$H and $$delta^{18}$$O of water in pores extracted by compression method; Effects of closed pores and comparison to direct vapor equilibration and laser spectrometry method

Nakata, Kotaro*; Hasegawa, Takuma*; Oyama, Takahiro*; Miyakawa, Kazuya

Journal of Hydrology, 561, p.547 - 556, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.54(Engineering, Civil)

no abstracts in English

81 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)