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JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2021 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi

JAEA-Review 2021-009, 54 Pages, 2021/07

JAEA-Review-2021-009.pdf:5.02MB

The Horonobe URL Project is being pursued by the JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In 2021 fiscal year (2021/2022), JAEA continue to conduct research on "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", which are the important issues shown in the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year. The main studies to be conducted in 2021 fiscal year are as follows. As "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", we will shift to the test under the condition that the influence of heating is eliminated in the full scale EBS experiment. As "Demonstration of disposal concept", as a demonstration of the closure techniques, it details the conditions under which long-term transitions in the tunnel and surrounding bedrock have a significant impact on safety assessments. And we will continue engineering scale experiment to confirm the workability and performance of plugs and laboratory tests to examine the interaction between backfilling materials and buffer materials. As "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", we will analyze the results of the hydraulic disturbance test and continue to study the hydraulic disconnection of faults/fissures in the Wakkanai Formation. As an advancement of technology for investigating and evaluating areas where the flow of groundwater is extremely slow, a boring exploration will be conducted to confirm the three-dimensional distribution of the fossil seawater area.

JAEA Reports

JAEA-TDB-RN in 2020; Update of JAEA's thermodynamic database for solubility and speciation of radionuclides for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes

Kitamura, Akira

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-020, 164 Pages, 2021/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2020-020.pdf:3.11MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2020-020-appendix(DVD-ROM).zip:0.56MB

Part of JAEA's Thermodynamic Database (JAEA-TDB) for solubility and speciation of radionuclides (JAEA-TDB-RN) for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes has been updated with subsuming the database for geochemical calculations (JAEA-TDB-GC). This report has focused to update JAEA-TDB-RN after selecting change in standard Gibbs free energy of formation ($$Delta_{rm f}$$$$G^{circ}_{rm m}$$), change in standard enthalpy change of formation ($$Delta$$$$H$$$$^{circ}$$$$_{rm m}$$), standard molar entropy ($$S^{circ}$$$$_{rm m}$$) and, heat capacity ($$C^{circ}_{rm p}$$), change in standard Gibbs free energy of reaction ($$Delta_{rm r}G^{circ}$$$$_{rm m}$$), change in standard enthalpy change of reaction ($$Delta$$$$_{rm r}$$$$H$$$$^{circ}$$$$_{rm m}$$) and standard entropy change of reaction ($$Delta_{rm r}S^{circ}_{rm m}$$) as well as logarithm of equilibrium constant (log$$_{10}$$$$K^{circ}$$) at standard state. The extent of selection of these thermodynamic data enables to evaluate solubility and speciation of radionuclides at temperatures other than 298.15 K. Furthermore, the latest thermodynamic data for iron which have been critically reviewed, selected and compiled by the Nuclear Energy Agency within Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) have been accepted. Most of previously selected log$$_{10}$$$$K^{circ}$$ have been refined to confirm internal consistency with JAEA-TDB-GC. Text files of the updated JAEA-TDB have been provided for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC and Geochemist's Workbench.

Journal Articles

Prediction of thermodynamic data for radium suitable for thermodynamic database for radioactive waste management using an electrostatic model and correlation with ionic radii among alkaline earth metals

Kitamura, Akira; Yoshida, Yasushi*

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 327(2), p.839 - 845, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Analytical)

Thermodynamic data for radium for radioactive waste management have been predicted using an electrostatic model and correlation with the ionic radii of the alkaline earth metals. Estimation of the standard Gibbs free energy of formation and standard molar entropy of aqueous radium species and compounds has been based on such approaches as extrapolation of the thermodynamic properties of strontium and barium, and use of a model of ion pair formation. The predicted thermodynamic data for radium have been compared with previously reported values.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation report for the 2019 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi

JAEA-Review 2020-042, 116 Pages, 2021/01

JAEA-Review-2020-042.pdf:10.33MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2019 fiscal year (2019/2020). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R and D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2019 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organizations.

Journal Articles

Methodology development and determination of solubility-limiting solid phases for a performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes

Kitamura, Akira; Yoshida, Yasushi*; Goto, Takahiro*; Shibutani, Sanae*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(2), p.58 - 71, 2020/12

Evaluation and estimation of solubility values are required for a performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes. Selection of solubility-limiting solid phases (SSPs) that control the solubility of radionuclides is necessary for the evaluation and estimation of solubility values. The authors have developed a methodology for selection of the SSP through a calculation of saturation indices (SIs) using thermodynamic database to show a transparent procedure for the selection. Literature survey should be performed to confirm decision of the SSP from candidate SSPs which generally have larger SIs from realistic point of view for precipitation and solubility control. The authors have selected the SSPs for the elements of interest for the latest Japanese performance assessment in bentonite and cement porewaters after grouping various water compositions.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2020 fiscal year

Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi

JAEA-Review 2020-022, 34 Pages, 2020/11

JAEA-Review-2020-022.pdf:3.99MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the URL will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. JAEA summarizes the research and development activities of the important issues carried out during the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan, and set out three important issues after 2020 fiscal year. After consultation with Hokkaido and Horonobe town, JAEA formulated the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year within the 3rd and 4th Mid- and Long-term Plan. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2020 fiscal year (2020/2021).

JAEA Reports

Long term monitoring and evaluation of the excavation damaged zone induced around the wall of the shaft applying optical fiber sensor (Cooperative research)

Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Uyama, Masao*; Nakaoka, Kenichi*; Fukaya, Masaaki*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Tanai, Kenji

JAEA-Research 2020-010, 142 Pages, 2020/11

JAEA-Research-2020-010.pdf:13.74MB
JAEA-Research-2020-010-appendix(DVD-ROM).zip:149.9MB

In the geological disposal study of high-level radioactive waste, it is suggested that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) which is created around a tunnel by the excavation will be possible to be one of the critical path of radionuclides. Especially, the progress of cracks in and around the EDZ with time affects the safety assessment of geological disposal and it is important to understand the hydraulic change due to the progress of cracks in and around EDZ. In this collaborative research, monitoring tools made by Obayashi Corporation were installed at a total of 9 locations in the three boreholes near the depth of 370 m of East Shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory constructed in the Neogene sedimentary rock. The monitoring tool consists of one set of "optical AE sensor" for measuring of the mechanical rock mass behavior and "optical pore water pressure sensor and optical temperature sensor" for measuring of groundwater behavior. This tool was made for the purpose of selecting and analyzing of AE signal waveforms due to rock fracture during and after excavation of the target deep shaft. As a result of analyzing various measurement data including AE signal waveforms, it is able to understand the information on short-term or long-term progress of cracks in and around EDZ during and after excavation in the deep shaft. In the future, it will be possible to carry out a study that contributes to the long-term stability evaluation of EDZ in sedimentary rocks in the deep part of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory by evaluation based on these analytical data.

JAEA Reports

Synthesis report on the R&D for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory; Project carried out during fiscal years 2015-2019

Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi; Kimura, Shun; Mochizuki, Akihito; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ono, Hirokazu; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Masaki; Hayano, Akira; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2019-013, 276 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Research-2019-013.pdf:18.72MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the project will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The present report summarizes the research and development activities of these 3 important issues carried out during 3rd Medium to Long-term Research Phase.

Journal Articles

Development of thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste

Kitamura, Akira

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 62(1), p.23 - 28, 2020/01

Thermodynamic databases (TDBs) for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level waste and TRU waste have been developed to predict solubility and speciation of radionuclides in groundwater in some countries including Japan. The present manuscript briefly describes current status of development of the TDB organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the TDBs in some countries including Japan.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2019 fiscal year

Aoyagi, Kazuhei

JAEA-Review 2019-008, 20 Pages, 2019/07

JAEA-Review-2019-008.pdf:3.33MB

As part of the research and development program on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are the top priority issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the project will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of about 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2019 fiscal year (2019/2020). In the 2019 fiscal year, investigations in "geoscientific research", including "development of techniques for investigating the geological environment", "development of engineering techniques for use in the deep underground environment" and "studies on the long-term stability of the geological environment", are continuously carried out. Investigations in "research and development on geological disposal technology", including "improving the reliability of disposal technologies" and "enhancement of safety assessment methodologies", are also continuously carried out.

JAEA Reports

Update of JAEA-TDB; Update of thermodynamic data for zirconium and those for isosaccahrinate, tentative selection of thermodynamic data for ternary M$$^{2+}$$-UO$$_{2}$$$$^{2+}$$-CO$$_{3}$$$$^{2-}$$ system and integration with JAEA's thermodynamic database for geochemical calculations

Kitamura, Akira

JAEA-Data/Code 2018-018, 103 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2018-018.pdf:5.66MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2018-018-appendix1(DVD-ROM).zip:0.14MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2018-018-appendix2(DVD-ROM).zip:0.15MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2018-018-appendix3(DVD-ROM).zip:0.19MB

The latest available thermodynamic data were critically reviewed and the selected values were included into the JAEA-TDB for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes. This critical review specifically addressed thermodynamic data for (1) a zirconium-hydroxide system through comparison of thermodynamic data selected by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), (2) complexation of metal ions with isosaccharinic acid based on the latest review papers. Furthermore, the author performed (3) tentative selection of thermodynamic data on ternary complexes among alkaline-earth metal, uranyl and carbonate ions, and (4) integration with the latest version of JAEA's thermodynamic database for geochemical calculations. The internal consistency of the selected data was checked by the author. Text files of the updated and integrated thermodynamic database have been prepared for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC and Geochemist's Workbench.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation report for the 2017 fiscal year

Hanamuro, Takahiro; Saiga, Atsushi

JAEA-Review 2018-027, 125 Pages, 2019/02

JAEA-Review-2018-027.pdf:21.79MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned to extend over a period 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2017 fiscal year (2017/2018). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R&D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2017 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organizations.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical measurements in various environments; Corrosion monitoring of carbon steel in deep underground environment

Taniguchi, Naoki; Nakayama, Masashi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(12), p.487 - 494, 2018/12

This article describes the current status of corrosion monitoring methods and examples of the measurement under deep underground environments for carbon steel overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Based on the studies on corrosion monitoring using AC Impedance technique, some of the typical measurement systems such as the electrodes arrangement are introduced. In-situ corrosion monitoring in engineering scale test is also being attempted using a deep underground research facility, and the measurement method and results are presented in this article.

Journal Articles

Quantitative determination of total cesium in highly active liquid waste by using liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry

Do, V. K.; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Takamura, Yuzuru*; Surugaya, Naoki; Kuno, Takehiko

Talanta, 183, p.283 - 289, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:50.51(Chemistry, Analytical)

We develop a novel analytical method employing liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry for measurement of total cesium in highly active liquid wastes. Limit of detection and limit of quantification are 0.005 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The method is validated and applied to the real samples.

Journal Articles

Progress in the geological disposal program in Japan

Deguchi, Akira*; Umeki, Hiroyuki*; Ueda, Hiroyoshi*; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Shibata, Masahiro; Naito, Morimasa; Tanaka, Toshihiko*

LBNL-1006984 (Internet), p.12_1 - 12_22, 2016/12

The H12 report demonstrated the feasibility of safe and technically reliable geological disposal in 1999. The Government of Japan re-evaluated the geological disposal program in terms of technical feasibility based on state-of-the-art geosciences and implementation process, because more than 10 years have passed from H12 and the Great Earthquake and nuclear accident have increased public concern regarding nuclear issues and natural hazards to cause accidents at nuclear facilities. Following the re-evaluation, the Government concluded further to promote geological disposal program, and thus the Basic Policy for Final Disposal was revised in 2015 including a new approach to siting process with identification of "Scientifically Preferable Areas". NUMO and relevant research organizations such as JAEA have been carrying out R and D activities to increase technical reliability for geological disposal. NUMO has started to develop a generic safety case.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation report for the 2013 fiscal year

Hanamuro, Takahiro

JAEA-Review 2014-039, 69 Pages, 2014/10

JAEA-Review-2014-039.pdf:43.66MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned to extend over a period 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2013 fiscal year (2013/2014). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R&D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2013 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organisations.

Journal Articles

Parametric survey on possible impact of partitioning and transmutation of high-level radioactive waste

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Yokoo, Takeshi*; Nishihara, Kenji; Morita, Yasuji; Ikeda, Takao*; Takaki, Naoyuki*

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/10

The benefit of implementing Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of high-level wastes was parametrically surveyed. The possible reduction of the geological repository area was estimated. By recycling minor actinides (MA), the repository area required for unit spent fuel was reduced significantly in the case of MOX-LWR. This effect was caused by removal of $$^{241}$$Am which is a long-term heat source. By partitioning the fission products, in addition to MA recycling, further 70-80% reduction from the MA-recovery case can be expected for both UO$$_2$$ and MOX. This significant reduction was independent of the cooling time before the partitioning process.

JAEA Reports

Treatment and decomposition of HLW-79Y-4T type transportation cask for liquid radioactive fuel material

Yamaguchi, Isoo*; Morita, Yasuji; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Yamagishi, Isao

JAERI-Tech 2005-054, 61 Pages, 2005/09

JAERI-Tech-2005-054.pdf:12.38MB

The HLW-79Y-4T type transportation cask for liquid radioactive fuel material (commonly called "Cendrillon") was imported from France and modified for Japanese regulation in order to obtain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) for partitioning tests in JAERI by transportation from Tokai Establishment of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute. The cask was used for the HLW transportation five times from 1982 to 1990. After that, it was kept and maintained for next transportation of HLW from facilities outside JAERI. Finally, we decided to decompose the cask because HLW can be obtained in JAERI Tokai. For the decomposition, radiation dose and contamination by radioactivity was first measured and then the methods to reduce those levels were determined. The cask was decomposed after the decontamination to separate the part that has high radiation level. The separated part was put in a vessel specially prepared. The present report describes those procedures for the decomposition of the transportation cask.

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Accelerator-driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative

Oigawa, Hiroyuki

JAERI-Conf 2003-012, 317 Pages, 2003/09

JAERI-Conf-2003-012.pdf:28.6MB

An International Symposium on "Accelerator-driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative" was held on March 24 and 25, 2003 to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for R&D of ADS in the world and to enhance the international collaboration in Asia. Current activities for R&D of ADS were presented from United States, Europe, Japan, Korea, and China. Activities in the fields of accelerator and nuclear physics were also presented. A panel discussion was organized with regard to the prospective international collaboration and multidisciplinary synergy effect, which are essential to manage various technological issues encountered in R&D stage of ADS. Through the discussion, common understanding was promoted concerning the importance of establishing international network.

Journal Articles

Characterization of Fe-montmorillonite; A Simulant of buffer materials accommodating overpack corrosion product

Kozai, Naofumi; Adachi, Yoshifusa*; Kawamura, Sachi*; Inada, Koichi*; Kozaki, Tamotsu*; Sato, Seichi*; Ohashi, Hiroshi*; Onuki, Toshihiko; Bamba, Tsunetaka

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 38(12), p.1141 - 1143, 2001/12

This study briefly reports characteristics of Fe-montmorillonite. Fe-montmorillonite was used as a simulant of buffer material in which corrosion products of carbon steel overpack, Fe$$^{2+}$$, were diffused. We have found that this clay retains Se(VI) for which natural montmorillonite, such as Na+-type and Ca$$^{2+}$$-type, has little retentivity.

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