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Journal Articles

Characterization of bremsstrahlung and $$gamma$$-rays of fuel debris

Matsumura, Taichi; Okumura, Keisuke; Fujita, Manabu*; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Terashima, Kenichi; Riyana, E. S.

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 199, p.110298_1 - 110298_8, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Structure, stability, and actinide leaching of simulated nuclear fuel debris synthesized from UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and stainless-steel

Kirishima, Akira*; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kumagai, Yuta; Kusaka, Ryoji; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Sato, Nobuaki*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 567, p.153842_1 - 153842_15, 2022/08

To understand the chemical structure and stability of nuclear fuel debris consisting of UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and Stainless Steel (SUS) generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan in 2011, simulated debris of the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr system and other fundamental component systems were synthesized and characterized. The simulated debris were synthesized by heat treatment for 1 to 12 h at 1600$$^{circ}$$C, in inert (Ar) or oxidative (Ar + 2% O$$_{2}$$) atmospheres. $$^{237}$$Np and $$^{241}$$Am tracers were doped for the leaching tests of these elements and U from the simulated debris. The characterization of the simulated debris was conducted by XRD, SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopy, which provided the major uranium phase of the UO $$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris was the solid solution of U$$^{mathrm{IV}}$$O$$_{2}$$ (s.s.) with Zr(IV) and Fe(II) regardless of the treatment atmosphere. The long-term immersion test of the simulated debris in pure water and that in seawater revealed the macro scale crystal structure of the simulated debris was chemically very stable in the wet condition for a year or more. Furthermore, the leaching test results showed that the actinide leaching ratios of U, Np, Am from the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris were very limited and less than 0.08 % for all the experiments in this study.

JAEA Reports

Continuous improvement activities on nuclear facility maintenance in Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency in 2021

Task Force on Maintenance Optimization of Nuclear Facilities

JAEA-Technology 2022-006, 80 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Technology-2022-006.pdf:4.24MB

The Task force on maintenance optimization of nuclear facilities was organized in the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) since November 2020, in order to adequately respond to "the New nuclear regulatory inspection system since FY 2020" and to continuously improve the facility maintenance activities. In 2021, the task force has studied (1) optimization of the importance classification on maintenance and inspection of nuclear facilities, and (2) improvement in setting and evaluation of the performance indicators on safety, maintenance and quality management activities, considering "the Graded approach" that is one of the basic methodologies in the new nuclear regulatory inspection system. Each nuclear facility (research reactors, nuclear fuel material usage facilities, others) in the NSRI will steadily improve their respective safety, maintenance and quality management activities, referring the review results suggested by the task force.

JAEA Reports

Basic research on the stability of fuel debris including alloy phase (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2022-009, 73 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-009.pdf:2.08MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Basic research on the stability of fuel debris including alloy phase" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study focus on fuel debris consisting of oxide phase and alloy phase generated by the high temperature chemical reaction between structure materials (SUS pipes, pressure vessels, etc.) and fuels (melted fuels, claddings components, etc.). We synthesize the simulated debris of UO$$_{2}$$-SUS system and UO$$_{2}$$-Zr(ZrO$$_{2}$$)-SUS system by high-temperature heat treatment, and measure their chemical property and dissolution behavior in water. Also, we will conduct

JAEA Reports

Identification of altered phases of fuel debris by laser fluorescence spectroscopy (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2022-007, 59 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-007.pdf:2.09MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Identification of altered phases of fuel debris by laser fluorescence spectroscopy" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to identify alteration phases occurring on the surface fuel debris at various conditions, using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), which is a selective analytical technique for U(VI), a major constituent of fuel debris and stable in oxidizing conditions. In particular, we pursue to improve its sensitivity and resolution by performing measurements at ultra-low temperature and identify multiple and heterogeneous U(VI)

JAEA Reports

Study on degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2022-005, 93 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-005.pdf:6.95MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study on degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions" conducted in FY2020. In the project, radiochemists, nuclear chemists, nuclear physicists, material scientists, and environmental biologists are teamed to elucidate the mechanism of the degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions. In fiscal year 2020, the members of the project team have conducted on the degradation of He ions irradiated simulated fuel debris, complex formation of tetravalent elements, uranium (VI) detection in microchannel, sorption of trivalent elements by iron bearing materials, and microbial degradation by model microorganisms and

JAEA Reports

Fluorination method for classification of the waste generated by fuel debris removal (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy*

JAEA-Review 2022-003, 126 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-003.pdf:8.01MB

JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Fluorination Method for Classification of the Waste Generated by Fuel Debris Removal" conducted in FY2020.

Journal Articles

Irradiation growth behavior and effect of hydrogen absorption of Zr-based cladding alloys for PWR

Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Amaya, Masaki; Udagawa, Yutaka

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 171, p.109004_1 - 109004_9, 2022/06

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal conductivity for near stoichiometric (U$$_{0.7-z}$$Pu$$_{0.3}$$Am$$_{z}$$)O$$_{2}$$ (z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15)

Yokoyama, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Tokoro, Daishiro*; Sugimoto, Masatoshi*; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Kato, Masato; Hino, Tetsushi*

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 31, p.101156_1 - 101156_7, 2022/06

In current nuclear fuel cycle systems, to reduce the amount of high-level radioactive waste, minor actinides (MAs) bearing MOX fuel is one option for burning MAs using fast reactor. However, the effects of Am content in fuel on thermal conductivity are unclear because there are no experimental data on thermal conductivity of high Am bearing MOX fuel. In this study, The thermal conductivities of near stoichiometric (U$$_{0.7-z}$$Pu$$_{0.3}$$Am$$_{z}$$)O$$_{2}$$ solid solutions(z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) have been measured between room temperature (RT) and 1473 K. The thermal conductivities decreased with increasing Am content and satisfied the classical phonon transport model ((A+BT)$$^{-1}$$) up to about 1473 K. A values increased linearly with increasing Am content because the change in ionic radius affects the conduction of the phonon due to the solid solution in U$$^{5+}$$ and Am$$^{3+}$$. B values were independent of Am content.

Journal Articles

Development of an ${it in-situ}$ continuous air monitor for the measurement of highly radioactive alpha-emitting particulates ($$alpha$$-aerosols) under high humidity environment

Tsubota, Yoichi; Honda, Fumiya; Tokonami, Shinji*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Ikeda, Atsushi

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1030, p.166475_1 - 166475_7, 2022/05

In the long-lasting decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the dismantling of nuclear fuel debris (NFD) remaining in the damaged reactors is an unavoidable but significant issue with many technical difficulties. The dismantling is presumed to involve mechanical cutting, generating significant concentrations of particulates containing $$alpha$$-radionuclides ($$alpha$$-aerosols) that pose significant health risk upon inhalation. In order to minimize the radiation exposure of workers with $$alpha$$-aerosols during the dismantling/decommissioning process at 1F, it is essential to monitor the concentration of $$alpha$$-aerosols at the point of initial generation, i.e. inside the primary containment vessels (PCV) of the damaged reactors. Toward this end, an ${it in situ}$ monitoring system for $$alpha$$-aerosols (${it in situ}$ alpha air monitor: IAAM) was developed and its technical performance was investigated under the conditions expected for the actual environments at 1F. IAAM was confirmed to fulfill four technical requirements: (1) steady operation under high humidity, (2) operation without using filters, (3) capability of measuring a high counting rate of $$alpha$$-radiation, and (4) selective measurement of $$alpha$$-radiation even under high radiation background with $$beta$$/$$gamma$$-rays. IAAM is capable of selectively measuring $$alpha$$-aerosols with a concentration of 3.3 $$times$$ 10$$^{2}$$ Bq/cm$$^{3}$$ or higher without saturation under a high humid environment (100%-relative humidity) and under high background with $$beta$$/$$gamma$$-radiation (up to 100 mSv/h of $$gamma$$-radiation). These results demonstrate promising potential of IAAM to be utilized as a reliable monitoring system for $$alpha$$-aerosols during the dismantling of NFD, as well as the whole long-lasting decommissioning of 1F.

Journal Articles

Depletion calculation of subcritical system with consideration of spontaneous fission reaction

Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Matsumura, Taichi; Terashima, Kenichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(4), p.424 - 430, 2022/04

Journal Articles

Reactivity estimation based on the linear equation of characteristic time profile of power in subcritical quasi-steady state

Yamane, Yuichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 14 Pages, 2022/04

The reactivity was estimated from a time profile of neutron count rate or a simulated data in a quasi-steady state after sudden change of reactivity or external neutron source strength. The estimation was based on the equation of power in subcritical quasi-steady state. The purpose of the study is to develop the method of timely reactivity estimation from complicated time profile of neutron count rate. The developed method was applied to the data simulating neutron count rate created by using one-point kinetics code, AGNES, and Poisson-distributed random noise and to the transient subcritical experiment data measured by using TRACY. The result shows that the difference of the estimated and reference value was within about 5% or less for ($rho$>-10) for simulated data and within about 7% or less for (rho{$}$simeq) -1.4 and -3.1 for the experimental data. It was also shown that the possibility of the reactivity estimation several ten seconds after the status change.

Journal Articles

Recent studies on fuel properties and irradiation behaviors of Am/Np-bearing MOX

Hiroka, Shun; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04

Property studies on Am/Np-bearing MOX were carried out and how the properties influences on the irradiation behaviors was discussed. Both Am and Np inclusions increase the oxygen potential of MOX. Inter-diffusion coefficients obtained by using diffusion couple technique indicate that the inter-diffusion coefficient is larger in the order of U-Am, U-Pu and U-Np. Also, the inter-diffusion coefficients were evaluated to be larger at the O/M = 2 than those of O/M $$<$$ 2 by several orders. The increase of oxygen potential with Am/Np leads to higher vapor pressure of UO$$_{3}$$ and the acceleration of the pore migration along temperature gradient during irradiation. The redistributions of actinide elements were also considered with the relationship of the pore migration and diffusion in solid state. Thus, the obtained inter-diffusion coefficients directly influence on the redistribution rate. The obtained properties were modelled and can be installed in a fuel irradiation simulation code.

Journal Articles

Advanced reactor experiments for sodium fast reactor fuels (ARES) project; Transient irradiation experiments for metallic and MOX fuels

Jensen, C. B.*; Wachs, D. M.*; Woolstenhulme, N. E.*; Ozawa, Takayuki; Hiroka, Shun; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/04

Journal Articles

French-Japanese experimental collaboration on fuel-coolant interactions in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Johnson, M.*; Delacroix, J.*; Journeau, C.*; Brayer, C.*; Clavier, R.*; Montazel, A.*; Pluyette, E.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04

Fuel-coolant interactions in the event of molten fuel discharge to the lower plenum of a sodium cooled fast reactor is under investigation as part of a French-Japanese experimental collaboration on severe accidents. The MELT facility enables the X-ray visualisation of the quenching of molten core material jets in sodium at kilogram-scale. The SERUA facility, currently under preparation, is presented for the investigation of boiling heat transfer at elevated melt-coolant interface temperatures. In this article, the status of the collaboration using these facilities is presented.

JAEA Reports

Development of rapid and sensitive radionuclide analysis method by simultaneous analysis of $$beta$$, $$gamma$$, and X-rays (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Japan Chemical Analysis Center*

JAEA-Review 2021-060, 105 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Review-2021-060.pdf:4.59MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of rapid and sensitive radionuclide analysis method by simultaneous analysis of $$beta$$, $$gamma$$, and X-rays" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to enable rapid analysis of radionuclides in fuel debris and waste, and develops the measurement system such as multiple $$gamma$$-ray detection method. We develop a spectral determination method (SDM method) for integrated analysis by constructing a spectral database for nuclides including $$beta$$-rays and X-rays by measurement using this system and radiation simulation calculation. This method enables simultaneous quantification of multiple nuclides and reduces the chemical separation process.

Journal Articles

Development of fission gas release model for MOX fuel pellets with treatment of heterogeneous microstructure

Tasaki, Yudai; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.382 - 394, 2022/03

Journal Articles

Development of dispersed phase tracking method for time-series 3-dimensional interface shape data

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 14 Pages, 2022/03

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in fuel assemblies with a spacer grid using a mechanistically based method

Ono, Ayako; Yamashita, Susumu; Suzuki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 16 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA is developing the methodology to predict the critical heat flux based on a mechanism in order to reduce the cost for full mock-up test. The evaluation method based on a mechanism is expected to be able to predict in the wide range of parameter under the unexpected conditions including the severe accident. In this study, the JUPITER code developed by JAEA is examined to apply for the two-phase flow simulation of LWR fuel assembly with the spacer grid. The benchmark data of single-phase flow in the bundle with the spacers by KAERI were used to validate the simulation result by JUPITER. Moreover, the single-phase flow simulation was conducted by another simulation method, STAR-CCM+, as a supplemental analysis to consider the effect of the different simulation methods. Finally, the two-phase flow simulation for the bundle with the spacer was conducted by JUPITER. The effect of the spacer with a vane on the bubble behavior is discussed.

JAEA Reports

Investigation of environment induced property change and cracking behavior in fuel debris (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2021-058, 75 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-058.pdf:4.82MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Investigation of environment induced property change and cracking behavior in fuel debris" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to investigate the environment induced property change and cracking behavior in fuel debris from the viewpoints of materials science. The research objective is cracking behavior in fuel debris which is presumed to be influenced by environment during long-term fuel debris processing period. The degradation models will be established to simulate the oxidation and hydrogenation processes possibly occurred at fuel debris. The evolution of phase constitution and the corresponding property change in the simulated fuel debris under various environmental conditions will be systematically

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