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JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste generated from the dismantling of research reactors

Murakami, Masashi; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Fukumura, Nobuo*; Sanda, Toshio*; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2019-003, 50 Pages, 2019/06

JAEA-Technology-2019-003.pdf:4.42MB

Toward the establishment of a common approach to determine the radioactivity concentrations in dismantling wastes arising from research reactors, radionuclide concentrations in the reactor structure materials of aluminum, carbon steel, shield concrete, and graphite of TRIGA Mark II reactor at Rikkyo University, Japan, were evaluated with both radiochemical analysis and theoretical calculation. The measured nuclides by the radiochemical analysis were $$^{3}$$H, $$^{60}$$Co, and $$^{63}$$Ni in aluminum, $$^{3}$$H, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, and $$^{152}$$Eu in carbon steel, $$^{3}$$H, $$^{60}$$Co, and $$^{152}$$Eu in shield concrete, and $$^{3}$$H, $$^{14}$$C, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, and $$^{152}$$Eu in graphite. Neutron-flux distributions and neutron-induced activities were computed with DORT and ORIGEN-ARP codes, respectively. Using the results of material composition analysis, radioactivity concentrations were conservatively predicted with good accuracy except for graphite material.

JAEA Reports

Study on the basic system of the common non-destructive radioactivity measuring equipment for disposal of radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

Izumo, Sari; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Motoyama, Mitsushi*; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2018-018, 39 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Technology-2018-018.pdf:2.8MB

JAEA has planed the near surface disposal of LLW generated from research, industrial, and medical facilities. Maximum radioactivity concentration of each waste and total radioactivity of disposed wastes are needed to be less than the permitted values in the license of disposal facility. Thus, it is important not to evaluate the radioactivity of each waste in unduly conservative ways so as to dispose of the total amount of the waste that is originally planned. Accordingly, the detection limit is required to be as low as the clearance level for the very low level radioactive waste planned to be disposed of trench-type. In this report, the feasibility of the non-destructive assay method is studied by model calculations for gamma emitters. It is confirmed that the detection limit less than the clearance level can be achieved as regards the box type metal container that is difficult to measure. This report summarizes the requirements for the non-destructive measuring equipment.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste waste package destined fot trench-type disposal facilities for waste generated from Research, Industrial and Medical Facilities; No harmful void

Nakata, Hisakazu; Takao, Hajime*; Chijimatsu, Masakazu*; Noma, Yasutaka*; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2018-014, 43 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Technology-2018-014.pdf:5.91MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to install disposal facilities for radioactive waste arising from research institutes. One relevant technical standard by the safety regulation is that the disposal facility shall be performance so as not to be left with harmful voids after backfilling with soil. Additionally no harmful void needs to exist in the waste packed in metal containers. The harmful void is supposed to result in the collapse of the disposal facility after structural materials of the container deteriorate and then become a state that can not retain the structure on its own. That leads to have an adverse impact on the facility such that the shape of cover soil deforms the way in which stagnant water is likely to occure. For which reason, a waste acceptance criteria relating to the quantity of voidage in a waste package needs to be defined quantitatively, which is preliminary less than 20% in a volum ratio based on this study.

Journal Articles

Development of waste acceptance criteria and current challenges relating to the disposal project of LLW generated in research, medical and industrial facilities

Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Izumo, Sari; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro

Dekomisshoningu Giho, (58), p.10 - 23, 2018/09

Low level radioactive wastes are generated in the research and development of the nuclear energy, medical and industrial use of radioisotope except NPP in Japan. The disposal of wastes arising from NPP has already been implemented while not the one for wastes from research institutes etc. Japan Atomic Energy Agency therefore has been assigned an implementing organization for the disposal legally in 2008 in order to promote the disposal program as quickly and firmly as possible. Since then, JAEA has conducted their activity relating to the disposal facility design on generic site conditions and developing Waste Acceptance Criteria for LLW from research institutes. This report summarizes the WAC and current challenges.

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation methodology of the radioactivity concentration in low-level radioactive wastes generated from JRR-2 & JRR-3

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Izumo, Sari; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2018-001, 66 Pages, 2018/06

JAEA-Technology-2018-001.pdf:4.12MB

It is necessary to establish evaluation methodology of radioactivity concentrations of each radionuclide in waste packages for operation of the Near-surface Trench disposal and Sub-surface Pit disposal facility in near future, which has been preparing for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research facilities in JAEA. The radionuclides containing in waste packages generated from both JRR-2 and JRR-3, which are H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, Ag-108m, I-129, Cs-137, Eu-152, Eu-154, U-234, U-238, Pu-239+240, Pu-238+Am-241, Cm-243+244, were evaluated their density based on radiochemical analysis data, and the Evaluation Methodology of the Radioactivity Concentration such as Scaling Factor method and mean activity concentration method was studied in this report.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of radioactivity concentration of Cs-137 corresponded to the reference dose for the trench disposal facility according to the design condition

Sakai, Akihiro; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2017-030, 176 Pages, 2018/02

JAEA-Technology-2017-030.pdf:4.09MB

At present, the reuse method for the contaminated soil generated from the decontamination of radioactive materials caused by the accident of the Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after intermediate storage is being discussed. The radioactivity concentration of contaminated soil with about 20 million cubic meters within total arising volume of the soil is less than 100 kBq/kg. Therefore, when it is assumed that contaminated soil was disposed of in the trench facility, exposure doses to public at the various exposure pathways resulting from Cs-134 and Cs-137 contained in the removal soil were calculated. From the dose calculation results, the radioactivity concentrations corresponded to reference doses that are assumed to be 0.01 mSv/y or 0.3 mSv/y were evaluated. Then, variation of the radioactivity concentrations was evaluated when the volume of disposal facility was increased taking into account variation of the volume of contaminated soil.

JAEA Reports

Corrosion test of Fugen pressure tube (Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy) under the sub-surface disposal environment, 2; Examination of long-term corrosion rate by 5 years keeping sample

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2017-032, 21 Pages, 2018/01

[The article has been found to have a problem about reliability of the corrosion data acquisition, and thus it is unavailable to download the full text in accordance with authors' intentions to retract the report.] For the purpose of the setting of the rate of nuclide elution necessary to safety assessment, we planned the gas-accumulating type corrosion test on Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy in order to obtain long-term corrosion rate under low temperature, low oxygen and alkaline conditions assuming the disposal environment. A corrosion rate over a testing period of 5 years is acquired with the aim to grasp a long-term corrosion rate behavior in this report. This corrosion rate is compared with the same data that was previously acquired over a testing period of 2 years. As a result, it is confirmed that an evaluation method that is proportional to the minus cubic root of corrosion time squared can be applicable to the corrosion rate behavior acquired this time over a testing period of 5 years, which is the same result in evaluating the corrosion rate behavior acquired over a testing period of 2 years.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste packages destined for near surface disposal containing radioactive waste from research, industrial and medical facilities; Study on a method that fills voidage in waste package with sandy soil

Nakata, Hisakazu; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2017-031, 41 Pages, 2018/01

JAEA-Technology-2017-031.pdf:5.27MB

JAEA plans to install disposal facilities for radioactive waste arising from research institutes. It must meet the technical standards specified in the relevant rule. One technical standard is that the disposal facilities shall be performance so as not to be left with the voids after the backfilling with soil. Additionally, the rule also requires this radioactive waste be enclosed in a container in which no harmful voids remain. In order to contribute to the development of a method that adapts the disposal facilities to these technical standards, JAEA adopts a waste conditioning artifice that aims for reducing a quantity of voidage in each waste container by a vibration filling method using sandy soil, providing with average void ratios inside the disposal facilities being adequately controlled. In this reports, filling property tests are conducted in the light of filling sand characteristics, types of metal waste and vibration conditions.

Journal Articles

Challenges for management of radioactively contaminated wastes and volume reduction and reuse/recycling of removed soil derived from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, 5; Cost evaluation method for the disposal of low level radioactive waste

Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 59(8), p.447 - 449, 2017/08

Removed soil except those that may be reusable/recyclable would be finally disposed of. A general view is obtained in regards to a disposal concept of low level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities, for the purpose of contributing to designing final disposal facilities of removed soil. It is analyzed to investigate the issues relating to cost evaluation in order to reasonably carry out that design, referring to a cost evaluation methodology applied to a trench-type disposal facility, which has been planned by JAEA, with impermeable layers.

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste generated from post-irradiation examination facilities, 2

Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuo*; Machida, Hiroshi*

JAEA-Technology 2017-010, 75 Pages, 2017/06

JAEA-Technology-2017-010.pdf:2.31MB

It is necessary for reasonable disposal to be studied on evaluation methods to determine radioactivity concentrations in the radioactive wastes, which is generated from post-irradiation examination (PIE) facilities, for establishment of reasonable confirmation methods concerning radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial, and medical facilities. It has been chosen the PIE facilities of NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION as a model for this study. As a result, it has been confirmed that the theoretical methods are applied for the important nuclides (H-3, C-14, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137, Eu-154, U-234, U-235, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241 and Cm-244).

Journal Articles

Development of the reasonable confirmation methods concerning radioactive wastes from research facilities

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04

A near surface disposal for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) is operating in Japan. However, the disposal of LLW from other nuclear facilities and radioisotope utilization facilities has not yet been implemented. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) plans to implement the near surface disposal. In order to be disposed of these wastes, it must be confirmed by the regulator that each waste package (radioactive waste solidified with filling materials, such as cement, in a container by a regulated method is termed a waste package) conforms to technical standards that aim for safe disposal. JAEA has studied reasonable confirmation methods to demonstrate the conformity of the waste package to the technical standard as NPP operators have studied it. This report describes the outline of our activities focused on development of the confirmation method applicable to radioactive wastes from research facilities.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of nuclides migration for trench-type disposal by a calculation method taking leaching into consideration

Totsuka, Masayoshi; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Sakai, Akihiro; Nakata, Hisakazu; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2017-001, 40 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Technology-2017-001.pdf:2.24MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is planning for the near surface disposal of low level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities industry in Japan. This document provides the values of radioactivity concentrations equivalent to dose criterion for trench-type disposal. These values are derived based on the safety assessment for ground water scenarios by using a model which describes the release of radionuclides from wastes to a cover soil caused by elution. These concentrations are compared with the one calculated by a model that describes the nuclide release mechanisms as solid-liquid partitioning equilibrium. Additionally, the change in the concentrations is evaluated when the amount of water percolating into a disposal facility varies.

JAEA Reports

Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sasaki, Toshihisa*; Nakamura, Yasuo*; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2016-036, 126 Pages, 2017/02

JAEA-Technology-2016-036.pdf:7.28MB

At the Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal Project Department Sector of Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management, we performed the technological study about the disposal measures of the low-level radioactive waste targeted for uranium-bearing waste and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary 3-dimensional analysis of groundwater flow in the surrounding environment of near surface disposal facility

Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Totsuka, Masayoshi; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-032, 117 Pages, 2017/02

JAEA-Technology-2016-032.pdf:12.84MB

JAEA has been planning to implement near surface disposal of low level waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities. JAEA plans to carry out 3d analysis of groundwater flow in geological model around the disposal site because of development of migration assessment modeling of radioactivity materials in the site. In the safety demonstration test in JAEA, 3d analysis of groundwater flow was carried out on 1999. The analysis was calculated by using the code "3D-SEEP". But it is necessary to improve the conditions of the model in the analysis. Therefore, we improved the geological model which had been developed carried out 3d analysis of groundwater flow by using the current 3D-SEEP for the specified disposal site in the future. From the result, we expect that 3d analysis of groundwater flow in the environment around the specified near surface disposal site will be able to be sufficiently conducted by developing an appropriate model for the disposal site.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste packages destined for near surface disposal containing radioactive waste from research, industrial and medical facilities

Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Nakata, Hisakazu; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-023, 129 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA-Technology-2016-023.pdf:8.95MB

Waste packages must meet the technical requirements. This is because JAEA has been preparing an operating procedure manual for quality control of radioactive waste disposal to be applied to the processing of the waste packages. Raw wastes generated by JAEA are segregated and stored by a method specified in the manual. The composition of raw wastes was characterized on the basis of records of the segregation process. Simulated waste packages were produced by placing the waste materials in a 200 liter drum, which was then filled with mortar, followed by curing in a controlled manner. The static load test was conducted to measure deformation and strain performance of the simulated waste package. Compression apparatuses which can imitate loading conditions in pit-type and trench-type facility that are planned by JAEA were used. Based on the test result, waste packages produced in accordance with the manual met the technical requirement under the condition.

JAEA Reports

Design study for impermeable function of trench disposal facility for very low level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities (Joint research)

Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Nakata, Hisakazu; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Sato, Makoto*; Kitamura, Yoichi*; Honda, Yasutake*; Takaoka, Katsuki*; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-019, 134 Pages, 2016/10

JAEA-Technology-2016-019.pdf:8.25MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing to design trench disposal facility with impermeable layers in order to dispose of miscellaneous waste. Geomembrane liners have a function that prevent seepage of leachant and collect the leachant. However, the geomembrane liners do not necessarily provide the expected performance due to damage generated when heavy equipment contacts with the liner. Therefore, we studied the impermeable layers having high performance of preventing seepage of leachant including radioactivity taking into account characteristics of low permeable materials and effect of multiple layer structure. As results, we have evaluated that the composite layers composed by a drainage layer, geomembrane liners and a low permeable layer are most effective structure to prevent seepage of leachant. Taking into account disposal of waste including cesium, we also considered zeolite containing sheets for adsorption of cesium were installed in the impermeable layers.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of the dose equivalent rate based on the unit concentration of contaminated soil in a flexible container

Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Abe, Daichi; Takebe, Shinichi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2016-018, 20 Pages, 2016/09

JAEA-Technology-2016-018.pdf:2.41MB

Decontamination to the pollution which occurred with an accident of a nuclear power plant with Tohoku-district Pacific offing earthquake has been performed. The contaminated soil which occurred in decontamination stores it in the flexible container back, and is the kept situation. To presume concentration of radioactivity of contents from the dose of the flexible container, the 1cm dose equivalent rate per the unit concentration of radioactivity was calculated with QAD-CGGP2R.

JAEA Reports

Waste acceptance criteria for waste packages destined for near surface disposal containing radioactive waste from research, industrial and medical facilities

Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2016-001, 112 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2016-001.pdf:16.71MB

The waste packages must meet the technical requirements that radioactive waste shall be solidified in a container by a method determined by the Nuclear Regulation Authority to prevent from radiation hazards. JAEA has been preparing operating procedure manual on quality control for radioactive waste disposal in order to promote the manufacturing the waste package. This report presents that simulant waste packages were produced by placing wastes in a 200 liter drum, which was then filled with mortar of a novel mix proportion, followed by curing in a controlled manner. Determination of the presence of harmful voidage and raw waste immobility were performed by direct measurement and visual inspection of a vertical cross section of the waste packages respectively.

JAEA Reports

Method and result for calculation of radioactivity concentration of radionuclide corresponding to dose criterion for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities

Okada, Shota; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakai, Akihiro; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2015-016, 44 Pages, 2015/07

JAEA-Technology-2015-016.pdf:5.8MB

In this report, we calculated radioactivity concentration of radionuclides potentially contained in low level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities corresponding to dose criterion (10 $$mu$$Sv/y) for near surface disposal. 220 kinds of nuclides whose half-life are more than 30 days were selected. Radioactivity concentrations corresponding to dose criterion of 40 nuclides among 220 ones were calculated by using the representative model because the concentrations of 40 nuclides had not been calculated yet. Skyshine dose from each of 19 nuclides, whose radioactivity concentration were invalid values that are larger than the specific radioactivity of nuclides, during operation of disposal facility was calculated. These radioactivity concentrations can be used as criteria of categorization of LLW between trench type and concrete vault type disposal and of preliminary selection of important nuclides of these disposals in the generic conditions.

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation methods to determine the radioactivity concentration in low-level radioactive wastes generated from JPDR facilities, 2

Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Akihiro; Izumo, Sari; Amazawa, Hiroya

JAEA-Technology 2015-009, 46 Pages, 2015/06

JAEA-Technology-2015-009.pdf:1.45MB

It is necessary to establish practical evaluation methods to determine radioactivity concentrations of the important nuclides for safety assessment on disposal of radioactive wastes in order to dispose of low-level radioactive wastes generated from various nuclear facilities in JAEA. In this report, it has been studied that the practical evaluation methods are applied for the important nuclides (H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ni-59, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Mo-93, Nb-94, Tc-99, Ag-108m, Cs-137, Eu-152, Eu-154, Ho-166m, $$alpha$$ nuclides) of radioactive wastes generated from JPDR facilities. As a result, it has been found that the appropriate methods to determine radioactivity concentrations such as the scaling factor method (Ni-63, Nb-94), the mean activity concentration method (H-3, C-14, Cl-36 and so on) and the theoretical method (Ni-59) can be applied and Co-60, Ag-108m and Cs-137 will be evaluated by $$gamma$$ measurements from outside of the waste package.

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