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Journal Articles

Application of USV to marine monitoring after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident and its applicability as a nuclear disaster prevention tool

Sanada, Yukihisa; Misono, Toshiharu; Shiribiki, Takehiko*

Kaiyo Riko Gakkai-Shi, 27(2), p.37 - 44, 2023/12

This paper summarizes the general situation of marine monitoring conducted after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the experience of development and operation of USVs, and the possibility of applying unmanned vessels as a tool for nuclear disaster prevention in the future. 0.01 Bq/L or less for seawater and 10 Bq/L or less for seabed soil. Operational tests of three USVs have been continuously conducted for use in such environmental radiation monitoring. Development of these UAVs is underway with a view to utilizing them for seawater sampling, direct measurement of the seafloor soil surface layer, and seafloor soil sampling, depending on their performance. It is necessary to promote the development of USVs for future nuclear power plant accidents.

Journal Articles

Assessment of ambient dose equivalent rate distribution patterns in a forested-rugged terrain using field-measured and modeled dose equivalent rates

Yasumiishi, Misa*; Masoudi, P.*; Nishimura, Taku*; Ochi, Kotaro; Ye, X.*; Aldstadt, J.*; Komissarov, M.*

Radiation Measurements, 168, p.106978_1 - 106978_16, 2023/11

In this study, we surveyed air dose rates using hand-held and backpack-type scintillators in a forest of deciduous and evergreen trees in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The effects of topographic features on air dose rates were examined using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) against five selected topographic parameters. The air dose rates were distributed unevenly in the forest, and air dose rates varied by more than 1$$mu$$Sv/h as a function of time, likely owing to ground wetness etc. The effect of different topographic parameters varied between survey dates. The MARS model predictions with all topographic parameters yielded an R$$^{2}$$ of 0.54 or higher. To discuss whether the effect of topography on air dose rates and soil contamination levels is consistent, air dose rates measured in the field were compared with those estimated from the depth profile of radiocesium in soil. Most air dose rates estimated from the soil samples were in the range of field measurements.

Journal Articles

Effects of radioactive cesium from suspended matter and fallout on agricultural products

Nihei, Naoto*; Yoshimura, Kazuya

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (IV), p.33 - 40, 2023/09

Journal Articles

Soil dust and bioaerosols as potential sources for resuspended $$^{137}$$Cs occurring near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Ota, Masakazu; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nagakubo, Azusa; Hirouchi, Jun; Hayashi, Naho; Abe, Tomohisa; Funaki, Hironori; Nagai, Haruyasu

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 264, p.107198_1 - 107198_15, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

One of the current major radiation exposure pathways from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident-fallout is inhalation of the re-suspended $$^{137}$$Cs occurring in air. While wind-induced soil particle resuspension has been recognized as a primary mechanism of $$^{137}$$Cs resuspension, studies following the FDNPP accident suggested that fungal spores can be a significant source of the atmospheric $$^{137}$$Cs particularly in the rural areas such as difficult-to-return zone (DRZ). To elucidate the relative importance of the two resuspension phenomena, we propose a model simulating resuspension of $$^{137}$$Cs as soil particles and fungal spores, and applied it to DRZ. Our model's calculation showed that soil particle resuspension was responsible for the surface-air $$^{137}$$Cs observed during winter-spring, but could not account for the higher $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations observed in summer-autumn. The higher concentrations in the summer-autumn were in general reproduced by implementing fungal spore $$^{137}$$Cs emission, that replenished low soil particle $$^{137}$$Cs resuspension in that period. According to our model's concept, $$^{137}$$Cs accumulation in fungal spores and high spore emission rate characterized by the rural environment were likely responsible for the abundance of spore $$^{137}$$Cs in the air. It was inferred that the influence of the fungal spores on the atmospheric $$^{137}$$Cs would last longer since un-decontaminated forests still exist in DRZ.

Journal Articles

Dependency of the source term estimation method for radionuclides released into the atmosphere on the available environmental monitoring data and its applicability to real-time source term estimation

Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kadowaki, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Katsunori

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.980 - 1001, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:89.37(Nuclear Science & Technology)

It is essential to establish a method for reconstructing the source term and spatiotemporal distribution of radionuclides released into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident for emergency countermeasures. We examined the dependency of a source term estimation method based on Bayesian inference using atmospheric dispersion simulation and environmental monitoring data on the availability of various monitoring data. Additionally, we examined the applicability of this method to a real-time estimation conducted immediately after an accident. A sensitivity analysis of the estimated source term during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident for combinations of various monitoring data indicated that using monitoring data with a high temporal and spatial resolution and the concurrent use of air concentration and surface deposition data is effective for accurate estimation. A real-time source term estimation experiment assuming the situation of monitoring data acquisition during the FDNPS accident revealed that this method could provide the necessary source term for grasping the overview of surface contamination in the early phase and evaluating the approximate accident scale. If the immediate online acquisition of monitoring data and regular operation of an atmospheric dispersion simulation are established, this method can provide the source term in near-real time.

Journal Articles

Radiation imaging of a highly contaminated filter train inside Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 using an integrated Radiation Imaging System based on a Compton camera

Sato, Yuki; Terasaka, Yuta

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.1013 - 1026, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:89.37(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Development of a numerical simulation method for air cooling of fuel debris by JUPITER

Yamashita, Susumu; Uesawa, Shinichiro; Ono, Ayako; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 10(4), p.22-00485_1 - 22-00485_25, 2023/08

A detailed evaluation for air cooling of fuel debris in actual reactors will be essential in fuel debris retrieval under dry conditions. To understand the heat transfer in and around fuel debris, which is assumed as a porous medium in the primary containment vessel (PCV) mechanistically, we newly applied the porous medium model to the multiphase and multicomponent computational fluid dynamics code named JUPITER (JAEA Utility Program for Interdisciplinary Thermal-hydraulics Engineering and Research). We applied the Darcy-Brinkman model as for the porous medium model. This model has high compatibility with JUPITER because it can treat both a pure fluid and a porous medium phase simultaneously in the same manner as the one-fluid model in multiphase flow simulation. We addressed the case of natural convection with a high-velocity flow standing out nonlinear effects by implementing the Forchheimer model, including the term of the square of the velocity as a nonlinear effect to the momentum transport equation of JUPITER. We performed some simple verification and validation simulations, such as the natural convection simulation in a square cavity and the natural convective heat transfer experiment with the porous medium, to confirm the validity of the implemented model. We confirmed that the result of JUPITER agreed well with these simulations and experiments. In addition, as an application of the updated JUPITER, we performed the preliminary simulation of air cooling of fuel debris in the condition of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 2 including the actual core materials. As a result, JUPITER calculated the temperature and velocity field stably in and around the fuel debris inside the PCV. Therefore, JUPITER has the potential to estimate the detailed and accurate thermal-hydraulics behaviors of fuel debris.

Journal Articles

Development of a method of evaluating PuO$$_{2}$$ particle diameters using an alpha-particle imaging detector

Morishita, Yuki; Sagawa, Naoki; Takada, Chie; Momose, Takumaro; Takasaki, Koji

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 199(13), p.1376 - 1383, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Environmental Sciences)

It is very important to evaluate the diameters (activity median aerodynamic diameter) of Plutonium diocide (PuO$$_{2}$$) particles for internal exposure dose evaluation. In this study, a method of evaluating PuO$$_{2}$$ particle diameters using an alpha-particle imaging detector, which can measure the change of the shape of alpha-particle energy spectrum of an individual particle, was developed. PuO$$_{2}$$ particles with different diameters were modeled by Monte Carlo simulation, and the change in the shape of the energy spectrum for each particle diameter was evaluated. Two different patterns were modeled, namely, the case of $$^{239}$$PuO$$_{2}$$ and the case of PuO$$_{2}$$ (including isotopic composition of Pu). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the PuO$$_{2}$$ particle diameter from the obtained parameters. The simulated diameters and the diameters obtained with the regression model were in good agreement.

Journal Articles

Thirty-year prediction of $$^{137}$$Cs supply from rivers to coastal waters off Fukushima considering human activities

Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Kondo, Akira*

Water (Internet), 15(15), p.2734_1 - 2734_18, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:0

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused an accumulation of $$^{137}$$Cs in coastal sediment. The $$^{137}$$Cs supply from rivers to the ocean can affect the long-term fate of $$^{137}$$Cs in coastal sediment. Since the Fukushima coastal river basins include large decontaminated and evacuation order areas, considering the decontamination work and resumption of agriculture is important for predicting the $$^{137}$$Cs supply. We conducted a 30-year prediction of the $$^{137}$$Cs supply from the Fukushima coastal rivers to the ocean using a distributed radiocesium prediction model, considering the effects of human activities. In river basins with decontaminated and evacuation order areas, human activities reduced the total $$^{137}$$Cs outflow from agricultural lands, urban lands, and forest areas to the rivers and the $$^{137}$$Cs supply to the ocean by 5.0% and 6.0%, respectively. These results indicated that human activities slightly impacted the $$^{137}$$Cs outflow and supply. The $$^{137}$$Cs supply from rivers impacted by the accident to the coastal sediment was estimated to correspond to 11-36% of the total $$^{137}$$Cs in the coastal sediment in the early phase of the accident. Therefore, the $$^{137}$$Cs supply from rivers to the ocean is important for the long-term behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs in coastal sediment.

Journal Articles

Occurrence of radioactive cesium-rich micro-particles (CsMPs) in a school building located 2.8 km south-west of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Fueda, Kazuki*; Komiya, Tatsuki*; Minomo, Kenta*; Horie, Kenji*; Takehara, Mami*; Yamasaki, Shinya*; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Toshihiko*; Grambow, B.*; Law, G. T. W.*; et al.

Chemosphere, 328, p.138566_1 - 138566_12, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Interaction of millisecond kW-class laser pulses with metals and metal oxides; Fundamentals of processing

Daido, Hiroyuki*; Yamada, Tomonori

ILT-APR-34; ILT 2023 Nempo (Internet), p.1 - 5, 2023/07

The decommissioning of Fukushima and the contribution to reconstruction have become national issues. The authors participated in the "Analysis of fine particles generated by laser processing and development of nuclide identification method" (represented by Professor Shuichi Hasegawa of the University of Tokyo), which was adopted as one of the JAEA's publicly solicited projects for this purpose, from FY 2018 to FY 2021 as a subcontractor, The authors conducted research on the observation, evaluation and analysis of the interaction between lasers and various laser-irradiated targets. This report outlines the results of the research in which the authors took part. In the experiments, laser irradiation was carried out on test specimens set up in an irradiation chamber, and shadowgraphs were taken using a high-speed camera and a He-Ne laser. As an example of the experimental results, shadowgraphs of metal (stainless steel) and metal oxide (zirconia), irradiation traces after laser irradiation, and the relationship between laser irradiation power and jet mass are shown, and the interaction between the laser and the metal or metal oxide is discussed. The results will not only contribute to the decommissioning technology of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, but also to laser processing technology and laser interaction research.

Journal Articles

Reaction of Np, Am, and Cm ions with CO$$_{2}$$ and O$$_{2}$$ in a reaction cell in triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Kazama, Hiroyuki; Konashi, Kenji*; Suzuki, Tatsuya*; Koyama, Shinichi; Maeda, Koji; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Takashi; Abe, Chikage*; Shikamori, Yasuyuki*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 38(8), p.1676 - 1681, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Establishing an evaluation method for the aging phenomenon by physical force in fuel debris

Suzuki, Seiya; Arai, Yoichi; Okamura, Nobuo; Watanabe, Masayuki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.839 - 848, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The fuel debris, consisting of nuclear fuel materials and reactor structural materials, generated in the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant can become deteriorated like rocks under the changes of environmental temperature. Although the fuel debris have been cooled by water for 10 years, they are affected by seasonal and/or day-and-night temperature changes. Therefore, in evaluating the aging behavior of the fuel debris, it is essential to consider the changes in environmental temperature. Assuming that the fuel debris are deteriorated, radioactive substances that have recently undergone micronization could be eluted into the cooling water, and such condition may affect defueling methods. We focused on the effect of repeated changes in environmental temperature on the occurrence of cracks, and an accelerated test using simulated fuel debris was carried out. The length of the crack increases with increasing number of heat cycle; therefore, the fuel debris become brittle by stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the mechanical deterioration of the fuel debris is similar to that of rocks or minerals, and it became possible to predict changes in the length of the crack in the simulated fuel debris and environmental model.

Journal Articles

Radio-tellurium released into the environment during the complete oxidation of fuel cladding, containment venting and reactor building failure of the Fukushima accident

Hidaka, Akihide; Kawashima, Shigeto*; Kajino, Mizuo*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.743 - 758, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:89.37(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An accurate estimation of radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident is essential. Therefore, authors investigated Te release using the Unit emission-regression estimation method, in which the deposition distribution is weighted based on the hourly deposition obtained from mesoscale meteorological model calculations assuming Unit emissions. The previous study focused on confirming the applicability of this method. Subsequent examination revealed that if any part of the time when a release have occurred is missing from the estimated release period, the entire source term calculation will be distorted. Therefore, this study performed the recalculation by extending the estimation period to cover all major releases. Consequently, unspecified release events were clarified, and their correspondence to in-core events was confirmed. The $$^{rm 129m}$$Te release caused by Zr cladding complete oxidation can explain the regional dependence of the $$^{rm 129m}$$Te/$$^{137}$$Cs ratio in the soil contamination map.

Journal Articles

Simulation study on $$^{3}$$H behavior in the Fukushima coastal region; Comparison of influences of discharges from the Fukushima Daiichi and rivers

Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Susumu; Machida, Masahiko; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Misono, Toshiharu; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Iijima, Kazuki

Marine Pollution Bulletin, 192, p.115054_1 - 115054_10, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Integration of 3D environment models generated from the sections of the image sequence based on the consistency of the estimated camera trajectories

Matsumoto, Taku; Hanari, Toshihide; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Yashiro, Hiroshi*; Nakamura, Keita*

Proceedings of 22nd World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC 2023) (Internet) , p.12107 - 12112, 2023/07

Journal Articles

Image selection method from image sequence to improve computational efficiency of 3D reconstruction; Application of robust threshold based on multimodal test to images

Hanari, Toshihide; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Nakamura, Keita*

Proceedings of 22nd World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC 2023) (Internet) , p.11597 - 11602, 2023/07

This paper describes the image selection method by multimodal detection for improving the computational efficiency of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction based on images in a time-series. To decrease the calculation time of the 3D reconstruction, an adequate selection from the images is required. For this reason, we introduced multimodal detection by a statistical test on the image selection process, and then applied it to soundness evaluation of the displacements based on the optical flow between images acquired by a camera. The results suggest that suitable images can be extracted from the images in a time-series for decreasing the calculation time of the 3D reconstruction. Therefore, the suitable images selected by the proposed method contributed to efficiently performing the 3D reconstruction.

JAEA Reports

Development of radiation hardened diamond image sensing devices (Contract research); FY2021 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology*

JAEA-Review 2023-003, 72 Pages, 2023/06


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of radiation hardened diamond image sensing devices" conducted from FY2019 to FY2021. The present study aims to develop image sensing devices which work under the high radiation condition. The devices will be realized using radiation hard diamond semiconductor devices as charge transfer devices and photodetectors. The research project has mainly two targets such as to confirm charge coupled devices operation on diamond unipolar devices and to characterize photo conductivity of diamond detectors.

Journal Articles

In-situ alpha aerosol monitoring in harsh environments

Tsubota, Yoichi

Isotope News, (787), p.28 - 31, 2023/06

In the fuel debris retrieval process during the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), radioactive particulates are generated in the primary containment vessel (PCV). Particulates containing $$alpha$$ nuclides ($$alpha$$-aerosols), which have a particularly large internal exposure effect, are important to be monitored in addition to confinement measures in the PCV. The research group of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) summarized the four requirements for measuring $$alpha$$-aerosols in the harsh environment of the 1F-PCV as follows: "reliable operation in a high humidity environment", "measurement of $$alpha$$-aerosols without using filter paper", "measurement of high concentration of $$alpha$$-aerosols", and "selective measurement of $$alpha$$-aerosols". The IAAM was developed as an instrument that satisfies these four criteria. The IAAM was developed as an "in-situ" $$alpha$$-aerosol measurement device that combines air heating, a flat-type flow path, direct measurement of $$alpha$$-aerosol, usage of multi-channel photomultiplier tube, and an optimized scintillator thickness. Performance verification tests have demonstrated that the IAAM can be used for real-time measurement of $$alpha$$ -aerosol concentration in air, and that it can measure more than 30 times of $$alpha$$-aerosol concentration expected in the 1F-PCV. In the future, we will continue to verify the measurement of $$alpha$$-aerosol concentration at various sites and aim to apply the system to such sites.

Journal Articles

The Effects of unburned-gas temperature and pressure on the unstable behavior of cellular-flame fronts generated by intrinsic instability in hydrogen-air lean premixed flames under adiabatic and non-adiabatic conditions; Numerical simulation based on the detailed chemical reaction model

Thwe Thwe, A.; Kadowaki, Satoshi; Nagaishi, Ryuji

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(6), p.731 - 742, 2023/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In this study, we performed numerical calculations of unsteady reaction flow considering detailed chemical reactions, investigated the unstable behavior of hydrogen-air dilute premixed flame due to intrinsic instability, and clarified the effects of unburned gas temperature and pressure. I made it. The unstable behavior of the flame in a wide space was simulated, and the burning rate of the cellular flame was obtained. Then, the effects of heat loss and flame scale on flame unstable behavior were investigated. The burning velocity of a planar flame increases as the unburned-gas temperature increases and it decreases as the unburned-gas pressure and heat loss increase. The normalized burning velocity increases when the pressure increases and heat loss becomes large, and it decreases when the temperature increases. This is because the high unburned-gas pressure and heat loss promote the unstable behavior and instability of flame.

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