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Journal Articles

Indoor and outdoor radionuclide distribution in houses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Hirouchi, Jun; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshimura, Kazuya

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 232, p.106572_1 - 106572_6, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:0

Information on the radioactivity distribution inside and outside houses is useful for indoor external dose assessments. In this study, we collected both soil samples around the target houses and house material samples (i.e., of the floor, inner wall, ceiling, outer wall, and roof). The radioactivity of the samples was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The surface contamination densities of the floor, inner wall, ceiling, outer wall, and roof relative to the ground were 3 $$times$$ 10$$^{-3}$$$$sim$$7 $$times$$ 10$$^{-2}$$, 6 $$times$$ 10$$^{-5}$$$$sim$$4 $$times$$ 10$$^{-4}$$, 7 $$times$$ 10$$^{-5}$$$$sim$$3 $$times$$ 10$$^{-4}$$, 2 $$times$$ 10$$^{-3}$$$$sim$$1 $$times$$ 10$$^{-2}$$, and 4 $$times$$ 10$$^{-3}$$$$sim$$2 $$times$$ 10$$^{-1}$$, respectively. The relative surface contamination densities varied depending on the material, its location, and the orientation of the surface.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Overview and outcomes of the OECD/NEA benchmark study of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS (BSAF), Phase 2; Results of severe accident analyses for unit 3

Lind, T.*; Pellegrini, M.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Sonnenkalb, M.*; Nishi, Yoshihisa*; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Cousin, F.*; Fernandez Moguel, L.*; Andrews, N.*; Sevon, T.*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 376, p.111138_1 - 111138_12, 2021/05

This is the third part of the three part paper describing the accidents at the FDNPS as analyzed in the Phase 2 of the OECD/NEA project "Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant" (BSAF). In this paper, we describe the accident progression in unit 3. In the BSAF project, eight organizations from five countries analyzed severe accident scenarios for Unit 3 at the Fukushima Daiichi site using different severe accident codes. The present paper for Unit 3 describes the findings of the comparison of the participants' results against each other and against plant data, the evaluation of the accident progression and the final status inside the reactors. Special focus is on the status of the reactor pressure vessel, melt release and fission product release and transport. Unit 3 specific aspects, e.g., the complicated accident progression following repeated containment venting actuations and attempts at coolant injection at the time of the major core degradation, are highlighted and points of consensus as well as remaining uncertainties and data needs will be summarized. FP transport is analyzed, and the calculation results are compared with dose rate measurements in the containment. The release of I-131 and Cs-137 to the environment is compared with analysis conducted by using WSPEEDI code.

Journal Articles

Impacts of freeze-thaw processes and subsequent runoff on $$^{137}$$Cs washoff from bare land in Fukushima

Igarashi, Yasunori*; Onda, Yuichi*; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroaki*; Kozuka, Shohei*; Manome, Ryo*

Science of the Total Environment, 769, p.144706_1 - 144706_9, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Comparison of the observed Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 2 debris with simulated debris from the CLADS-MADE-01 control blade degradation test

Pshenichnikov, A.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.416 - 425, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Leaching behavior of radionuclides from samples prepared from spent fuel rod comparable to core debris in the 1F NPS

Onishi, Takashi; Maeda, Koji; Katsuyama, Kozo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.383 - 398, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Transfer of $$^{137}$$Cs to web-building spiders, ${it Nephila clavata}$, and its pathways; A Preliminary study using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses

Tanaka, Sota; Kakinuma, Hotaru*; Adachi, Taro*; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.507 - 514, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0

Understanding the pathways of $$^{137}$$Cs transfer to predatory spiders is useful to assess long-term behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs in the environment, because spiders obtain food resources from both the grazing and detritus food chains in terrestrial-aquatic linking forest ecosystems. In the present study, we collected spider samples at forest interior and riverside. The sample collection was approximately 6.5 years after the FDNPP accident. Moreover, a transfer factor value (T$$_{ag}$$) for $$^{137}$$Cs in spiders was quantified. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios ($$delta$$$$^{13}$$C and $$delta$$$$^{15}$$N) of the spiders were also investigated to estimate the transfer pathways of $$^{137}$$Cs to the spiders.

Journal Articles

Stochastic estimation of radionuclide composition in wastes generated at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station using Bayesian inference

Sugiyama, Daisuke*; Nakabayashi, Ryo*; Tanaka, Shingo*; Koma, Yoshikazu; Takahatake, Yoko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.493 - 506, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Experimental evaluation of Sr and Ba distribution in ex-vessel debris under a temperature gradient

Sudo, Ayako; Sato, Takumi; Ogi, Hiroshi; Takano, Masahide

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.473 - 481, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Dissolution behavior of Sr and Ba is crucial for evaluating secondary source terms via coolant water from ex-vessel debris accumulated at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To understand the mechanism, knowing the distribution of Sr and Ba in the ex-vessel debris is necessary. As a result of reaction tests between simulated corium and concrete materials, two layered structures were observed in the solidified sample, (A) a silicate glass-based ((Si-Al-Ca-Fe-Zr-Cr-U-Sr-Ba)-O) phase-rich layer in the upper surface region and (B) a (U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$ particle-rich layer at the inner region. Measurable concentrations of Sr and Ba were observed in layer (A) (approximately 1.7 times that in the layer (B)). According to thermodynamic analysis, (U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$ is predicted to solidify, in advance, in the concrete-based melt around 2177 $$^{circ}$$C. Then, the residual melt is solidified as a silicate glass, and Sr and Ba are preferentially dissolved into the silicate glass. During the tests, (U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$ particles sank, in advance, in the melt because of its higher density, and the silicate glass phase relocated to the surface layer. On the other hand, silicate glass containing Sr and Ba is predicted to be hardly soluble in water and chemically stable.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of a one-dimensional position-sensitive quartz optical fiber sensor based on the time-of-flight method for high radiation dose rate applications

Terasaka, Yuta; Watanabe, Kenichi*; Uritani, Akira*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 996, p.165151_1 - 165151_8, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0

For the measurement of radiation distribution inside the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) buildings, the evaluation of a small-diameter quartz optical fiber as a one-dimensional position-sensitive sensor was conducted. The sensor determines the incident position of radiation into the fiber using the time-of-flight information of emitted Cerenkov photons in the optical fiber. Compared with the conventional sensor using the plastic scintillating fiber, the quartz optical fiber has much higher position resolution, which may be the result of the improvement of timing characteristics caused by the prompt emission mechanism of the Cerenkov radiation. Additionally, the response of position-sensitive quartz optical fiber sensor under high radiation field was evaluated, and good count rate linearity was confirmed using the 10 m long quartz optical fiber with a diameter of 0.4 mm up to the dose rate at least 20 mSv/h, and the radiation tolerance property up to the accumulated dose of 1 kGy was evaluated.

Journal Articles

Quantum chemical calculation studies toward microscopic understanding of retention mechanism of Cs radioisotopes and other alkali metals in lichens

Suno, Hiroya; Machida, Masahiko; Dohi, Terumi; Omura, Yoshihito*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.8228_1 - 8228_13, 2021/04

We evaluate stability of caesium (Cs) and other alkali-metal cation complexes of lichen metabolites in both gas and aqueous phases to discuss why lichens can retain radioactive Cs in the thalli over several years. We focus on oxalic acid, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, and protocetraric acid, which are common metabolite substances in various lichens including, e.g., $textit{Flavoparmelia caperata}$ and $textit{Parmotrema tinctorum}$ retaining Cs in Fukushima, Japan. By performing quantum chemical calculations, their gas-phase complexation energies and aqueous-solution complexation free energies with alkali-metal cations are computed for their neutral and deprotonated cases. Consequently, all the molecules are found to energetically favor cation complexations and the preference order is Li$$^+>$$Na$$^+>$$K$$^+>$$Rb$$^+>$$Cs$$^+$$ for all conditions, indicating no specific Cs selectivity but strong binding with all alkali cations. Comparing complexation stabilities among these metabolites, lecanoric and protocetraric acids seen in medullary layer are found to keep higher affinity in their neutral case, while (+)-usnic acid and atranorin in upper cortex exhibit rather strong affinity only in deprotonated cases through forming stable six atoms' ring containing alkali cation chelated by two oxygens. These results suggest that the medullary layer can catch all alkali cations in a wide pH range around the physiological one, while the upper cortex can effectively block penetration of metal ions when the metal stress grows. Such insights highlight a physiological role of metabolites like blocking of metal-cation migrations into intracellular tissues, and explain long-term retention of alkali cations including Cs in lichens containing enough such metabolites to bind them.

JAEA Reports

HAIROWorldPlugin operation manual

Suzuki, Kenta; Abe, Fumiaki; Yashiro, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kuniaki

JAEA-Testing 2020-009, 254 Pages, 2021/03

JAEA-Testing-2020-009.pdf:18.61MB

This report is the user manual of HAIROWorldPlugin for Choreonoid. Our motivation is to develop a robot simulator based on Choreonoid for technological development to contribute the decommissioning work at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. Choreonoid is an open source simulator which calculates the behavior of robots. The plugin is an extended function of Choreonoid which provides simulated behavior and phenomenon related to decommissioning tasks utilizing remotely operated robots. In particular, we developed additional functionalities for simulating the behavior of an underwater swimming robot, the behavior of an unmanned aerial vehicle robot, low visibility camera images, network communication failures, etc., and packaged these in the plugin. This report describes the installation of the plugin to Choreonoid on Ubuntu18.04-LTS and parameter settings of the plugin by presenting snapshots of operation windows.

Journal Articles

Effective removal of iodate by coprecipitation with barite; Behavior and mechanism

Tokunaga, Kohei; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi

Chemosphere, 266, p.129104_1 - 129104_10, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

Radioactive iodine ($$^{129}$$I) is of great concern owing to its high mobility in the environment and long-term radiotoxicity, but there is a lack of effective techniques for removing iodate (IO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$) from aqueous solution. The aim of this study is to develop a new technique for removing radioactive iodate from contaminated solution by using barite (BaSO$$_{4}$$). In the present study, we examined the coprecipitation mechanism of iodate by barite at the molecular level for determining optimum conditions for iodate removal. The results showed that iodate was effectively removed from aqueous solution by coprecipitation, even in the presence of competitive anions in solution. Comparing our method with previous studies, iodate removal efficiency by barite was determined to be about two orders of magnitude greater than that by hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide at Cl$$^{-}$$ concentration of 10 mmol L$$^{-1}$$. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis indicated that incorporated iodate was strongly bound in the crystal lattice of barite by substituting the sulfate site in the structure when the iodine concentration was low. The charge compensation problem from the IO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$ substitution in SO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$ site is achieved by the substitution of Na$$^{+}$$-IO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$ pairs at the nearest Ba$$^{2+}$$ site. Therefore, considering high removal efficiency and strong binding of iodate in barite, coprecipitation with barite is a promising material for removing radioactive iodate from various aqueous solutions contaminated with iodate.

Journal Articles

Research activities on nuclear safety in JAEA

Maruyama, Yu

Enerugi Rebyu, 41(4), p.20 - 24, 2021/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Visualization of the boron distribution in core material melting and relocation specimen by neutron energy resolving method

Abe, Yuta; Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro*; Parker, J. D.*; Shinohara, Takenao; Oishi, Yuji*; Kamiyama, Takashi*; Nagae, Yuji; Sato, Ikken

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011075_1 - 011075_6, 2021/03

Journal Articles

A Prediction method for the dose rate of fuel debris depending on the constituent elements

Terashima, Kenichi; Okumura, Keisuke

Journal of Advanced Simulation in Science and Engineering (Internet), 8(1), p.73 - 86, 2021/03

Journal Articles

Decrease in pitting corrosion resistance of extra-high-purity type 316 stainless-steel by Cu$$^{2+}$$ in NaCl

Aoyama, Takahito; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Metals, 11(3), p.511_1 - 511_13, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0

The effect of Cu$$^{2+}$$ in bulk solution on pitting corrosion resistance of extra high purity type 316 stainless steel was investigated. Pitting occurred in 0.1 M NaCl-1 mM CuCl$$_2$$ whereas pitting was not initiated in 0.1 M NaCl. Although deposition of Cu$$^{2+}$$ on the surface occurred regardless of potential region in 0.1 M NaCl-1 mM CuCl$$_2$$, Cu$$^{2+}$$ in bulk solution had no influence on the passive film formation. The decrease in pitting corrosion resistance in 0.1 M NaCl-1 mM CuCl$$_2$$ resulted from the deposited Cu or Cu compound and continuous supply of Cu$${2+}$$ on the surface.

Journal Articles

Determination of parameters for an equation to obtain natural background radiation using KURAMA-II loaded with C12137-01 type CsI(Tl) detector

Ando, Masaki; Matsuda, Norihiro; Saito, Kimiaki

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 20(1), p.34 - 39, 2021/03

We measured count rates and air dose rates at 11 measurement points where the influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident could be ignored to obtain parameters for a background equation applying to KURAMA-II loaded with the high sensitivity CsI(Tl) detector, C12137-01. It was found that the sensitivity of KURAMA-II (C12137-01) was about 10 times or more for background measurement, compared with KURAMA-II loaded with the standard type CsI(Tl) detector, C12137. A background equation for the energy range of 1400-2000 keV was determined as, y ($$mu$$Sv/h)=0.062 x (cps). We evaluated background air dose rates using KURAMA-II (C12137-01) for 71 municipalities and compared them with the previous study using KURAMA-II (C12137). Evaluated background air dose rates in this study were almost equal to those in the previous study. We confirmed that the background equation evaluated in this study was applicable for the KURAMA-II (C12137-01).

Journal Articles

Measurement of Doppler broadening of prompt gamma-rays from various zirconium- and ferro-borons

Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Abe, Yuta; Oishi, Yuji*; Sun, Y.*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Nakatani, Takeshi; Sato, Ikken

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 991, p.164964_1 - 164964_5, 2021/03

Peak shape analysis was performed for the energy spectra of Doppler-broadened prompt $$gamma$$-rays generated by neutron capture reactions with various boride or boron samples. Significant differences were observed between nonmetallic and metallic borides. Minor differences between the peak shapes of prompt $$gamma$$-rays from zirconium- and ferro-borons were evaluated by a peak fitting method. The identification of zirconium- and ferro-borons and other types of borides was estimated.

Journal Articles

Synthesis of simulated fuels containing CsI under gas-tight condition

Liu, J.; Miwa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 26, p.100916_1 - 100916_6, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0

4577 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)