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論文

Flow regime and void fraction predictions in vertical rod bundle flow channels

Han, X.*; Shen, X.*; 山本 俊弘*; 中島 健*; 孫 昊旻; 日引 俊*

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 178, p.121637_1 - 121637_24, 2021/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Thermodynamics)

This paper studies the flow regimes, their transitions and the drift-flux correlations in upward gas-liquid two-phase flows in vertical rod bundle flow channels. The flows are classified into 5 flow regimes, namely, bubbly, finely dispersed bubbly, cap-bubbly, churn and annular flows according to their different flow characteristics. Transition criteria between the flow regimes are proposed mechanistically. Those criteria can correctly predict 83% of the existing experimental observation of the flow regime. The drift-flux correlations for the distribution parameter and the drift velocity are also improved. The void fractions predicted by those correlations are compared with the existing experimental data, showing satisfactory agreement with mean relative error of 8%.

論文

The Dependence of pool scrubbing decontamination factor on particle number density; Modeling based on bubble mass and energy balances

孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 廣瀬 意育; 久木田 豊

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(9), p.1048 - 1057, 2021/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

以前のわれわれのプールスクラビング実験において、入口粒子数密度の上昇に伴って除染係数(DF)が減少する結果が得られており、その理由については過去の研究を含めて明らかにされていなかった。本研究では、現象の要因を粒子表面での水蒸気の凝縮による粒子成長であると仮定し、上昇気泡内の質量とエネルギーのバランスに基づく簡易評価モデルを構築し、同モデルを用いて評価した。粒子表面での水蒸気凝縮は、凝縮による気泡内の水蒸気濃度を低下させると同時に、凝縮潜熱放出による温度上昇効果をもたらし、気泡内蒸気過飽和度を減少させ、凝縮を抑制する。本効果は粒子数濃度に依存する。評価モデルでは、気泡の上昇距離の関数として粒子の成長と慣性DFを計算し、その結果、実験で観察されたDFの傾向を再現した。

論文

Experimental investigation on fiber-coupled Raman spectrometry in presence of aerosols; Application for reactor containment gas detection in severe accident conditions

孫 昊旻; Porcheron, E.*; Magne, S.*; Leroy, M.*; Dhote, J.*; Ruffien Ciszak, A.*; Bentaib, A.*

Proceedings of OECD/NEA Specialist Workshop on Advanced Measurement Method and Instrumentation for enhancing Severe Accident Management in an NPP addressing Emergency, Stabilization and Long-term Recovery Phases (SAMMI 2020) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2020/12

During a severe accident (SA), hydrogen may be generated. To avoid a hydrogen explosion, it is important to monitor gas concentrations of e.g. H$$_{2}$$, O$$_{2}$$, N$$_{2}$$, H$$_{2}$$O, CO and CO$$_{2}$$ in the containment during a SA. A spontaneous Raman spectrometry (SRS) associated with a fiber-coupled probe had been developed. Since the probe had been designed to be implemented in the reactor containment, the SRS was qualified experimentally with the probe being surrounded by aerosols. Particles attached on the probe optical components (contamination) due to a continuous aerosol exposure as well as those in the atmosphere (aerosol) can cause photon-particle interactions such as light scattering (Mie) and fluorescence which may influence the Raman spectrum (RS). In our experiment, the contamination effect and the aerosol effect on the RS were investigated separately. It was found both effects increase the spectrum counts in whole wavelength range. Elementary criterion for the onset of each effect was suggested.

論文

Containment atmosphere monitoring system for design and beyond design basis accident

Bentaib, A.*; Janin, T.*; Porcheron, E.*; Magne, S.*; Leroy, M.*; Dhote, J.*; Ruffien Ciszak, A.*; 孫 昊旻

Proceedings of OECD/NEA Specialist Workshop on Advanced Measurement Method and Instrumentation for enhancing Severe Accident Management in an NPP addressing Emergency, Stabilization and Long-term Recovery Phases (SAMMI 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/12

To prevent hydrogen explosion hazard during a severe accident, dedicated mitigation strategies were adopted according to plants design and improved as results of stress tests after the Fukushima accident. The strategies commonly used combine the implementation of safety components, as the passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs), and the definition of adequate SAMGs (Severe Accident Management Guidelines). Concerning French PWRs, SAMGs procedure relies on information provided by limited monitoring systems as pressure, core exit temperature and dose rate sensors. The containment atmosphere gaseous composition is not monitored and only PARs are equipped with thermocouples to detect hydrogen through the heat release of the exothermic recombination reaction. In the framework of the MITHYGENE project, a prototypic device had been developed based on Raman probes connected by optical fibers to a transportable unit. Several qualification campaigns had been conducted to check the effect of severe accident representative conditions, including radiation, on the device response. This paper aims to present an overview of the device development and qualification and presents its potential implementation inside the containment.

論文

Experimental study on aerosol collection by spray droplets; Application to fission products removal in containment

孫 昊旻; Leblois, Y.*; Gelain, T.*; Porcheron, E.*

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2020/08

During a severe accident of PWR, fission products (FPs) may be released. Containment spray can be utilized to remove the aerosols of FPs. Therefore, it is important to develop an analytical model for predicting aerosol removal efficiency. The containment spray has high spray coverage ratio where the droplets are expected to impact side walls. In such condition, the gas flow induced by droplets will behave differently from that without droplet impaction where a stable gas circulation is expected. Since the aerosol removal efficiency depends on gas flow, to develop the removal model for the containment spray from this viewpoint, several experiments were carried out in TOSQAN facility. It was confirmed that the spray coverage ratios were comparable to that of the containment spray and many droplets impacted side wall. Aerosol removal was found to be more effective in higher spray water flow rates. Aerosol concentration decay calculated by CFD was in agreement with measured one.

論文

粒子状放射性物質のプールスクラビングに関する実験的研究

秋葉 美幸*; 堀田 亮年*; 阿部 豊*; 孫 昊旻

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 19(1), p.1 - 15, 2020/02

プールスクラビングの機構を理解するために、スケールが異なる3つの試験を実施した。小規模個別効果試験では、高速ビデオ, ワイヤメッシュセンサー, PIV等の高分解能二相流計測手法を用いて、単一気泡や二相流構造を把握した。大規模総合効果試験では、定圧と減圧両方の条件におけるエアロゾル除去効果に対する水深や水温の影響を計測した。これらの試験から得られた個別現象と総合現象の関係を明確にするために、中規模総合効果試験を行っている。

論文

Experimental study on local interfacial parameters in upward air-water bubbly flow in a vertical 6$$times$$6 rod bundle

Han, X.*; Shen, X.*; 山本 俊弘*; 中島 健*; 孫 昊旻; 日引 俊*

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 144, p.118696_1 - 118696_19, 2019/12

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:49.6(Thermodynamics)

This paper presents a database of local flow parameters for upward adiabatic air-water two-phase flows in a vertical 6$$times$$6 rod bundle flow channel. The local void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), bubble diameter and bubble velocity vector were measured by using a four-sensor optical probe. Based on an existing state-of-the-art four-sensor probe methodology with the characteristic to count small bubbles, IAC in this study was derived more reliably than those in the existing studies. In addition, bubble velocity vector could be measured by the methodology. Based on this database, flow characteristics were investigated. The area-averaged void fraction and IAC were compared with the predictions from the drift-flux model and the IAC correlations, respectively. The applicability of those to the rod bundle flow channel was evaluated.

論文

Experimental investigation of decontamination factor dependence on aerosol concentration in pool scrubbing

孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 岡垣 百合亜; 与能本 泰介

Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2019, p.1743982_1 - 1743982_15, 2019/06

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:68.11(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Because a pool scrubbing is important for reducing radioactive aerosols to the environment for a nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation, many researches have been performed. However, decontamination factor (DF) dependence on aerosol concentration was seldom considered. DF dependence in the pool scrubbing with 2.4 m water submergence was investigated by light scattering aerosol spectrometers. It was observed that DF increased monotonically as decreasing particle number concentration in a constant thermohydraulic condition. Two validation experiments were conducted to confirm the observed DF dependence. In addition, characteristics of the DF dependence in different water submergences were investigated experimentally. It was found the DF dependence became more significant in higher water submergence.

論文

Local gas-liquid two-phase flow characteristics in rod bundle geometry

Xiao, Y.*; Shen, X.*; 三輪 修一郎*; 孫 昊旻; 日引 俊*

混相流シンポジウム2018講演論文集(インターネット), 2 Pages, 2018/08

ロッドバンドル体系における二流体モデルの構成式の高度化を図るために、6$$times$$6ロッドバンドル体系における上昇気液二相流実験を実施した。ボイド率や界面積濃度等の局所流動パラメータを2針式光プローブで計測した。計測した断面平均ボイド率と界面積濃度の結果と、既存ドリフトフラックスモデルや界面積濃度相関式から予測した結果と比較した。

論文

Experimental investigation on dependence of decontamination factor on aerosol number concentration in pool scrubbing under normal temperature and pressure

孫 昊旻; 町田 真一*; 柴本 泰照; 岡垣 百合亜; 与能本 泰介

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/07

Pool scrubbing is one of the efficient filters with a high decontamination factor (DF). Because of its high performance, many pool scrubbing research have been performed. In the existing pool scrubbing experiments, an experimental condition of aerosol number concentration was seldom taken into account. It is probably because DF is assumed to be independent of aerosol number concentration, at least, in the concentration where aerosol coagulation is limited. The existing pool scrubbing models also follow this assumption. In order to verify this assumption, we performed a pool scrubbing experiment with different aerosol number concentrations. As a result, DF was increasing as decreasing the aerosol number concentration. In order to ensure a reliability of this result, three validation tests were performed with meticulous care. According to the results of these validation tests, it was indicated that DF dependence on the aerosol concentration was a real phenomenon of the pool scrubbing.

論文

Experimental study on interfacial area transport of two-phase bubbly flow in a vertical large-diameter square duct

Shen, X.*; 孫 昊旻; Deng, B.*; 日引 俊*; 中村 秀夫

International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 67(Part A), p.168 - 184, 2017/10

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:61.97(Thermodynamics)

主に4センサープローブを用いて、鉛直大口径正方形管内における上昇気泡流に関する実験的研究を実施した。流れ方向3断面における、局所界面積濃度、ボイド率、3次元気泡速度、気泡径を計測した。界面積輸送方程式やその中の気泡合体分裂モデルは、二相流における界面積濃度の予測に多用されてきたものの、主に円管や小口径管の二相流実験から構築されており、大口径正方形管に対する適応性の検証がされていない。そこで本研究では、大口径正方形管で取得したデータベースを用いて、既存の1次元1グループ界面積輸送方程式の気泡合体分裂モデルの大口径正方形管への適応性を評価した。最良のモデルに基づく予測と実験結果との誤差は25%であることを示した。

論文

Axial flow characteristics of bubbly flow in a vertical large-diameter square duct

Shen, X.*; 孫 昊旻; Deng, B.*; 日引 俊*; 中村 秀夫

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09

4センサープローブを用いて、鉛直大口径正方形ダクト内における上向き気泡流の実験的研究を行った。流れ方向3断面における局所界面積濃度、3次元気泡速度ベクトルと気泡径等を計測した。取得したボイド率、局所界面積濃度、3次元気泡速度ベクトルと気泡径等により、流れの挙動に関する有益な情報を提供できるだけでなく、界面積濃度輸送方程式内のソースとシンク項の機構論的モデルの高度化にとって重要なデータベースとなる。

論文

Development of error reduction methods in aerosol measurement for pool scrubbing experiment

孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 岡垣 百合亜; 与能本 泰介

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2016/06

Pool scrubbing is one of the effective mechanisms to filter out radioactive aerosols in a severe accident of a nuclear reactor. A lot of work has been done on the pool scrubbing models and experiments. However, large discrepancies still exist between the simulation and experimental results. To improve the pool scrubbing model, an accurate decontamination factor (DF) evaluation by an aerosol measurement is inevitable. A pool scrubbing experimental apparatus was constructed. The aerosol particle diameter distribution was measured by a light scattering aerosol spectrometer. We focused on investigating and reducing the error of DF experimentally. Several problems resulting in the error and their solutions for the error reduction were summarized in this paper. Based on the error reduction methods, the DFs of pool scrubbing were measured in two water submergences.

論文

Gas-liquid bubbly flow structure in a vertical large-diameter square duct

Shen, X.*; 孫 昊旻; Deng, B.*; 日引 俊*; 中村 秀夫

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 89, p.140 - 158, 2016/05

 被引用回数:13 パーセンタイル:86.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

4センサープローブを用いて、鉛直大口径正方形管内の上昇気液二相流の局所構造を計測した。球形と非球形気泡を区別する4センサープローブの計測手法を適用し、局所3次元気泡速度ベクトル、気泡径と界面積濃度を計測した。液相流量が低い時と高い時、局所ボイド率と界面積濃度はそれぞれ中心ピークと壁ピークの分布を示した。断面内における横方向気泡速度は、断面の対称的な8分の1三角領域内を循環する2次流れの存在を示し、その大きさは液相速度の上昇とともに増加した。本データに対して、既存ドリフトフラックスモデルや界面積濃度の相関式の比較を行い、適応性を検証した。

論文

Thermal hydraulic safety research at JAEA after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident

与能本 泰介; 柴本 泰照; 竹田 武司; 佐藤 聡; 石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 岡垣 百合亜; 孫 昊旻; 栃尾 大輔

Proceedings of 16th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-16) (USB Flash Drive), p.5341 - 5352, 2015/08

This paper summarizes thermal-hydraulic (T/H) safety studies being conducted at JAEA based on the consideration of research issues after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. New researches have been initiated after the accident, which are related to containment thermal hydraulics and accident management (AM) measures for the prevention of core damage under severe multiple failure conditions. They are conducted in parallel with those initiated before the accident such as a research on scaling and uncertainty of the T/H phenomena which are important for the code validation. Those experimental studies are to obtain better understandings on the phenomena and establish databases for the validation of both lumped parameter (LP) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The research project on containment thermal hydraulics is called the ROSA-SA project and investigates phenomena related to over-temperature containment damage, hydrogen risk and fission product (FP) transport. For this project, we have designed a large-scale containment vessel test facility called CIGMA (Containment InteGral Measurement Apparatus), which is characterized by the capability of conducting high-temperature experiments as well as those on hydrogen risk with CFD-grade instrumentation of high space resolution. This paper describes the plans for those researches and results obtained so far.

論文

Effect of flow obstacle on droplet sizes in vertical annular air-water flow in a small diameter pipe

柴本 泰照; 孫 昊旻; 与能本 泰介

Proceedings of 10th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-10) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2014/12

Droplet size distributions have been measured for air-water annular-mist flow in a vertical 12.0 mm diameter pipe at atmospheric pressure. A laser diffraction technique has been employed using a Malvern Spraytec instrument. The test section was specially designed for meticulous measurement in the present experiment: any optical windows were not used to avoid problems arose from glass contamination by sucking the liquid film through the wall just below the measurement elevation. Sauter mean diameters measured in this work decreased simply with an increase of air superficial velocity, whereas the dependence on water superficial velocity showed complicated dependency on air velocity. The effect of a flow obstacle on droplet size distribution was also investigated. A small tube was placed in the centerline of the test section as an obstacle. Three obstacles having different blockage ratio were tested. It is found through the present experiments that the obstacle effect is not so significant for the blockage ratio of up to 0.3, and the droplet diameter decreases to approximately 80% in average. Based on the data, an empirical correlation to predict Sauter diameter was developed by modifying the existing correlation. A hydraulic equivalent diameter that takes account of the blockage ratio is applied to the characteristic length in the correlation.

論文

Local measurements of 3-D bubble velocity vector, bubble diameter and interfacial area concentration in a vertical large diameter square duct

Shen, X.*; 日引 俊*; 孫 昊旻; 中村 秀夫

Proceedings of 9th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-9) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2014/11

新型沸騰水型原子炉ESBWRの炉心上部のチムニーなど大口径の垂直矩形流路では、気液2相流の液相速度勾配や気泡分布は大口径円管と異なる可能性がある。一方、大口径の矩形流路内については、ボイド率や液相速度、気泡径などの分布に関する報告はあるが、3次元気泡速度や界面積濃度等の流れ構造を詳細に示すパラメータについては報告がなされていない。本研究では、安全解析に用いる流動モデルの信頼性向上等に資するため、それらの詳細計測を行った。実験では、1辺が100mmの正方形断面テスト部を用いて鉛直上昇流のボイド率、界面積濃度、気泡径や3次元気泡速度など主要パラメータの断面内分布を4センサ光プローブを用いて計測し、液流量の増加に伴って、ボイド率と界面積濃度の分布が壁面ピークから管中心ピークに変化することや、主流方向の気泡速度が管中心ピーク分布を持つ結果を得た。更に、断面内の気泡速度分布の結果から、断面内循環流が対称8分の1三角形領域に存在し、液流量に伴って速度が増加することを明らかにした。

口頭

プールスクラビング時の二相流挙動の詳細解析

岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照; 孫 昊旻; 佐藤 聡; 与能本 泰介

no journal, , 

福島第一原子力発電所で発生したシビアアクシデントを受け、格納容器ベントの際のプールスクラビングによるエアロゾル除去は、ソースタームを評価する上で極めて重要であることが再認識されている。原子力機構では、エアロゾル挙動・格納容器内熱水力挙動に係る評価手法の整備の一環として、汎用性のあるCFD解析用構成方程式の開発を進めており、事故時の広範な条件での解析手法の妥当性を実験との比較を通じて検討する必要がある。本研究では、プールスクラビング時の気液二相流現象を解明するため、高さ2m、直径0.2mの円筒管に直径0.01mの円形ノズルを底部に設けた解析対象において、OpenFOAMの二流体モデルを用いて解析を行った。解析結果より、同体系での実験結果との流動挙動の違いを明らかにし、解析手法について検討した。

口頭

4センサープローブを用いた大口径垂直管内水-空気二相流の計測

佐藤 聡; 孫 昊旻; 柴本 泰照; 与能本 泰介

no journal, , 

二流体モデルの高精度化に有効な界面積輸送モデルの開発を目的として、大口径(管径0.2m)垂直管内の水-空気二相流の計測を行った。モデル開発に必要な、ボイド率、界面積濃度、界面速度等の二相流パラメータを、電気抵抗式の4センサープローブを用いて取得した。

口頭

二相流挙動に着目したエアロゾルのプールスクラビングに関する研究

孫 昊旻; 岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照; 佐藤 聡; 与能本 泰介

no journal, , 

プールスクラビングによるエアロゾル除去に関して多くの研究がなされているものの、エアロゾル除去機構に強く関わる気液二相流の詳細挙動との関連は十分には把握 されていない。本研究では、これに着目し機構論的スクラビングモデルの開発を目的 とし、実験を中心とする検討を実施する。実験では、内径200mm、高さ約4mの円管内 のプール水に対して、エアロゾルを含むガスを注入し、プール入口と出口のエアロゾル量を計測することでエアロゾル除去率を評価するとともに、プール内の気液二相流の詳細挙動を計測する。本報告では、本研究の目的、内容、整備した実験装置、これまで得られた結果について述べる。

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