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Journal Articles

Development of evaluation method for variability of groundwater flow conditions associated with long-term topographic change and climate perturbations

Onoe, Hironori; Kosaka, Hiroshi*; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Yasue, Kenichi

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 26(1), p.3 - 14, 2019/06

In this study, it is focused on topographic changes due to uplift and denudation, also climate perturbations, a method which is able to assess the long-term variability of groundwater flow conditions using the coefficient variation based on some steady-state groundwater flow simulation results was developed. Spatial distribution of long residence time area which is not much influenced due to long-term topographic change and recharge rate change during the past one million years was able to estimate through the case study of the Tono area, Central Japan. By applying this evaluation method, it is possible to identify the local area that has low variability of groundwater flow conditions due to topographic changes and climate perturbations from the regional area quantitatively and spatially.

JAEA Reports

Records of physico-chemical parameters by geochemical monitoring system in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Mezawa, Tetsuya; Mochizuki, Akihito; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2018-001, 55 Pages, 2018/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2018-001.pdf:10.63MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2018-001-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:8.57MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting "geoscientific study" and "research and development on geological disposal" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Geochemical parameters of groundwater pressure, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential in the deep groundwater has been continuously monitored with monitoring systems which were developed in the Horonobe URL Project. This report presents the physico-chemical parameters of groundwater which have been obtained by the monitoring systems installed at the 140 m, 250 m and 350 m gallery. The data obtained until March 31, 2017 was summarized along with related information such as the specifications of boreholes and the excavation of the URL.

Journal Articles

Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel solubility data and a discrete solid phase model at 25$$^{circ}$$C based on two binary non-ideal solid solutions

Walker, C.; Suto, Shunkichi; Oda, Chie; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Cement and Concrete Research, 79, p.1 - 30, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:31 Percentile:8.82(Construction & Building Technology)

Modeling the solubility behavior of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is important to make quantitative predictions of the degradation of hydrated ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based materials. Experimental C-S-H gel solubility data have been compiled from the literature, critically evaluated and supplemented with new data from the current study for molar Ca/Si ratios = 0.2-0.83. All these data have been used to derive a discrete solid phase (DSP) type C-S-H gel solubility model based on two binary non-ideal solid solutions in aqueous solution(SSAS). Features of the DSP type C-S-H gel solubility model include satisfactory predictions of pH values and Ca and Si concentrations for all molar Ca/Si ratios = 2.7 $$rightarrow$$ 0 in the C-S-H system, portlandite (CH) for Ca/Si ratios $$>$$ 1.65, congruent dissolution at Ca/Si ratios = 0.85, and amorphous silica (SiO$$_{2 (rm am)}$$) for Ca/Si ratios $$<$$ 0.55 as identified in the current study by IR spectroscopy.

Journal Articles

Hydrochemical disturbances measured in groundwater during the construction and operation of a large-scale underground facility in deep crystalline rock in Japan

Iwatsuki, Teruki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Omori, Kazuaki; Munemoto, Takashi; Onoe, Hironori

Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(4), p.3041 - 3057, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:33.95(Environmental Sciences)

Changes of hydrochemical condition resulting from large-scale underground facility construction to 500 m depth in sedimentary and granitic rock were evaluated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan. The investigation of hydrochemical impact around the facility suggests that an understanding of hydrogeological structures, including hydrogeological compartments prior to facility construction and the locating of shafts/galleries in low permeability rock area is essential to minimize hydrochemical disturbances.

Journal Articles

Experimental and modeling study to predict long-term alteration of bentonite buffer materials with alkaline groundwater

Takazawa, Mayumi; Negishi, Kumi; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Akai, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Iida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinichi

JAERI-Conf 2005-007, p.236 - 241, 2005/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Modeling of variation in permeability of compacted bentonite with alkaline fluid for long-term safety assessment of geological disposal system

Takazawa, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Akai, Masanobu; Tanaka, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinichi

NUMO-TR-04-05, p.A3_59 - A3_62, 2004/10

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

Takeda, Seietsu; ; ; Nakatsuka, Noboru; ; ;

JNC-TN7410 2000-003, 65 Pages, 2000/11

JNC-TN7410-2000-003.pdf:5.09MB

JAEA Reports

Regional hydrogeological study project; Results from 1992-1999 period

Koide, Kaoru; ; Takeuchi, Shinji; ; ; ;

JNC-TN7400 2000-014, 83 Pages, 2000/11

JNC-TN7400-2000-014.pdf:4.84MB

The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research programme is the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The main goal of the RHS project is to develop and demonstrate surface-based investigation methodologies to characterize geological environments at a regional scale in Japan. The RHS project was initiated in 1992. The first five years of the project were devoted mainly to develop methodologies and techniques for deep borehole investigations in crystalline rock in Japan. Investigations to verify the performance of new instruments and methods for borehole drilling, hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling were conducted. In the last four years, surface-based investigations and a stepwise development of models of the geological environment have been carried out. To date, remote sensing, geological mapping, airborne and ground geophysical investigations, and measurements in eleven deep boreholes have been carried out. Hydro monitorring is continuing in these boreholes. Important results that have been obtained from these investigations include multi-disciplinaly information about the heterogeneity of lithology and hydraulic, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the granitic rock, and evolution of the groundwater geochemistry. Technical knowledge and experience have been accumulated, which allow application of the methodologies and techniques to characterize the geological environment in crystalline rock. The results from these R%D activities were used as prime inputs for the H12 report that JNC submitted to the Japanese Government in l999. Results from such R&D is also acknowledged by other geoscientific studies in general. JNC will synthesize the results from R&D ...

JAEA Reports

None

*

JNC-TN1400 2000-007, 100 Pages, 2000/07

JNC-TN1400-2000-007.pdf:4.67MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

Koide, Kaoru; ; ; ; ; Saito, Hiroshi

JNC-TN7410 2000-002, 31 Pages, 2000/04

JNC-TN7410-2000-002.pdf:1.55MB

JAEA Reports

None

Koide, Kaoru; ; ; ; ; Saito, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Shinji

JNC-TN7410 2000-001, 56 Pages, 2000/04

JNC-TN7410-2000-001.pdf:2.6MB

JAEA Reports

None

; *; ; *

JNC-TY6400 2000-013, 102 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TY6400-2000-013.pdf:2.45MB

None

JAEA Reports

Literature survey of redox reactions in the new field

Miki, Takahito*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tamotsu*; Inagaki, Manabu*; Yui, Mikazu

JNC-TN8400 2000-007, 32 Pages, 2000/01

JNC-TN8400-2000-007.pdf:0.69MB

This report presents a summary of literature survey about geochemical reactions which are important to evaluate the redox conditions in the near field rock mass and buffer. The results of literature survey are summarized as follows; (1)Minerals including ferrous iron and organic materials in the rock mass are important reductants. Initial stage after closure of repository, oxygen will be consumed by pyrite, because the reaction rate between pyrite and oxygen is relatively fast. (2)It is possible to estimate the redox capacity for reductants by rock (mineral)-water iteraction experiment in a laboratory. And it is expected that the ferrous iron-rich rock and higher porosity rock may have bigger redox capacity. (3)It is possible to estimate the oxygen consumption rate by reductants such as minerals including ferrous iron. The rate law and rate constant for the oxidation reaction of ferrous iron in the solution are also determined. As a conclusion, it seems that we can evaluate kinetically the evolution of geochemical conditions in the near field rock mass and buffer by excavation of drifts, based on data derived from these existing literatures.

JAEA Reports

Compilation of Kinetic Data for Geochemical Calculations

Randolp*; David*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

JNC-TN8400 2000-005, 61 Pages, 2000/01

JNC-TN8400-2000-005.pdf:2.45MB

Kinetic data, including rate constants, reaction orders and activation energies, are compiled for 34 hydrolysis reactions involving feldspars, sheet silicates, zeolites, oxides, pyroxenes and amphiboles, and for similar reactions involving calcite and pyrite. The data are compatible with a rate law consistent with surface reaction control and transition-state theoly, which is incorporated in the geochemieal software package EQ3/6 and GWB. Kinetic data for the reactions noted above are strictly compatible with the transition-state rate law only under far-from-equilibrium conditions. It is possiblethat the data are conceptually consistent with this rate law under both far-from-equilibrium and near-to-equilibrium conditions, but this should be confirmed whenever possible through analysis of original experimental results, Due to limitations in the availability of kinetic data for mineral-water reactions, and in order to simplify evaluations of geochemical models of groundwater evolution, it is convenient to assume local-equilibrium in such models whenever possible. To assess whether this assumption is reasonable, a modeling approach accounting for coupled fluid flow and water-rock interaction is described that can be used to estimate spatial and temporal scale of local equiliblium. The approach is demonstrated for conditions involving groundwater flow in fractures at JNC's Kamaishi in-situ tests site, and is also used to estimate the travel time necessary for oxidizing surface waters to migrate to the level of a HLW repository in crystalline rock. The question of whether local equilibrium is a reasonable assumption must be addressed using an appropriate modeling approach. To be appropriate for conditions at the Kamaishi site using the modeling approach noted above, the fracture fill must closely approximate a porous medium, groundwater flow must be purely advective and diffusion of solutes across the fracture-host rock boundary must not occur. Moreover, the ...

JAEA Reports

Geochemical Site-Selection Criteria for HLW Repositories in Europe and North America

Savage, D.*; Arthur, R. C.*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

JNC-TN8400 2000-003, 56 Pages, 2000/01

JNC-TN8400-2000-003.pdf:1.96MB

Geochemical as well as socio-economic issues associated with the selection of potential sites to host a high-level nuclear waste repository have received considerable attention in repository programs in Europe (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.) and North America (Canada and the United States), The objective of the present study is to summarize this international experience with particular emphasis on geochemical properties that factor into the adopted site-selection strategies. Results indicate that the geochemical properties of a site play a subordinate role, at best, to other geotechnical properties in the international site-selection approaches. In countries where geochemical properties are acknowledged in the site-selection approach, requirements are stated qualitatively and tend to focus on associated impacts on the stability of the engineered barrier system and on radionuclide transport. Site geochemical properties that are likely to control the lomg-term stability of geochemical conditions and radionuclide migration behavior are unspecified, however. This non-prescriptive approach may be reasonable for purposes of screeing among potential sites, but a better understanding of site properties that are most important in controlling the long-term geochemical evolution of the site over a range of possible scenarios would enable the potential sites to be ranked in terms of their suitability to host a repository.

JAEA Reports

None

JNC-TN1400 2000-001, 371 Pages, 2000/01

JNC-TN1400-2000-001.pdf:12.26MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Tono in-situ tests site,Japan In-situ Tests

Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Randolph C Arthu*

JNC-TN8400 99-074, 84 Pages, 1999/12

JNC-TN8400-99-074.pdf:6.79MB

Hydrochemical investigation of Tertiary sedimentary rocks at JNC's Tono in-situ tests site indicate the groundwaters are: (1)meteoric in origin, (2)chemically reducing at depths greater than a few tens of meters in the sedimentary rock, (3)relatively old [carbon-14 ages of groundwaters collected from the lower part of the sedimentary sequence range from 13,000 to 15,000 years BP (before present)] (4)Ca-Na-HCO$$_{3}$$ type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO$$_{3}$$ type groundwaters with increasing depth. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the "real" groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted: (1)CO$$_{2}$$ concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone = 10$$^{-1}$$ bar, (2)minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., the actual mineralogy of "plagioclase", "clay" and "zeolite") are needed to improve the model. Alternative conceptual models of key reactions may also be necessary. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvements of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however.

JAEA Reports

None

Sato, Toshinori

JNC-TN7400 99-012, 99 Pages, 1999/12

JNC-TN7400-99-012.pdf:6.13MB

JAEA Reports

None

JNC-TN7400 2000-004, 21 Pages, 1999/12

JNC-TN7400-2000-004.pdf:0.54MB

None

JAEA Reports

Development of Thermodynamic Databases for Geochemial Calculations

Oda, Chie; Arthur, R. C.*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu; Neyama, Atsushi*

JNC-TN8400 99-079, 287 Pages, 1999/09

JNC-TN8400-99-079.pdf:9.78MB

Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000$$^{circ}$$C. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25$$^{circ}$$C) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25$$^{circ}$$C and 1 bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100$$^{circ}$$C at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and logK(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated usig SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT ...

63 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)