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JAEA Reports

Synthesis report on the R&D for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory; Project carried out during fiscal years 2015-2019

Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi; Kimura, Shun; Mochizuki, Akihito; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ono, Hirokazu; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Masaki; Hayano, Akira; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2019-013, 276 Pages, 2020/03


The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the project will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The present report summarizes the research and development activities of these 3 important issues carried out during 3rd Medium to Long-term Research Phase.

Journal Articles

A Measurement method of long-term mechanical stability of support and rock mass after the excavation of galleries; Case study in Horonobe Underground Research Center

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji

Shigen, Sozai Koenshu (Internet), 6(2), 7 Pages, 2019/09

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Basic properties of the concrete using the low alkaline cement (HFSC) developed by JAEA

Seno, Yasuhiro*; Nakayama, Masashi; Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomo

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-011, 164 Pages, 2016/11


The cementitious materials are used as candidate materials for the tunnel support of the deep geological repository of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW).Generally the pH of leachate from concrete mixed Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) shows a range of 12 to 13. The barrier function of bentonite used as a buffer material and that of host rock might be damaged by the high alkaline leachate from cementitious materials. Therefore, low alkalinity that does not damage each barrier function is necessary for cementitious materials used for the tunnel support system of the HLW geological repository. JAEA has developed a low alkaline cement named as HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silicafume Cement) which the pH of the cement leachate could lower approximately 11. We have confirmed the applicability of HFSC for the tunnel support materials, by using experimentally as the shotcreting materials to the part of gallery wall at 140m, 250m and 350m depth in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. And moreover, HFSC has been used as the cast-in-place concrete for the shaft lining concrete at the depth of 374m-380m. This Data/Code summarized the past HFSC mix proportion test results about the fresh concrete properties and hardened concrete properties, in order to offer the information as a reference for selecting the mix proportion of HFSC concrete adopted to the disposal galleries et al. in the future.

JAEA Reports

Long-term immersion experiments of low alkaline cementitious materials

Seno, Yasuhiro*; Noguchi, Akira*; Nakayama, Masashi; Sugita, Yutaka; Suto, Shunkichi; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomo; Sato, Haruo*

JAEA-Technology 2016-011, 20 Pages, 2016/07


Cementitious materials are expected to be used for the construction of an underground repository for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC) would conventionally be used in the fields of civil engineering and architecture, however, OPC has the potential to generate a highly alkaline plume (pH$$>$$12.5), which will likely degrade the performance of other barriers in the repository such as the bentonite buffer and/or host rock. Low alkaline cementitious materials are therefore being developed that will mitigate the generation of a highly alkaline plume. JAEA has developed a High-volume Fly ash Silica fume Cement (HFSC) as a candidate low alkaline cementitious material. The workability of the HFSC shotcrete was confirmed by conducting In-situ full scale construction tests in the Horonobe underground research laboratory. This report summarizes the results of immersion tests to assess the long-term pH behavior of hardened HFSC cement pastes made with mix designs that are expected to be able to be used in the construction of an underground repository in Japan.

JAEA Reports

The In-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system at Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory; Examination of backfill material using muck from URL construction

Nakayama, Masashi; Ono, Hirokazu; Tanai, Kenji; Sugita, Yutaka; Fujita, Tomo

JAEA-Research 2016-002, 280 Pages, 2016/06


The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formation at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL Project consists of two major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "Research and Development on Geological Disposal Technologies", and proceeds in three overlapping phases, "Phase I: Surface-based investigations", "Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation" and "Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities", over a period of around 20 years. Phase III investigation was started in 2010 fiscal year. The in-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system (EBS experiment) had been prepared from 2013 to 2014 fiscal year at G.L.-350m gallery (Niche No.4), and heating by electric heater in simulated overpack had started in January, 2015. One of objectives of the experiment is acquiring data concerned with Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) coupled behavior. These data will be used in order to confirm the performance of engineered barrier system. In EBS experiment, the backfill material using mixture of bentonite and muck from Horonobe URL construction was used for backfilling a part of Niche No.4. This report shows the results of properties of the backfill material, confirmation test of compaction method and making backfill material block, and so on. From these results, it was confirmed that the backfill material would satisfy target value of the permeability and the swelling pressure.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2011 (Joint research)

Nakatsuka, Noboru; Sato, Haruo; Tanai, Kenji; Sugita, Yutaka; Nakayama, Masashi; Sawada, Sumiyuki*; Niinuma, Hiroaki*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Yoshino, Osamu*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-027, 34 Pages, 2013/11


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, the government (the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, e.g. using underground facility. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2010 (2010/2011) continuing since fiscal year 2008 (2008/2009). Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing in fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2011. In fiscal year 2011, part of the equipments for emplacement of buffer material was produced and visualization test for water penetration in buffer material were carried out.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Research and development plan (H22-H26)

Iwatsuki, Teruki; Sato, Haruo; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Tanai, Kenji; Sugita, Yutaka; Amano, Kenji; Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Amano, Yuki; Yokota, Hideharu; et al.

JAEA-Research 2011-009, 73 Pages, 2011/06


The research and development plan in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory are summarized according to the 2nd Midterm Plan till 2014 fiscal year of JAEA. In this midterm, galleries and the infrastructures for the research and development up to the depth of 350 m are constructed by Private Financial Initiative (PFI). Additionally Phase 3: Operation phase at the galleries begins in parallel to Phase 2: Construction phase. In these phases various research and development including collaboration with other institutes are conducted at the galleries. Generallic applicable techniques on the subject of the investigation of geological environment, facility construction in deep underground and the reliability of geological deposal are developed during the phase. The feasibility and reliance of various technologies concerning geological disposal is demonstrated by widely opening the outcome to the public in the society.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project research and development plan in Phase 2; H20-21

Iwatsuki, Teruki; Sato, Haruo; Tanai, Kenji; Inagaki, Manabu; Sawada, Atsushi; Niinuma, Hiroaki; Ishii, Eiichi; Maekawa, Keisuke; Tomura, Goji; Sanada, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2009-002, 156 Pages, 2009/05


The research and development plan for geological investigation, engineering technology and safety assessment during the drilling of a shaft down to intermediate depth are summarized according to the Midterm Plan till 2009 Fiscal year of JAEA. This report describes subject, current status and programme in the "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities). Furthermore regarding R&D plan in next Midterm Plan of JAEA, preliminary ideas are summarized.

Journal Articles

Recent R&D activities of negative-ion-based ion source for JT-60SA

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1519 - 1529, 2008/08

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:34.65(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The JT-60SA N-NBI system is required to inject 10 MW for 100 s at 500 keV. Three key issues should be solved for the JT-60SA N-NBI ion source. One is to improve the voltage holding capability. Recent R&D tests suggested that the accelerator with a large area of grids may need a high margin in the design of electric field and a long time for conditioning. The second issue is to reduce the grid power loading. It was found that some beamlets were strongly deflected due to beamlet-beamlet interaction and strike on the grounded grid. The grids are to be designed by taking account of beamlet-beamlet interaction in three-dimensional simulation. Third is to maintain the D- production for 100 s. A simple cooling structure is proposed for the active cooled plasma grid, where a key is the temperature gradient on the plasma grid for uniform D- production. The modified N-NBI ion source will start on JT-60SA in 2015.

JAEA Reports

Update of control system for auxiliary pumping and primary water cooling facilities in JT-60 NBI

Kikuchi, Katsumi; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Seki, Norikazu*; Takenouchi, Tadashi; Tanai, Yutaka

JAEA-Technology 2008-034, 25 Pages, 2008/04


The control system for auxiliary pumping facility and primary water cooling facility in JT-60 NBI was updated. To realize the cost reduction, the control system with many input and outputs of 2000 was updated by JAEA itself using commercial Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's). JAEA also made software with 3600 ladder lines by JAEA itself based on commercial basic programs. In addition to the simple replacement of the hardware and software, the function of remote operation has been newly added. At present, the auxiliary pumping facility and the primary water cooling facility have been stably operated without troubles. The remote operation enables to collect the detailed information on the trouble more easily, resulting in a quick countermeasure for the trouble.

Journal Articles

Application of PLC to dynamic control system for liquid He cryogenic pumping facility on JT-60U NBI system

Honda, Atsushi; Okano, Fuminori; Oshima, Katsumi; Akino, Noboru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Tanai, Yutaka; Takenouchi, Tadashi; Numazawa, Susumu*; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

Fusion Engineering and Design, 83(2-3), p.276 - 279, 2008/04

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:62.49(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The control system of the cryogenic facility in the JT-60 NBI system has been renewed by employing the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. The original control system was constructed about 20 years ago by specifying the DCS (Distributed Control System) computer to deal with 400 feedback loops. Recently, troubles on this control system have increased due to its aged deterioration. To maintain a high reliability of the cryogenic facility, a new control system has been intended with PLC and SCADA system. By optimizing the function blocks and connecting them in the FBD language, the feedback loops in the new control system have been successfully replaced from DCS to PLC without software developer. At present, the new control system has worked well. This is the first application of the marketable PLC to the actual system with feedback loops of $$>$$ 400 produced by the user itself.

Journal Articles

Long pulse production of high current D$$^{-}$$ ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source

Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 79(2), p.02A519_1 - 02A519_4, 2008/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:30.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A long pulse production of high-current, high-energy D$$^{-}$$ ion beams was studied in the JT-60U negative ion source that was designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D$$^{-}$$ ion beams. Prior to the long pulse production, the short pulse beams were produced to examine operational ranges for a stable voltage holding capability and an allowable grid power loading. From a correlation between the voltage holding capability and a light intensity of cathodoluminescence from the insulator made of Fiber Reinforced Plastic insulator, the voltage holding was found to be stable at $$<$$ 340 kV where the light was sufficiently suppressed. The grid power loading for the long pulse operation was also decreased to the allowable level of $$<$$ 1 MW without a significant reduction of the beam power by tuning the extraction voltage (Vext) and the arc power (Parc). These allow the production of 30 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beams at 340 keV from two ion sources at Vacc = 340 kV. The pulse length was extended step by step, and finally reached up to 21 s, where the beam pulse length was limited by the surface temperature of the beam scraper without water cooling. The D$$^{-}$$ ion beams were neutralized to via a gas cell, resulting in a long pulse injection of 3.2 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams for 21 s. This is the first long injection of $$>$$ 20 s in a power range of $$>$$ 3 MW.

Journal Articles

Technical design of NBI system for JT-60SA

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Hanada, Masaya; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kamada, Masaki; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 82(5-14), p.791 - 797, 2007/10

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:79.3(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Modification of JT-60U to a superconducting device (so called JT-60SA) has been planned to contribute to ITER and DEMO. The NBI system is required to inject 34 MW for 100 s. The upgraded NBI system consists of twelve positive ion based NBI (P-NBI) units and one negative ion based NBI (N-NBI) unit. The injection power of the P-NBI units are 2 MW each at 85 keV, and the N-NBI unit will be 10 MW at 500 keV, respectively. On JT-60U, the long pulse operation of 30 s at 2 MW (85 keV) and 20 s at 3.2 MW (320 keV) have been achieved on P-NBI and N-NBI units, respectively. Since the temperature increase of the cooling water in both ion sources is saturated within 20 s, further pulse extension up to 100 s is expected to mainly modify the power supply systems in addition to modification of the N-NBI ion source for high acceleration voltage. The detailed technical design of the NBI system for JT-60SA is presented.

Journal Articles

Present status of the negative ion based NBI system for long pulse operation on JT-60U

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Grisham, L. R.*; Hanada, Masaya; Honda, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 46(6), p.S211 - S219, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:52 Percentile:86.86(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Recently, the extension of the pulse duration up to 30 sec has been intended to study quasi-steady state plasma on JT-60U N-NBI system. The most serious issue is to reduce the heat load on the grids for long pulse operation. Two modifications have been proposed to reduce the heat load. One is to suppress the beam spread which may be caused by beamlet-beamlet interaction in the multi-aperture grid due to the space charge force. Thin plates were attached on the extraction grid to modify the local electric field. The plate thickness was optimized to steer the beamlet deflection. The other is to reduce the stripping loss, where the electron of the negative ion beam is stripped and accelerated in the ion source and then collides with the grids. The ion source was modified to reduce the pressure in the accelerator column to suppress the beam-ion stripping loss. Up to now, long pulse injection of 17 sec for 1.6 MW and 25 sec for $$sim$$1 MW has been obtained by one ion source with these modifications.

JAEA Reports

PLC control of NBI cryogenic facility on JT-60U

Honda, Atsushi; Okano, Fuminori; Oshima, Katsumi; Akino, Noboru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Tanai, Yutaka; Takenouchi, Tadashi; Numazawa, Susumu*

JAEA-Technology 2006-020, 20 Pages, 2006/03


no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Design of renewal control system for NBI cryogenic plant

Kikuchi, Katsumi*; Akino, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Oga, Tokumichi; Oshima, Katsumi*; Okano, Fuminori; Takenouchi, Tadashi*; Tanai, Yutaka*; Honda, Atsushi

Heisei-16-Nendo Osaka Daigaku Sogo Gijutsu Kenkyukai Hokokushu (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2005/03

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Design Studies on the Engineered Barrier System and on the in-situ Experiments under the Conditions of Geological Environment in Horonobe

Kurihara, Yuji; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Naoki; Hirai, Takashi

JNC TN8400 2004-006, 59 Pages, 2004/04


Following studies have been done in this papers in order to apply the technologies based on H12 report to the actual geological conditions of Horonobe underground research laboratory. 1.reconsidering the process of repository design, 2. arrangement of the relations between geological conditions and the performance of engineering barrier systems, 3.present the appropriate form of geological informations, on the stability of deposition hall.

JAEA Reports

Studies on the In-Situ Experiments with Respect to Disposal Engineering in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Kurihara, Yuji; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Naoki; Hirai, Takashi

JNC TN8400 2004-002, 58 Pages, 2004/04


In this paper, the items of in-situ experiments at Horonobe URL with respect to the technical issues about reliability of long-term behavior of engineered barrier system were extracted. And the concepts of the experiments were studied from several points of view such as verification of models and getting the actual behavior. Extracted items of the in-situ experiments are as follows. Coupled Phenomena Test (THMC Test), Buffer & Rock Creep Test, Gas Migration Test, Over-pack Corrosion Test, High-pH Influence Test, Low Alkaline Concrete Execution Test, Engineering-Barrier Emplacement Test, Tunnel Plugging Test.

JAEA Reports

Basic Examination of the Backfilling Material under Synthetic Seawater Condition

Kikuchi, Hirohito*; Tanai, Kenji; Sugita, Yutaka

JNC TN8430 2003-008, 31 Pages, 2003/11


In geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, closure of repository is the technique of filling clearance using the backfilling material to preserve barrier performance of the engineered barrier system. One of the expecting behaviors of the tunnel backfilled with backfilling material is appearance of a clearance between backfilling material and concrete lining due to alteration of the concrete lining. Therefore, filling (swelling) performance is one of the required performances of the backfilling material. Then, basic examination of the backfilling material is performed. This examination focused on the feasibility of the backfilling material described in H12 report and the adequate bentonite/sand mixture to obtain conservative filling clearance performance.Results of the examination showed, under test conditions that 30% of the volume of concrete lining decreases due to alteration and such volume become clearance between the backfilling material and concrete lining, in distilled water condition, the specification (bentonite/sand mixture) of the backfilling material described in H12 report almost filled the clearance. However, in synthetic seawater, 50% and more bentonite was required to fill the clearance.Since this examination fixed the clearance, water stopping performance will be examined in next phase. Through the synthetic seawater examination, the basic clearance filling curve was obtained.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary Test on Filling Gap Behavior of the Swollen Buffer in the Engineered Barrier System (II)

Sugita, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Hirohito*; Tanai, Kenji

JNC TN8430 2003-007, 33 Pages, 2003/11


Laboratory tests considering the gap between the buffer and rock mass, in case of the installation of the block type buffer, that is one of the candidate option technique, in geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste were performed.In case of swelling of the buffer with the gap, initial condition, swelling behavior and change of density after filled the gap of the buffer should be observed.

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