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論文

東海再処理施設の廃止措置計画の概要

岡野 正紀; 秋山 和樹; 田口 克也; 永里 良彦; 大森 栄一

デコミッショニング技報, (57), p.53 - 64, 2018/03

東海再処理施設は1971年6月に建設が開始され、使用済燃料を用いたホット試験を1977年9月に開始した。電気事業者との再処理役務契約を無事完遂した。それ以来2007年5月までの約30年間にわたり約1,140トンの使用済燃料を再処理した。東海再処理施設については、2014年9月の「日本原子力研究開発機構改革報告書」において、費用対効果を勘案して廃止措置へ移行する方針を示した。これらを踏まえ、2017年6月に東海再処理施設の廃止措置計画認可申請書を原子力規制委員会に提出した。本廃止措置計画では、廃止措置の進め方、リスク低減の取組み、廃止措置の実施区分等を含む廃止措置の基本方針、使用済燃料と放射性廃棄物の管理、廃止措置に要する資金、廃止措置の工程を定めている。そのうち、廃止措置工程として、約30施設の管理区域解除までの計画を取りまとめ、約70年の期間が必要となることを示している。

報告書

平成27年度原子力発電所周辺における航空機モニタリング(受託研究)

眞田 幸尚; 宗像 雅広; 森 愛理; 石崎 梓; 嶋田 和真; 廣内 淳; 西澤 幸康; 卜部 嘉; 中西 千佳*; 山田 勉*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2016-016, 131 Pages, 2016/10

JAEA-Research-2016-016.pdf:20.59MB

2011年3月11日に発生した東日本大震災による津波に起因した東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故によって、大量の放射性物質が周辺に飛散した。事故直後より、放射線の分布を迅速かつ広範囲に測定する手法として、航空機等を用いた空からの測定方法が適用されている。ここでは、平成27年度に実施した福島第一原子力発電所周辺におけるモニタリング結果と川内原子力発電所周辺で行ったバックグラウンド線量率のモニタリング結果についてまとめた。

論文

DNA gyrase of ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$ is characterized as Type II bacterial topoisomerase and its activity is differentially regulated by PprA in vitro

Kota, S.*; Rajpurohit, Y. S.*; Charaka, V. K.*; 佐藤 勝也; 鳴海 一成*; Misra, H, S.*

Extremophiles, 20(2), p.195 - 205, 2016/03

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:47.77(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

The multipartite genome of ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$ forms toroidal structure. It encodes topoisomerase IB and both the subunits of DNA gyrase (DrGyr) while lacks other bacterial topoisomerases. Recently, PprA a pleiotropic protein involved in radiation resistance in ${it D. radiodurans}$ has been suggested for having roles in cell division and genome maintenance. In vivo interaction of PprA with topoisomerases has also been shown. DrGyr constituted from recombinant gyrase A and gyrase B subunits showed decatenation, relaxation and supercoiling activities. Wild type PprA stimulated DNA relaxation activity while inhibited supercoiling activity of DrGyr. Thus, we showed that DrGyr confers all three activities of bacterial type IIA family DNA topoisomerases, which are differentially regulated by PprA, highlighting the significant role of PprA in DrGyr activity regulation and genome maintenance in ${it D. radiodurans}$.

論文

Screening of cesium-accumulating mutant of radioresistant bacterium ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$ by ion beam breeding technology

佐藤 勝也; 上田 涼史郎*; 長谷 純宏; 鳴海 一成*; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 100, 2016/02

Bioremediation uses biological organisms to solve an environmental problem. However, microorganisms are sometimes not enough effective to achieve efficient recovery. Therefore, enhancing the functionality of microorganisms is needed to promote the active use of bioremediation. This study began with the purpose of development of Cs-accumulating bacteria by ion beam breeding technology. Previously, we suggested that ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$ is the most suitable species for the development of high Cs-accumulating bacteria by ion beam breeding technology. Candidates of Cs-accumulating mutant were screened from the mutagenized cells by ion beam breeding technology on the basis of the luminescent intensity and the cell area as indicators of intracellular Cs level and cell growth, respectively. As a result, we obtained 33 candidates, whose Cs-accumulating abilities were over 2-fold higher than that of the wild-type, from the population of mutagenized cells.

論文

Improvement of symbiotic performance of ${it Sinorhizobium}$ with ${it Vigna marina}$ under high salt conditions using the ion beam mutation breeding

丸山 雄大*; 武田 喜代子*; 友岡 憲彦*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊; 横山 正*

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 99, 2016/02

${it Vigna marina}$ is one of wild legumes, which called as Hamaazuki, are distributed at the vicinity of the coast from tropical to sub-tropical regions and have high salt tolerance among terrestrial plants. ${it V. marina}$ can grow at 400 mM NaCl condition. Furthermore, the root nodules on ${it V. marina}$ have a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia that related to the genus ${it Sinorhizobium}$ having high stress tolerance (500 mM NaCl, 45 $$^{circ}$$C, pH 10.5). Above both symbiotic partners showed extremely high salt tolerance, however, ${it V. marina}$ cannot develop root nodules with ${it Sinorhizobium}$ at over 80 mM NaCl conditions. To improve symbiotic performance of ${it V. marina}$ with ${it Sinorhizobium}$ under high salt conditions, ${it Sinorhizobium}$ bacterial cells were irradiated by carbon ion-beam at TIARA. However, so far, we could not obtain promising mutants having good symbiotic performance with Vigna marina under high salt conditions, yet.

論文

Breeding of high ethanol producing yeast by screening from mutant library

荻野 千秋*; Kahar, P.*; Lee, J. M.*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊; 近藤 昭彦*

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 105, 2016/02

Ethanol fermentation from hydrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass with yeast is very important. However, in common sense, there are several chemical inhibitors for yeast from hydrolyzed biomass. Therefore, screening of yeast strain, possessing the tolerance properties against these chemical inhibitors, should be found from nature resources or mutant libraries. To overcome the problem, we have screened yeast strains tolerant to many chemical inhibitors contained in bagasse sugar lysate (BSL) at high temperature (35 $$^{circ}$$C) from 1500 strains out of national bio-resource center yeast collection. We found that F118 strain could grow and ferment BSL and produce ethanol. For increasing of the yield and ethanol fermentation efficiency of F118 strain, the adaptation of F118 strain to high temperature was conducted, followed by carbon ion beam irradiation. Consequently, we have successfully obtained F118S88 strain as a good candidate for ethanol production from BSL at high temperature.

論文

Accumulation of cesium and its association with intracellular polyphosphate in ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$

上田 涼史郎*; 佐藤 勝也; 林 秀謙*; 鳴海 一成*; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 101, 2016/02

It is suggesting a possibility that the polyphosphate granules in cells could accumulate harmful metal ions such as radiocesium to protect the cells from cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of cesium and its association with intracellular polyphosphate in ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$ using the gene disruptant and overexpressing strains. The cesium accumulation level in the disruptant and overexpressing strains was compared with that of the wild-type strain. The cesium accumulations in the ${it ppk}$ disruptant and overexpressing strains were slightly decreased and almost same, respectively. Like the intracellular polyphosphate level, the cesium accumulation level was significantly increased in the ${it ppx}$ disruptant strain. These results suggested that the intracellular polyphosphate level was positively correlated with the cesium accumulation level in ${it D. radiodurans}$.

論文

イオンビーム育種により得られた高カプロン酸エチル生産清酒酵母のゲノム配列解析,2

増渕 隆*; 渡口 和樹*; 林 秀謙*; 池永 裕*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 106, 2016/02

We conducted the gene function analysis of the high ethyl caproate producing sake yeast mutant (No.227) generated by ion beam breeding in order to develop a new method for sake yeast screening and find factors contributing the reduced ability to alcohol fermentation. The genome sequences of the No.227 and Kyokai 901 (its parental strain) were determined by a whole-genome shotgun strategy using pyrosequencing method. And the determined sequences were compared with that of the sake yeast strain Kyokai 7, which is characterized by the fermentation properties. Consequently, the No.227 carried mutations in the ${it FAS2}$ and ${it ERR2}$ genes as heterozygous state. It was suggested that these mutations in the ${it FAS2}$ and ${it ERR2}$ genes in the No.227 might be attributed to the high ethyl caproate production and the low alcohol fermentation ability, respectively.

論文

Draft genome sequence of the radioresistant bacterium ${it Deinococcus grandis}$, isolated from freshwater fish in Japan

佐藤 勝也; 小野寺 威文*; 面曽 宏太*; 武田-矢野 喜代子*; 片山 豪*; 大野 豊; 鳴海 一成*

Genome Announcements (Internet), 4(1), p.e01631-15_1 - e01631-15_2, 2016/01

${it Deinococcus grandis}$ was isolated as a gram-negative, red-pigmented, radioresistant, rod-shaped bacterium from freshwater fish. The draft genome sequence of ${it D. grandis}$ ATCC 43672 was 4,092,497 bp, with an average G+C content of 67.5% and comprised of 4 circular contigs and 3 linear contigs that was deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank under the accession number BCMS00000000. The draft genome sequence indicates that ${it D. grandis}$ possesses a DNA damage response regulator (encoded by ${it pprI}$ homolog) and radiation-desiccation response regulons (${it recA}$, ${it ddrA}$, ${it ddrO}$, ${it pprA}$ and ${it gyrA}$ homologs etc.), which are involved in the unique radiation-desiccation response system in ${it D. radiodurans}$. As it is for ${it D. radiodurans}$, ${it D. grandis}$ seems to employ the same radioresistant mechanisms. In future, the draft genome sequence of ${it D. grandis}$ will be useful for elucidating the common principles of the radioresistance based on the extremely efficient DNA repair mechanisms in Deinococcus species by the comparative analysis of genomic sequences.

論文

Draft genome sequence of ${it Methylobacterium}$ sp. ME121, isolated from soil as a mixed single colony with ${it Kaistia}$ sp. 32K

藤浪 俊*; 武田 喜代子*; 小野寺 威文*; 佐藤 勝也; 清水 哲*; 若林 佑*; 鳴海 一成*; 中村 顕*; 伊藤 政博*

Genome Announcements (Internet), 3(5), p.e01005-15_1 - e01005-15_2, 2015/09

${it Methylobacterium}$ sp. ME121 was isolated from soil as a mixed single colony with ${it Kaistia}$ sp. 32K during our screening of L-glucose-utilizing microorganisms, and its growth was enhanced by coculture. It was expected that genomic analysis of this bacterium would provide novel information on coculture-dependent growth enhancement. The genomic information of symbiotic bacteria could be of use for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying microbial symbiosis. The draft genome sequence of ${it Methylobacterium}$sp. ME121 is 7,096,979 bp in total length and comprises 197 large contigs ($$>$$ 500 bp) that was deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number BBUX00000000. The draft genome sequence shows that ${it Methylobacterium}$ sp. ME121 has some genes that encode putative methanol/ethanol family PQQ-dependent dehydrogenases involved in methylotrophy. Some unknown factor provided by the coculture may contribute to increase the growth of ${it Methylobacterium}$ sp. ME121.

報告書

平成26年度福島第一原子力発電所周辺における航空機モニタリング(受託研究)

眞田 幸尚; 森 愛理; 石崎 梓; 宗像 雅広; 中山 真一; 西澤 幸康; 卜部 嘉; 中西 千佳; 山田 勉; 石田 睦司; et al.

JAEA-Research 2015-006, 81 Pages, 2015/07

JAEA-Research-2015-006.pdf:22.96MB

2011年3月11日に発生した東日本大震災による津波に起因した東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故によって、大量の放射性物質が周辺に飛散した。事故直後より、放射線の分布を迅速かつ広範囲に測定する手法として、航空機等を用いた空からの測定方法が適用されている。本報告書には、平成26年度に実施した航空機モニタリングの結果についてまとめた。

論文

イオンビーム育種技術による植物・微生物のセシウム吸収特性の改変

大野 豊; 長谷 純宏; 佐藤 勝也; 野澤 樹; 鳴海 一成*

放射線と産業, (138), p.17 - 20, 2015/06

イオンビーム育種技術は、近年植物や微生物の改変に活発に利用され、有用品種の作出に成果をあげている。東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故対応のためにイオンビーム育種でなにができるのか。日本原子力研究開発機構量子ビーム応用センターでは、高崎量子応用研究所のサイクロトロンを利用し、セシウム高・低吸収植物やセシウム高濃縮菌の開発に取り組み、変異体の候補を得ることに成功した。

論文

Development of cesium-accumulating bacteria by ion beam breeding technology

佐藤 勝也; 上田 涼史郎; 長谷 純宏; 鳴海 一成*; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 117, 2015/03

Bioremediation uses biological organisms to solve an environmental problem. However, microorganisms are sometimes not enough effective to achieve efficient recovery. Therefore, enhancing the functionality of microorganisms is needed to promote the active use of bioremediation. This study began with the purpose of development of Cs-accumulating bacteria by ion beam breeding technology. We investigated which members are better suited for Cs-accumulation in the genus ${it Deinococcus}$ (${it D. radiodurans}$, ${it D. grandis}$, ${it D. proteolyticus}$, ${it D. radiopugnans}$, ${it D. geothermalis}$ and ${it D. murrayi}$) exhibit extraordinary radioresistant. The Cs concentration in the ${it Deinococcus}$ cells exhibited over 4-fold compared with that of the ${it E. coli}$ by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis. This result suggested that ${it D. radiodurans}$ and ${it D. grandis}$ are best two suitable species for the development of high Cs-accumulating bacteria by ion beam breeding technology.

論文

Molecular analysis of polyphosphate biosynthesis-related genes in ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$

上田 涼史郎; 佐藤 勝也; 林 秀謙*; 鳴海 一成*; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 118, 2015/03

It is suggesting a possibility that the polyphosphate granules in cells could accumulate harmful metal ions such as radiocesium to protect the cells from cytotoxicity. ${it Deinococcus radiodurans}$ has been considered as a microorganism for bioremediation under highly radioactive contaminated environments. We generated the polyphosphate biosynthesis-related genes (${it ppk}$ and ${it ppx}$) disruptant strains and characterized their disruption effect to clarify the role of polyphosphate for the accumulation of cesium in ${it D. radiodurans}$. The intracellular levels of polyphosphates in the ${it ppk}$ disruptant and overexpressing strains were almost same and slightly increased, respectively. On other hand, the intracellular level of polyphosphates significantly increased in the ${it ppx}$ disruptant strains, suggesting that the ${it ppx}$gene plays an important role in the accumulation of polyphosphate in ${it D. radiodurans}$.

論文

Genome analysis of the high temperature tolerant mutant of ${it Bradyrhizobium japonicum}$ USDA110 generated by ion-beam irradiation

武田 喜代子*; 佐藤 勝也; 鳴海 一成*; 大野 豊; 大津 直子*; 横山 正*

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 120, 2015/03

Major constraint of biofertilizer utilization in agricultural practice is a viability loss of beneficial microorganisms in biofertilizers by high temperature stress during both storage and transportation. Therefore, we have tried to improve high temperature tolerance of ${it Bradyrhizobium japonicum}$ USDA110 using carbon-ion beams accelerated by an AVF cyclotron at TIARA. Consequently, we have obtained a high temperature tolerant mutant that can maintain a high survival rate at 42 $$^{circ}$$C for at least 7 days in yeast-mannitol broth medium, and named it as M14. The genome sequence of M14 was determined by a whole-genome shotgun strategy. The acquirement of high temperature tolerance in M14 could be attributed to 18 base mutations and/or a large-scale inversion (1.27 Mb). In the future, we will conduct further analysis on these mutations in order to decipher the molecular mechanisms of high temperature tolerance of M14.

論文

Thermotolerant mutants of entomopathogenic fungi obtained by ion beam- and $$gamma$$ ray-induced mutagenesis

西東 力*; Fitriana, Y.*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊; 鳴海 一成*

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 121, 2015/03

Entomopathogenic fungi, such as ${it Metarhizium anisopliae}$, are economically important agents for integrated pest management programmes of insect pests. However, negative effects of temperature, such as heat stress that exceeds 35 $$^{circ}$$C, can have serious deleterious effects on conidial germination and persistence, vegetative growth, sporulation, and/or the infection process in these entomopathogenic fungi. In this study, we attempted to enhance thermotolerance in a model entomopathogenic fungus, ${it M. anisopliae}$, by mutagenesis using ion beams or $$gamma$$ rays and evaluated the relative virulence of the resulting mutants compared with the wild-type isolates. In conclusion, ion beams and $$gamma$$ rays are useful tools for improving biological characteristics, such as thermotolerance and fungicide-tolerance, in entomopathogenic fungi, but the mutants obtained in this study must be carefully evaluated for unpredictable negative side effects.

論文

Screening of yeast strain for ethanol fermentation after carbon ion beam irradiation

荻野 千秋*; 山田 良祐*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 122, 2015/03

Ethanol fermentation from hydrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass with yeast is very important. However, in common sense, there are several chemical inhibitors for yeast from hydrolyzed biomass. Therefore, screening of yeast strain, possessing the tolerance properties against these chemical inhibitors, should be found from nature resources or mutant libraries. In this research, by carbon ion beam irradiation, the screening of candidate yeast strains was performed. Compared with wild type strain, the ethanol production yield was improved in the case of selected strain. It was assumed that the carbon ion beam irradiation could be influence to yeast cell, and improve the metabolic pathway. In future, by using this selected yeast, the ethanol fermentation from hydrolyzed biomass with high efficiency would be performed.

論文

Genome analysis of high ethyl caproate producing sake yeasts generated by ion beam breeding

増渕 隆*; 日向 弘和*; 上田 涼史郎; 林 秀謙*; 池永 裕*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 123, 2015/03

We analyzed genome sequence of the high ethyl caproate producing sake yeast mutant (No.227) generated by ion beam breeding in order to investigated factors contributing the reduced ability to alcohol fermentation. In the high ethyl caproate producing sake yeast, four pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC), six alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH), two biotin synthesis genes (BIO) and chitinase gene (CTS1) might be involved in the reduced ability to alcohol fermentation. The genome sequence of the strain No.227 was determined by a whole-genome shotgun strategy using pyrosequencing method and compared with the whole-genome sequence of the sake yeast strain Kyokai 7, which is characterized by the fermentation property, as a reference sequence. For the PDC, ADH, BIO and CTS1 loci, no mutation was found in the strain No.227, suggesting that these genes did not involved in the reduced ability to alcohol fermentation.

論文

Role of DNA repair and effect of herbal extract on LOH induced by ion beam radiations in ${it Saccharomyces cerevisiae}$

布柴 達男*; 山内 理子*; 岩田 梨佳*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊; 鳴海 一成*

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 124, 2015/03

The LOH (loss of heterozygosity) induction by various ion beam radiations was investigated in diploid ${it Saccharomyces cerevisiae}$. The ion beams $$^{12}$$C$$^{5+}$$, $$^{12}$$C$$^{6+}$$, $$^{4}$$He$$^{2+}$$ and $$^{40}$$Ar$$^{13+}$$ at the lowest dose of 37.5 Gy, which had $$sim$$10% lethality, induced LOH with $$sim$$5$-fold higher frequency, with dose-dependent manner until 150 Gy. The LOH induction was predominantly ($sim$$90%) resulted from homologous recombination. Pol$$zeta$$ may be involved in the induction of LOH by ion beam radiations, because in the strain lacking Rev3, only slight induction of LOH was observed, whereas no remarkable effect of deletion for Pol$$zeta$$ was observed on ion beam induced LOH. In addition, the effects of ${it Eucalyptus regnans}$ extracts were examined on iron-beam radiation induced LOH, and ethanol extract of ${it Eucalyptus regnans}$ possessed inhibitory effect on LOH induced by $$^{12}$$C$$^{6+}$$, $$^{4}$$He$$^{2+}$$ and $$^{40}$$Ar$$^{13+}$$ion-beam radiation.

論文

Benomyl-resistant ${it Beauveria bassiana}$ (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) mutants induced by ion beams

Fitriana, Y.*; 篠原 忍*; 佐藤 勝也; 鳴海 一成*; 西東 力*

Applied Entomology and Zoology, 50(1), p.123 - 129, 2015/02

 パーセンタイル:100(Chemistry, Physical)

Fungicides targeted at phytopathogens can be harmful to entomopathogenic fungi. The purpose of this study was to use ion-beam irradiation technology to produce benomyl-resistant mutants of the entomopathogenic fungus ${it Beauveria bassiana}$. After irradiation of conidia at 150 Gy, two mutant isolates, BB22 and BB24, were selected on media containing the fungicide. In an assay of vegetative growth, BB22 and BB24 were over 500 and 800 times more tolerant to benomyl, respectively, compared with the wild isolate. A mutation was found at position 198 of the $$beta$$-tubulin gene in the mutant isolates, with a substitution of glutamate for alanine (E198A). Ion beams have great potential as a tool to improve the traits of entomopathogenic fungi such as increasing tolerance to fungicides. Fungicide-resistant mutants produced in this way could be useful agents for biological control within IPM programmes where fungicides are also used.

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