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JAEA Reports

Preparation of waste standards; Annual report 2022

Project Promotion Department; Radioactive Wastes Disposal Center

JAEA-Review 2023-037, 162 Pages, 2024/02

JAEA-Review-2023-037.pdf:2.66MB

For near surface disposal of radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities, Japan Atomic Energy Agency has discussed methods for corresponding to the technical standards on confirmation related to waste disposal, etc. From FY2022, we have established Waste Standards Committee and interim Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Package Confirmation Procedure, etc. have been considered. In FY2022, Waste Package Confirmation Procedures of solidified liquid waste and cement filled waste and related standards were discussed. In addition, issues of preparation of Waste Package Confirmation Procedure and rational treatment method for decommissioning wastes were considered. This annual report summarizes the results of discussion in FY2022.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Report for the 2022 Fiscal Year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2023-032, 159 Pages, 2024/02

JAEA-Review-2023-032.pdf:19.37MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant technologies for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste through investigating the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rocks at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In the fiscal year 2022, we continued R&D on "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations". These are identified as key R&D on challenges to be tackled in the Horonobe underground research plan for the fiscal year 2020 onwards. Specifically, "full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) performance experiment" and "solute transport experiment with model testing" were carried out as part of "Study on near- field system performance in geological environment". "Demonstration of engineering feasibility of repository technology" and "evaluation of EBS behaviour over 100$$^{circ}$$C" were addressed for "Demonstration of repository design options". A study on "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations" was also implemented in two areas, "evaluation of intrinsic buffering against endogenic and exogenic processes" and "development of techniques for evaluating excavation damaged zone (EDZ) self-sealing behaviour after backfilling". The Horonobe International Project (HIP) was initiated in February 2023 to promote research and development in collaboration with national and international organizations.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2023 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2023-019, 70 Pages, 2023/11

JAEA-Review-2023-019.pdf:6.83MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant technologies for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste through investigating the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rocks at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In the fiscal year 2023, we continue R&D on "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rocks to natural perturbations". These are identified as key R&D challenges to be tackled in the Horonobe underground research plan for the fiscal year 2020 onwards. In the "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", we conduct the coupled analysis on the full-scale engineered barrier system performance experiment and test the coupled simulation code through comparison with different simulation codes in the international DECOVALEX-2023 collaboration project. Borehole investigations are also carried out for solute transport experiments in the Koetoi Formation. As for "Demonstration of repository design concept", we carry out in situ experiments and data analysis on concrete deterioration under the subsurface conditions. Geophysical surveys are also carried out around an experimental tunnel to be newly excavated at the 350m gallery and characterise the initial conditions of the excavation damaged zone. For the "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rocks to natural perturbations", we analyse the results of the hydraulic disturbance tests conducted in previous years and understand the relationship between rock stress / stress state and fault / fracture hydraulic connectivity. Concerning the construction and maintenance of the subsurface facilities, the 350 m gallery is extended and shafts are sank to a depth of 500 m.

Journal Articles

Impact of MOX fuel use in light-water reactors; Long-term radiological consequences of disposal of high-level waste in a geological repository

Minari, Eriko*; Kabasawa, Satsuki; Mihara, Morihiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Asano, Hidekazu*; Nakase, Masahiko*; Takeshita, Kenji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.793 - 803, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:56.43(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Study on borehole sealing corresponding to hydrogeological structures by groundwater flow analysis

Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takai, Shizuka; Sasagawa, Tsuyoshi; Uchikoshi, Emiko*; Shima, Yosuke*; Takeda, Seiji

MRS Advances (Internet), 8(6), p.243 - 249, 2023/06

In the intermediate depth disposal of relatively high-level radioactive waste, a method to confirm whether the borehole for monitoring is properly sealed should be developed in advance. In this study, groundwater flow analyses were performed for the hydrogeological structures with backfilled boreholes, assuming sedimentary rock area, to understand what backfill design conditions could prevent significant water pathways in the borehole, and to identify the confirmation points of borehole sealing. The results indicated the conditions to prevent water pathways in the borehole and BDZ (Borehole Disturbed Zone), such as designing the permeability of bentonite material less than or equal to that of the host rock, and grouting BDZ.

Journal Articles

Circumstances of establishment of regulations for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research facilities, etc.

Sakai, Akihiro

Dekomisshoningu Giho, (64), p.24 - 33, 2023/05

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has proceeded with the project of near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research facilities, etc. as the implementing body. On the other hand, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) has established the safety regulations and standards for the operation of the disposal facilities. This report outlines the disposal project of JAEA and the development of the regulations and standards for the disposal by NRA.

JAEA Reports

Challenge of novel hybrid-waste-solidification of mobile nuclei generated in Fukushima Nuclear Power Station and establishment of rational disposal concept and its safety assessment (Contract research); FY2021 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2022-072, 116 Pages, 2023/03

JAEA-Review-2022-072.pdf:6.32MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2021, this report summarizes the research results of the "Challenge of novel hybrid-waste-solidification of mobile nuclei generated in Fukushima Nuclear Power Station and establishment of rational disposal concept and its safety assessment" conducted in FY2021. The present study aims to establish the rational waste disposal concept of a variety of wastes generated in 1F by the novel hybrid-waste-solidification. The phosphate form of ALPS sediment wastes containing Eu$$^{3+}$$, Ce$$^{4+}$$, Sr$$^{2+}$$ and Cs$$^{+}$$ were synthesized as well as radioactive $$^{95}$$Sr, $$^{136}$$Cs and $$^{126}$$I which are both $$gamma$$ emitters, AREVA sludge and Iodine Calcium apatite were synthesized, and they were processed to the stabilization treatment such as sintering and Spark Plasma ...

Journal Articles

Status of technical development for near surface disposal of radioactive waste generated from research facilities, etc.

Sakai, Akihiro

Dai-33-Kai Genshiryoku Shisetsu Dekomisshoningu Gijutsu Koza Tekisuto, p.31 - 63, 2023/02

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting the project for concrete-vault disposal and landfill-type disposal of radioactive waste generated from research facilities, etc. This report introduces current status of technical development for JAEA's disposal project as following items; (1) kinds of research facilities and characteristics of radioactivity inventory of the waste, (2) the structures of the disposal facilities which JAEA conceptually designed, (3) development of waste acceptance criteria for major radioactive waste for the JAEA disposal facilities, (4) the concept of the criteria for disposal of uranium bearing waste, that has been established in 2021.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2022 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2022-026, 66 Pages, 2022/11

JAEA-Review-2022-026.pdf:12.31MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In fiscal year 2022, we continue to conduct research on "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rocks to natural perturbations", which are the important issues shown in the Horonobe underground research plan from fiscal year 2020. The main studies to be conducted in fiscal year 2022 are as follows. As "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", we will continue to the test under the simulated condition in which the heat generation by the high-level radioactive waste has subsides in the full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) performance experiment. We will also conduct solute transport experiment with model testing that take into account the effects of organic matter, microbes, and colloids, and initiate borehole investigation to evaluate solute transport experiments on fractures distribute in Koetoi formation. As "Demonstration of repository design concept", we will continue experiment and analysis of concrete deterioration in the underground environment as a demonstration of remote technique for emplacement and retrievable. As a demonstration of the closure techniques, laboratory tests will be continued to investigate the mechanism of bentonite runoff behaviour, which could be a factor in changing the performance of backfill material, and to expand data on swelling and deformation behaviour. In addition, in-situ borehole closure tests will be conducted to evaluate the applicability of the closure method. As "Understanding of buffering behaviour of

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation report for the 2021 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2022-025, 164 Pages, 2022/11

JAEA-Review-2022-025.pdf:12.25MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The main aim of this project is to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste through a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program in the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe in Hokkaido, north Japan. In fiscal year 2021, we continued R&D on three important issues specified in the "Horonobe Underground Research Plan from Fiscal Year 2020", which involve "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations". Specifically, "full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) performance experiment" and "solute transport experiment with model testing" were carried out as part of "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment". "Demonstration of engineering feasibility of repository technology" and "evaluation of EBS behaviour over 100$$^{circ}$$C' were addressed for "Demonstration of repository design options". A study on "Understanding of buffering behaviour of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations" was also implemented in two areas, "evaluation of intrinsic buffering against endogenic and exogenic processes" and "development of techniques for evaluating excavation damaged zone (EDZ) self-sealing behaviour after backfilling". The results of the R&D, along with those obtained in other departments of JAEA, will reinforce the technical basis for both repository implementation and safety regulation. For the sake of this, we will steadily proceed with this project in collaboration with relevant organizations and universities both domestically and internationally and also widely publish the plans and results of the R&D to ensure their transparency and technical reliability.

Journal Articles

Evolution of the reaction and alteration of granite with Ordinary Portland cement leachates; Sequential flow experiments and reactive transport modelling

Bateman, K.*; Murayama, Shota*; Hanamachi, Yuji*; Wilson, J.*; Seta, Takamasa*; Amano, Yuki; Kubota, Mitsuru*; Ouchi, Yuji*; Tachi, Yukio

Minerals (Internet), 12(7), p.883_1 - 883_20, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Journal Articles

Current status of Geological disposal by "all-Japan" activities, 6; Post-closure safety assessment (2)

Tachi, Yukio; Saito, Takumi*; Kirishima, Akira*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(5), p.290 - 295, 2022/05

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Development of JAEA sorption database (JAEA-SDB); Update of sorption/QA data in FY2021

Sugiura, Yuki; Suyama, Tadahiro*; Tachi, Yukio

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-017, 58 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-017.pdf:1.98MB

Sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs) in buffer materials (bentonites), rocks and cementitious materials is one of the key processes in a safe geological disposal of radioactive waste because RNs migration in these materials is expected to be retarded by the sorption process. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the sorption process and develop a database compiling reliable data and mechanistic/predictive models so that reliable parameters can be set under a variety of geochemical conditions relevant to a performance assessment (PA). For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed the database of sorption parameters in bentonites, rocks and cementitious materials. This sorption database (SDB) was firstly developed as an important basis for the H12 PA of a high-level radioactive waste disposal, and have been provided through the Web. JAEA has continued to improve and update the SDB in the view of potential future needs of data focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to the PA-related parameter setting. This report focuses on updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as a basis of integrated approach for the PA-related distribution coefficient (Kd) setting and development of mechanistic sorption models. This report also includes an overview of the database structure and contents. Kd data and their quality assurance (QA) results were updated from literature collected with wider ranges. As a result, 8,503 Kd data from 70 references related to the above-mentioned systems were added and the total number of Kd values in JAEA-SDB reached 79,072. The QA/classified Kd data reached about 75.4% for all Kd data in JAEA-SDB. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to give a basis for the next-step PA-related Kd setting.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation report for the 2020 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2021-053, 133 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-053.pdf:14.45MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The main aim of this project is to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste through a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program in the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe in Hokkaido, north Japan. In fiscal year 2020, JAEA continued R&D on three important issues specified in the "Horonobe Underground Research Plan from Fiscal Year 2020", which involve "Study on nearfield system performance in geological environment", "Demonstration of repository design options", and "Understanding of buffering behavior of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations". Specifically, 'full scale engineered barrier system (EBS) experiment' and 'solute transport experiment' were carried out as part of "Study on near-field system performance in geological environment". 'Development and testing of EBS emplacement / retrieval and tunnel closure technologies' and 'evaluation of EBS behavior over 100$$^{circ}$$C' were addressed for "Demonstration of repository design options". A study on "Understanding of buffering behavior of sedimentary rock to natural perturbations" was also implemented in two areas, 'evaluation of hydromechanical responses of faults to water pressure changes' and 'development of techniques for evaluating self-sealing behavior of an excavation damaged zone after backfilling'. The results of the R&D, along with those obtained in other departments of JAEA, will reinforce the technical basis for both repository implementation and safety regulation. For the sake of this, JAEA will steadily proceed with this project in collaboration with relevant organizations and universities both domestically and internationally and also widely publish the plans and results of the R&D to ensure their transparency and technical reliability.

Journal Articles

Decrease of radionuclide sorption in hydrated cement systems by organic ligands; Comparative evaluation using experimental data and thermodynamic calculations for ISA/EDTA-actinide-cement systems

Ochs, M.*; Dolder, F.*; Tachi, Yukio

Applied Geochemistry, 136, p.105161_1 - 105161_11, 2022/01

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:69.11(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Various types of radioactive wastes and environments contain organic substances that can stabilize the aqueous complexes with radionuclides and therefore lead to a decrease of sorption. The present study focuses on testing a methodology to quantify sorption reduction factors (SRFs) in the presence of organic ligands for cement systems. Three approaches for the estimation of SRFs; (1) analogy with solubility enhancement factors, (2) radionuclide speciation based on the thermodynamic calculations, and (3) experimental sorption data in ternary systems, were coupled and tested for the representative organic ligands (ISA and EDTA) and selected key radionuclides (actinides). Our approach allows to critically evaluate the dependence of SRFs for various systems on the chosen method of quantification, in accordance with the data availability for a given systems. The reliable SRFs can only be derived from the sorption measurements in ternary systems. SRF often need to be derived in the absence of such direct evidence, and estimations need to be made based on analogies and speciation information. However, such estimates may be subject to substantial uncertainties.

Journal Articles

Long-term density-dependent groundwater flow analysis and its effect on nuclide migration for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal with consideration of interaction between fractures and matrix of rock formation in coastal crystalline groundwater systems

Park, Y.-J.*; Sawada, Atsushi; Ozutsumi, Takenori*; Tanaka, Tatsuya*; Hashimoto, Shuji*; Morita, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering (DFNE 2022) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/00

Safety analysis for underground disposal facilities for high-level radioactive waste requires thorough understanding of long-term groundwater flow and nuclide migration processes in geologic media. In the coastal subsurface systems, groundwater flow is defined by the complex interactions between freshwater of meteoric origin and denser saline water from the sea. In addition, sea levels are expected to fluctuate significantly due to a transgression and regression of the sea over the millions of years for safety analysis. This study presents long-term evolution of groundwater environment such as salinity concentration and flow velocity with focus of the interaction between fractures and matrix blocks in regional and near-field scale analysis framework for groundwater flow and nuclide migration for underground disposal facilities in hypothetical fractured crystalline coastal systems.

Journal Articles

Evolution of the reaction and alteration of mudstone with ordinary Portland cement leachates; Sequential flow experiments and reactive-transport modelling

Bateman, K.; Murayama, Shota*; Hanamachi, Yuji*; Wilson, J.*; Seta, Takamasa*; Amano, Yuki; Kubota, Mitsuru*; Ouchi, Yuji*; Tachi, Yukio

Minerals (Internet), 11(9), p.1026_1 - 1026_23, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:24.14(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Journal Articles

Growing need for humanities and social science studies in uranium waste disposal

Yasuda, Hiroshi*; Fumoto, Hiromichi*; Saito, Tatsuo

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(8), p.610 - 614, 2021/08

Regarding the handling of uranium bearing waste, which is contaminated with uranium, which is a naturally occurring radionuclide, and its descendant nuclides, in recent years, the Japan Nuclear Regulatory Commission, etc. have been carefully and actively deliberated based on the knowledge of natural science and safety engineering. It was carried out, and as of March 2021, a certain policy has been shown. On the other hand, when disposing of uranium waste, which may cause dose exposure to future generations, the authors consider not only the science and engineering perspectives that have been conducted so far, but also the humanities and social science perspectives. We have been discussing with experts in related fields, thinking that it is necessary. In this report, we will introduce the background that brought about such an idea and the direction of future discussions.

JAEA Reports

Study on the radioactivity evaluation method of biological shielding concrete of JPDR for near surface disposal

Kochiyama, Mami; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-010, 61 Pages, 2021/07

JAEA-Technology-2021-010.pdf:3.56MB
JAEA-Technology-2021-010(errata).pdf:0.75MB

It is necessary to evaluate the radioactivity inventory in wastes in order to dispose of radioactive wastes generated from dismantling nuclear reactor in the shallow ground. In this report, we examined radioactivity evaluation method for near surface disposal about biological shield concrete near the core generated from the dismantling of JPDR. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete using the DORT code and the ORIGEN-S code, and we estimated radioactivity concentration Di (Bq/t). For DORT calculation, the cross-section library created from the MATXSLIB-J40 file from JENDL-4.0 was used, and for ORIGEN-S, the attached library of SCALE6.0 was used. As a result of comparing the calculation results of the radioactivity concentration with the past measured values in the radial direction and the vertical direction, we found that the trends were generally the same. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete Di (Bq/t), and we compared with the estimated Ci (Bq/t) equivalent to the dose criteria of trench disposal calculated for 140 nuclides. As a result we inferred that the except for about 2% of target waste could be disposed of in the trench disposal facility. We also preselected important nuclides for trench disposal based on the ratios (Di/Ci) for each nuclide, H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41, Co-60, Sr-90, Eu-152 and Cs-137 were selected as important nuclides.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2021 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2021-009, 54 Pages, 2021/07

JAEA-Review-2021-009.pdf:5.02MB

The Horonobe URL Project is being pursued by the JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In 2021 fiscal year (2021/2022), JAEA continue to conduct research on "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", which are the important issues shown in the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year. The main studies to be conducted in 2021 fiscal year are as follows. As "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", we will shift to the test under the condition that the influence of heating is eliminated in the full scale EBS experiment. As "Demonstration of disposal concept", as a demonstration of the closure techniques, it details the conditions under which long-term transitions in the tunnel and surrounding bedrock have a significant impact on safety assessments. And we will continue engineering scale experiment to confirm the workability and performance of plugs and laboratory tests to examine the interaction between backfilling materials and buffer materials. As "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", we will analyze the results of the hydraulic disturbance test and continue to study the hydraulic disconnection of faults/fissures in the Wakkanai Formation. As an advancement of technology for investigating and evaluating areas where the flow of groundwater is extremely slow, a boring exploration will be conducted to confirm the three-dimensional distribution of the fossil seawater area.

191 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)