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JAEA Reports

Study on the radioactivity evaluation method of biological shielding concrete of JPDR for near surface disposal

Kochiyama, Mami; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-010, 61 Pages, 2021/07

JAEA-Technology-2021-010.pdf:3.56MB
JAEA-Technology-2021-010(errata).pdf:0.75MB

It is necessary to evaluate the radioactivity inventory in wastes in order to dispose of radioactive wastes generated from dismantling nuclear reactor in the shallow ground. In this report, we examined radioactivity evaluation method for near surface disposal about biological shield concrete near the core generated from the dismantling of JPDR. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete using the DORT code and the ORIGEN-S code, and we estimated radioactivity concentration Di (Bq/t). For DORT calculation, the cross-section library created from the MATXSLIB-J40 file from JENDL-4.0 was used, and for ORIGEN-S, the attached library of SCALE6.0 was used. As a result of comparing the calculation results of the radioactivity concentration with the past measured values in the radial direction and the vertical direction, we found that the trends were generally the same. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete Di (Bq/t), and we compared with the estimated Ci (Bq/t) equivalent to the dose criteria of trench disposal calculated for 140 nuclides. As a result we inferred that the except for about 2% of target waste could be disposed of in the trench disposal facility. We also preselected important nuclides for trench disposal based on the ratios (Di/Ci) for each nuclide, H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41, Co-60, Sr-90, Eu-152 and Cs-137 were selected as important nuclides.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of the amount of leaching water from concrete-pit facilities under various facility design conditions

Nagao, Rina; Namekawa, Maki*; Totsuka, Masayoshi*; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-009, 139 Pages, 2021/06

JAEA-Technology-2021-009.pdf:13.96MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is the implementing body of the near surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from research facilities and other facilities. Concrete-pit disposal are considered as a method of disposing of the LLW. Since the concrete-pits are placed at deeper position than the groundwater level, we need to consider that radionuclides might migrate with the flow of groundwater. Accordingly, in order to explain the safety of the concrete-pit disposal facility, it is necessary to investigate the flow of groundwater and the volumetric flow rate of leaching water from the facility. Therefore, in this report, sensitivity analysis of the volumetric flow rate of leaching water from concrete-pit was carried out by varying the permeability of cover-soil filled with in outside of the lateral sides of the bentonite mixed soil (BMS) and the conditions of the BMS on the upper part of the concrete-pits. As a result of the analysis, when the BMS is normal condition, the volumetric flow rate of leaching water from the concrete-pits is reduced by lowering permeability of the lateral cover-soil. However, in the case of occurring the deterioration of the function of BMS on the upper part of the concrete-pit, significant reduction of the volumetric flow rate of leaching water is not seen even if the permeability of the lateral cover-soil is lowered. Therefore, taking into consideration the possibility of the deterioration of the function of BMS on the upper part of the concrete-pit, it is necessary to consider that cover-soil with low permeability is equipped on the upper part of the BMS.

JAEA Reports

Basic policy for rational measures of radioactive waste processing and disposal; Results of studies for acceleration of waste processing

Nakagawa, Akinori; Oyokawa, Atsushi; Murakami, Masashi; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Okada, Shota; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2021-006, 186 Pages, 2021/06

JAEA-Technology-2021-006.pdf:54.45MB

Radioactive wastes generated from R&D activities have been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In order to reduce the risk of taking long time to process legacy wastes, countermeasures for acceleration of waste processing and disposal were studied. Work analysis of waste processing showed bottleneck processes, such as evaluation of radioactivity concentration, segregation of hazardous and combustibles materials. Concerning evaluation of radioactivity concentration, a radiological characterization method using a scaling factor and a nondestructive gamma-ray measurement should be developed. The number of radionuclides that are to be selected for the safety assessment of the trench type disposal facility can decrease using artificial barriers. Hazardous materials, will be identified using records and nondestructive inspection. The waste identified as hazardous will be unpacked and segregated. Preliminary calculations of waste acceptance criteria of hazardous material concentrations were conducted based on environmental standards in groundwater. The total volume of the combustibles will be evaluated using nondestructive inspection. The waste that does not comply with the waste acceptance criteria should be mixed with low combustible material waste such as dismantling concrete waste in order to satisfy the waste acceptance criteria on a disposal facility average. It was estimated that segregation throughput of compressed waste should be increased about 5 times more than conventional method by applying the countermeasures. Further study and technology development will be conducted to realize the plan.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of radioactivity concentration corresponding to dose criterion for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities, Volume 1

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Abe, Daichi*; Okada, Shota; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-004, 79 Pages, 2021/05

JAEA-Technology-2021-004.pdf:2.86MB
JAEA-Technology-2021-004(errata).pdf:0.09MB

JAEA has aims to carry out near surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities. Therefore, radioactivity concentration corresponding to dose criteria of near surface disposal for 220 nuclides in the waste were calculated for the purpose of discussion for radioactivity limits between trench and concrete vault disposal, and key nuclides related to them. We calculated the radioactivity concentrations with consideration of not only the exposure pathways used at calculation of the radioactivity concentration limits of waste packages for near surface disposal by Nuclear Safety Commission but also ones used at the concentration limits for intermediate depth disposal. We also assumed the capacities of the disposal facilities as 44,000 m$$^{3}$$ for pit disposal and 150,000 m$$^{3}$$ for trench disposal. The radioactivity concentrations calculated in this report is used as the reference values because the disposal site has not been decided yet. Addition to this, the radioactivity concentrations will be revised according to circumstances of development of disposal facilities and so on. In the future, we will decide the radioactivity and radioactive concentration of a waste package described in the license application documents based on the dose assessment taken into consideration the disposal site conditions.

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste generated from the dismantling of research reactors

Murakami, Masashi; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Fukumura, Nobuo*; Sanda, Toshio*; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2019-003, 50 Pages, 2019/06

JAEA-Technology-2019-003.pdf:4.42MB

Toward the establishment of a common approach to determine the radioactivity concentrations in dismantling wastes arising from research reactors, radionuclide concentrations in the reactor structure materials of aluminum, carbon steel, shield concrete, and graphite of TRIGA Mark II reactor at Rikkyo University, Japan, were evaluated with both radiochemical analysis and theoretical calculation. The measured nuclides by the radiochemical analysis were $$^{3}$$H, $$^{60}$$Co, and $$^{63}$$Ni in aluminum, $$^{3}$$H, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, and $$^{152}$$Eu in carbon steel, $$^{3}$$H, $$^{60}$$Co, and $$^{152}$$Eu in shield concrete, and $$^{3}$$H, $$^{14}$$C, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, and $$^{152}$$Eu in graphite. Neutron-flux distributions and neutron-induced activities were computed with DORT and ORIGEN-ARP codes, respectively. Using the results of material composition analysis, radioactivity concentrations were conservatively predicted with good accuracy except for graphite material.

JAEA Reports

Study on the basic system of the common non-destructive radioactivity measuring equipment for disposal of radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

Izumo, Sari; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Motoyama, Mitsushi*; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2018-018, 39 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Technology-2018-018.pdf:2.8MB

JAEA has planed the near surface disposal of LLW generated from research, industrial, and medical facilities. Maximum radioactivity concentration of each waste and total radioactivity of disposed wastes are needed to be less than the permitted values in the license of disposal facility. Thus, it is important not to evaluate the radioactivity of each waste in unduly conservative ways so as to dispose of the total amount of the waste that is originally planned. Accordingly, the detection limit is required to be as low as the clearance level for the very low level radioactive waste planned to be disposed of trench-type. In this report, the feasibility of the non-destructive assay method is studied by model calculations for gamma emitters. It is confirmed that the detection limit less than the clearance level can be achieved as regards the box type metal container that is difficult to measure. This report summarizes the requirements for the non-destructive measuring equipment.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste package destined for trench-type disposal facilities for waste generated from Research, Industrial and Medical Facilities; No harmful void

Nakata, Hisakazu; Takao, Hajime*; Chijimatsu, Masakazu*; Noma, Yasutaka*; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2018-014, 43 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Technology-2018-014.pdf:5.91MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to install disposal facilities for radioactive waste arising from research institutes. One relevant technical standard by the safety regulation is that the disposal facility shall be performance so as not to be left with harmful voids after backfilling with soil. Additionally no harmful void needs to exist in the waste packed in metal containers. The harmful void is supposed to result in the collapse of the disposal facility after structural materials of the container deteriorate and then become a state that can not retain the structure on its own. That leads to have an adverse impact on the facility such that the shape of cover soil deforms the way in which stagnant water is likely to occure. For which reason, a waste acceptance criteria relating to the quantity of voidage in a waste package needs to be defined quantitatively, which is preliminary less than 20% in a volum ratio based on this study.

Journal Articles

Status of design for the impermeable layer installed the trench disposal facility for low level radioactive waste

Sakai, Akihiro

Bosui Janaru, (564), p.46 - 52, 2018/11

The impermeable layer installed in trench disposal facility was designed in order to dispose of radioactive waste other than concrete and metal waste generated from research facilities, etc. In study of material of impermeable liners, weathering test in equivalent to long time was done. The test results showed that the tensile strength and the elongation percentage of HDPE that is a high elasticity type liner met standard values. However, the tensile strength of MEPE that is a medium elasticity type liner did not meet the standard value. The seepage water through several models of impermeable layers were calculated by use of the HELP code developed in U.S. The results showed that the structure that was composed of double impermeable liners, a drainage layer on the upper liner, and an impermeable sheet between the liners can be expected to have the enough performance to restrict seepage water.

Journal Articles

Development of waste acceptance criteria and current challenges relating to the disposal project of LLW generated in research, medical and industrial facilities

Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Izumo, Sari; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro

Dekomisshoningu Giho, (58), p.10 - 23, 2018/09

Low level radioactive wastes are generated in the research and development of the nuclear energy, medical and industrial use of radioisotope except NPP in Japan. The disposal of wastes arising from NPP has already been implemented while not the one for wastes from research institutes etc. Japan Atomic Energy Agency therefore has been assigned an implementing organization for the disposal legally in 2008 in order to promote the disposal program as quickly and firmly as possible. Since then, JAEA has conducted their activity relating to the disposal facility design on generic site conditions and developing Waste Acceptance Criteria for LLW from research institutes. This report summarizes the WAC and current challenges.

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation methodology of the radioactivity concentration in low-level radioactive wastes generated from JRR-2 & JRR-3

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Izumo, Sari; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2018-001, 66 Pages, 2018/06

JAEA-Technology-2018-001.pdf:4.12MB
JAEA-Technology-2018-001(errata).pdf:0.54MB

It is necessary to establish evaluation methodology of radioactivity concentrations of each radionuclide in waste packages for operation of the Near-surface Trench disposal and Sub-surface Pit disposal facility in near future, which has been preparing for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research facilities in JAEA. The radionuclides containing in waste packages generated from both JRR-2 and JRR-3, which are H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, Ag-108m, I-129, Cs-137, Eu-152, Eu-154, U-234, U-238, Pu-239+240, Pu-238+Am-241, Cm-243+244, were evaluated their density based on radiochemical analysis data, and the Evaluation Methodology of the Radioactivity Concentration such as Scaling Factor method and mean activity concentration method was studied in this report.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of radioactivity concentration of Cs-137 corresponded to the reference dose for the trench disposal facility according to the design condition

Sakai, Akihiro; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2017-030, 176 Pages, 2018/02

JAEA-Technology-2017-030.pdf:4.09MB

At present, the reuse method for the contaminated soil generated from the decontamination of radioactive materials caused by the accident of the Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after intermediate storage is being discussed. The radioactivity concentration of contaminated soil with about 20 million cubic meters within total arising volume of the soil is less than 100 kBq/kg. Therefore, when it is assumed that contaminated soil was disposed of in the trench facility, exposure doses to public at the various exposure pathways resulting from Cs-134 and Cs-137 contained in the removal soil were calculated. From the dose calculation results, the radioactivity concentrations corresponded to reference doses that are assumed to be 0.01 mSv/y or 0.3 mSv/y were evaluated. Then, variation of the radioactivity concentrations was evaluated when the volume of disposal facility was increased taking into account variation of the volume of contaminated soil.

JAEA Reports

Corrosion test of Fugen pressure tube (Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy) under the sub-surface disposal environment, 2; Examination of long-term corrosion rate by 5 years keeping sample

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2017-032, 21 Pages, 2018/01

[The article has been found to have a problem about reliability of the corrosion data acquisition, and thus it is unavailable to download the full text in accordance with authors' intentions to retract the report.] For the purpose of the setting of the rate of nuclide elution necessary to safety assessment, we planned the gas-accumulating type corrosion test on Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy in order to obtain long-term corrosion rate under low temperature, low oxygen and alkaline conditions assuming the disposal environment. A corrosion rate over a testing period of 5 years is acquired with the aim to grasp a long-term corrosion rate behavior in this report. This corrosion rate is compared with the same data that was previously acquired over a testing period of 2 years. As a result, it is confirmed that an evaluation method that is proportional to the minus cubic root of corrosion time squared can be applicable to the corrosion rate behavior acquired this time over a testing period of 5 years, which is the same result in evaluating the corrosion rate behavior acquired over a testing period of 2 years.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste packages destined for near surface disposal containing radioactive waste from research, industrial and medical facilities; Study on a method that fills voidage in waste package with sandy soil

Nakata, Hisakazu; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2017-031, 41 Pages, 2018/01

JAEA-Technology-2017-031.pdf:5.27MB

JAEA plans to install disposal facilities for radioactive waste arising from research institutes. It must meet the technical standards specified in the relevant rule. One technical standard is that the disposal facilities shall be performance so as not to be left with the voids after the backfilling with soil. Additionally, the rule also requires this radioactive waste be enclosed in a container in which no harmful voids remain. In order to contribute to the development of a method that adapts the disposal facilities to these technical standards, JAEA adopts a waste conditioning artifice that aims for reducing a quantity of voidage in each waste container by a vibration filling method using sandy soil, providing with average void ratios inside the disposal facilities being adequately controlled. In this reports, filling property tests are conducted in the light of filling sand characteristics, types of metal waste and vibration conditions.

Journal Articles

Challenges for management of radioactively contaminated wastes and volume reduction and reuse/recycling of removed soil derived from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, 5; Cost evaluation method for the disposal of low level radioactive waste

Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 59(8), p.447 - 449, 2017/08

Removed soil except those that may be reusable/recyclable would be finally disposed of. A general view is obtained in regards to a disposal concept of low level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities, for the purpose of contributing to designing final disposal facilities of removed soil. It is analyzed to investigate the issues relating to cost evaluation in order to reasonably carry out that design, referring to a cost evaluation methodology applied to a trench-type disposal facility, which has been planned by JAEA, with impermeable layers.

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste generated from post-irradiation examination facilities, 2

Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuo*; Machida, Hiroshi*

JAEA-Technology 2017-010, 75 Pages, 2017/06

JAEA-Technology-2017-010.pdf:2.31MB

It is necessary for reasonable disposal to be studied on evaluation methods to determine radioactivity concentrations in the radioactive wastes, which is generated from post-irradiation examination (PIE) facilities, for establishment of reasonable confirmation methods concerning radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial, and medical facilities. It has been chosen the PIE facilities of NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION as a model for this study. As a result, it has been confirmed that the theoretical methods are applied for the important nuclides (H-3, C-14, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137, Eu-154, U-234, U-235, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241 and Cm-244).

Journal Articles

Development of the reasonable confirmation methods concerning radioactive wastes from research facilities

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04

A near surface disposal for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) is operating in Japan. However, the disposal of LLW from other nuclear facilities and radioisotope utilization facilities has not yet been implemented. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) plans to implement the near surface disposal. In order to be disposed of these wastes, it must be confirmed by the regulator that each waste package (radioactive waste solidified with filling materials, such as cement, in a container by a regulated method is termed a waste package) conforms to technical standards that aim for safe disposal. JAEA has studied reasonable confirmation methods to demonstrate the conformity of the waste package to the technical standard as NPP operators have studied it. This report describes the outline of our activities focused on development of the confirmation method applicable to radioactive wastes from research facilities.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of nuclides migration for trench-type disposal by a calculation method taking leaching into consideration

Totsuka, Masayoshi; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Sakai, Akihiro; Nakata, Hisakazu; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2017-001, 40 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Technology-2017-001.pdf:2.24MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is planning for the near surface disposal of low level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities industry in Japan. This document provides the values of radioactivity concentrations equivalent to dose criterion for trench-type disposal. These values are derived based on the safety assessment for ground water scenarios by using a model which describes the release of radionuclides from wastes to a cover soil caused by elution. These concentrations are compared with the one calculated by a model that describes the nuclide release mechanisms as solid-liquid partitioning equilibrium. Additionally, the change in the concentrations is evaluated when the amount of water percolating into a disposal facility varies.

JAEA Reports

Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sasaki, Toshihisa*; Nakamura, Yasuo*; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2016-036, 126 Pages, 2017/02

JAEA-Technology-2016-036.pdf:7.28MB

At the Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal Project Department Sector of Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management, we performed the technological study about the disposal measures of the low-level radioactive waste targeted for uranium-bearing waste and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary 3-dimensional analysis of groundwater flow in the surrounding environment of near surface disposal facility

Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Totsuka, Masayoshi; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-032, 117 Pages, 2017/02

JAEA-Technology-2016-032.pdf:12.84MB

JAEA has been planning to implement near surface disposal of low level waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities. JAEA plans to carry out 3d analysis of groundwater flow in geological model around the disposal site because of development of migration assessment modeling of radioactivity materials in the site. In the safety demonstration test in JAEA, 3d analysis of groundwater flow was carried out on 1999. The analysis was calculated by using the code "3D-SEEP". But it is necessary to improve the conditions of the model in the analysis. Therefore, we improved the geological model which had been developed carried out 3d analysis of groundwater flow by using the current 3D-SEEP for the specified disposal site in the future. From the result, we expect that 3d analysis of groundwater flow in the environment around the specified near surface disposal site will be able to be sufficiently conducted by developing an appropriate model for the disposal site.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste packages destined for near surface disposal containing radioactive waste from research, industrial and medical facilities

Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Nakata, Hisakazu; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-023, 129 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA-Technology-2016-023.pdf:8.95MB

Waste packages must meet the technical requirements. This is because JAEA has been preparing an operating procedure manual for quality control of radioactive waste disposal to be applied to the processing of the waste packages. Raw wastes generated by JAEA are segregated and stored by a method specified in the manual. The composition of raw wastes was characterized on the basis of records of the segregation process. Simulated waste packages were produced by placing the waste materials in a 200 liter drum, which was then filled with mortar, followed by curing in a controlled manner. The static load test was conducted to measure deformation and strain performance of the simulated waste package. Compression apparatuses which can imitate loading conditions in pit-type and trench-type facility that are planned by JAEA were used. Based on the test result, waste packages produced in accordance with the manual met the technical requirement under the condition.

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