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JAEA Reports

Study on water stopping, repair and stabilization of lower PCV by geopolymer, etc. (Contract research); FY2021 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2022-062, 121 Pages, 2023/03


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2021, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study on water stopping, repair and stabilization of lower PCV by geopolymer, etc." conducted in FY2021. The present study aims to propose a construction method to stop jet deflectors by improved geopolymer and ultra-heavy muddy water, and to repair the lower part of the dry well. In addition, in order to increase the options for on-site construction in unknown situations such as deposition conditions, we will examine a wide range of construction outside the pedestal, and evaluate the feasibility of the construction method by the latest thermal flow simulation method. When widely constructed, fuel debris and deposits discharged out of the pedestal are coated with water stop and repair materials and become waste

Journal Articles

Measurement of fragments of a wall-impinging liquid jet in a shallow pool

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2022/10

For safety evaluation of nuclear reactors in severe accidents, it is important to estimate physical quantities of fragments generated from the molten fuel jet, which falls in a pool and breaks up. The evaluation method has been developed for the behavior as liquid jet with hydrodynamic interaction including fuel coolant interaction (FCI). In case of a shallow pool assumed in ex-vessel, the molten fuel jet is assumed to behave as wall-impinging liquid jet and to form liquid film flow spreading on the floor with/without fragmentation. In our research, focusing on hydrodynamic interaction and the transient 3-dimensional spreading on the floor, we have developed the evaluation method by numerical simulation using the two-phase flow simulation code with interface tracking method (TPFIT) developed by JAEA and, the experimental method using the 3D-LIF method in liquid-liquid system for the validation data. In our previous studies, we investigated the wall-impinging liquid jet behavior with fragmentation and observed that the liquid film flow had some characteristic parts transiently. Since it indicates that the quantities change depending on the parts and affect the safety evaluation, it is important to measure the quantities of the fragments generated from each part. This paper explains the measurement of the physical quantities of the fragments generated from each part of the wall-impinging liquid jet in a shallow pool for the validation of the numerical simulation. We conducted an experiment with the 3D-LIF method and segmented the experimental data based on the fragmentation point over the liquid film flow using the dispersed phase tracking method, developed by JAEA. Then, we measured the diameter and amount of the fragments from the segmented experimental data and investigated their changing trend.

Journal Articles

Particle-based simulation of jet impingement behaviors

Takatsuka, Daichi*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, W.*; Zhang, T.*; Nakamura, Takeshi*; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Experimental study of liquid spreading and atomization due to jet impingement in liquid-liquid systems

Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Honda, Kota*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Physics of Fluids, 34(8), p.082110_1 - 082110_13, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Mechanics)

Liquid spreading and atomization due to jet impingement in liquid-liquid systems are considered to be crucial for understanding the cooling behavior of high-temperature molten material in a shallow water pool. This phenomenon takes place when a liquid jet enters a pool filled with other immiscible liquid. The jet spreads radially after impinging on the floor while forming a thin liquid film and atomizing droplets. In this paper, we explain the result to quantify the unsteady three-dimensional behavior of the spreading jet by the employment of 3D-LIF measurements and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Under high flow velocity conditions, the phenomena of hydraulic jump and atomization of the liquid film occurred along with the spreading. To evaluate the spreading behavior, a comparison of the jump radius position of the liquid-liquid system as the representative value was made with the one calculated by the existing theory of a gas-liquid system. As the result, the spreading of the liquid film in the liquid-liquid system was suppressed compared with that in the gas-liquid system. Furthermore, the PTV method was successfully used to measure the velocity boundary layer and velocity profile in the liquid film, which are important factors that affect the spreading mechanism of the liquid film. These results revealed that in liquid-liquid systems, shear stress at the liquid-liquid interface causes a decrease in the flow velocity and suppressed the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, to evaluate the atomization behavior, the number and diameter distribution of the droplets were measured from the acquired 3-dimensional shape data of the jet. As the result, the number of droplets increased with the flow velocity. Based on these results, we concluded that the spreading of the liquid film is affected by such atomization behavior.

Journal Articles

Analysis of pulverization property of the collision-plate-type jet mill

Kawaguchi, Koichi; Segawa, Tomoomi; Ishii, Katsunori

Funtai Kogakkai-Shi, 59(6), p.283 - 290, 2022/06

In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to effectively use the out-of-standard pellets in the fuel manufacturing process for high-speed furnaces, we are developing techniques for crushing and reusing them with raw material powder. By analyzing in detail the particle size distribution before and after grinding, it was shown that the grinding powder is composed of three different component particles having different characteristics of the particle size distribution. In addition, we examined the method of predicting pulverized powder particle size distribution from the supply powder particle size distribution.

Journal Articles

Time-resolved 3D visualization of liquid jet breakup and impingement behavior in a shallow liquid pool

Kimura, Fumihito*; Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Saito, Shimpei*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 389, p.111660_1 - 111660_11, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:80.5(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Experiments of melt jet-breakup for agglomerated debris formation using a metallic melt

Iwasawa, Yuzuru; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 386, p.111575_1 - 111575_17, 2022/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Highly sensitive detection of sodium in aqueous solutions using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with liquid sheet jets

Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Wakaida, Ikuo; Tanabe, Rie*; Ito, Yoshiro*

Optics Express (Internet), 29(4), p.5205 - 5212, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:74.98(Optics)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with liquid jets was applied to the detection of trace sodium (Na) in aqueous solutions. The sensitivities of two types of liquid jets were compared: a liquid cylindrical jet with a diameter of 500 $$mu$$m and a liquid sheet jet with a thickness of 20 $$mu$$m. Compared with the cylindrical jet, the liquid sheet jet effectively reduced the splash from the laser-irradiated surface and produced long-lived luminous plasma. The limit of detection (LOD) of Na was determined to be 0.57 $$mu$$g/L for the sheet jet and 10.5 $$mu$$g/L for the cylindrical jet. The LOD obtained for the sheet jet was comparable to those obtained for commercially available inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometers.

Journal Articles

The Evaluation of the properties of the collision-plate-type jet mill for dry recycling of MOX powder

Kawaguchi, Koichi; Segawa, Tomoomi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Makino, Takayoshi; Iso, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Katsunori

Funtai Kogakkai-Shi, 57(9), p.478 - 484, 2020/09

A collision plate type jet mill is assumed to be a pulverizer that can control the particle size for nuclear fuel fabrication. The collision plate type jet mill consists of two modules, a classifier and a mill chamber. Coarse component of powder is cycled in the equipment and finally pulverized into objective particle size. In this report, simulated crushed powders were classified and pulverized step by step, and particle size distribution were compared. The collision plate type jet mil can produce objective size particles with low overgrinding.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of liquid jet behavior in shallow pool by interface tracking method

Suzuki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Yamamura, Sota*; Abe, Yutaka*

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2020/08

Journal Articles

Residual stress distribution in water jet peened type 304 stainless steel

Hayashi, Makoto*; Okido, Shinobu*; Suzuki, Hiroshi

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 4(2), p.18_1 - 18_12, 2020/06

Journal Articles

CFD analysis of the CIGMA experiments on the heated JET injection into containment vessel with external surface cooling

Hamdani, A.; Abe, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.5463 - 5479, 2019/08

Journal Articles

Stratification break-up by a diffuse buoyant jet; A CFD benchmark exercise

Studer, E.*; Abe, Satoshi; Andreani, M.*; Bharj, J. S.*; Gera, B.*; Ishay, L.*; Kelm, S.*; Kim, J.*; Lu, Y.*; Paliwal, P.*; et al.

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 16 Pages, 2018/10

JAEA Reports

Cutting operation of simulated fuel assembly heating examination by AWJ

Abe, Yuta; Nakagiri, Toshio; Watatani, Satoshi*; Maruyama, Shinichiro*

JAEA-Technology 2017-023, 46 Pages, 2017/10


This is a report on Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting work carried out on specimen, which was used for Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination by Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS) molten core behavior analysis group in February 2016. The simulated fuel assembly is composed of Zirconia for the outer crucible/simulated fuel, stainless steel for the control blade and Zircaloy (Zr) for the cladding tube/channel box. Therefore, it is necessary to cut at once substances having a wide range of fracture toughness and hardness. Moreover, it is a large specimen with an approximate size of 300 mm. In addition, epoxy resin has high stickiness, making it more difficult to cut. Considering these effects, AWJ cutting was selected. The following two points were devised, and this specimen could be cut with AWJ. If it was not possible to cut at one time like a molten portion of boride, it was repeatedly cut. By using Abrasive Suspension Jet (ASJ) system with higher cutting ability than Abrasive Injection Jet (AIJ, conventional method) system, cutting time was shortened. As a result of this work, the cutting method in Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination was established. Incidentally, in the cutting operation, when the cutting ability was lost at the tip of the AWJ, a curved cut surface, which occurs when the jet flowed away from the feeding direction, could be confirmed at the center of the test body. From the next work, to improve the cutting efficiency, we propose adding a mechanism such as turning the cutting member itself for re-cutting from the exit side of the jet and appropriate traverse speed to protect cut surface.

JAEA Reports

Applicability test of abrasive water jet cutting technology for dismantling of the core internals of Fukushima Daiichi NPS

Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Iwai, Hiroki; Tezuka, Masashi; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2015-055, 89 Pages, 2016/03


It was reported that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) had lost the cooling function of the reactor by the Tohoku Earthquake. It is assumed that the core internals became narrow and complicated debris structure mixed with the molten fuel. In consideration of the above situations, the AWJ cutting method, which has features of the long work distance and little heat effect for a material, has been developed for the removal of the molten core internals through cutting tests for 3 years since FY 2012. And it was confirmed that AWJ cutting method is useful for the removal of the core internals etc. The results in FY 2012 were reported in "R&D of the fuel debris removal technologies by abrasive water jet cutting technology (JAEA-Technology 2013-041)" and this report summarizes the results of FY 2012, 2013 and 2014 in this report. It was confirmed the possibility to apply the removal work of the fuel debris and the core internals.

JAEA Reports

Development of a cutting technique of core structural materials and fuel debris; Applicability test of the plasma jet cutting technique

Shoji, Tsugio; Fukui, Yasutaka; Ueda, Takiho

JAEA-Technology 2015-035, 70 Pages, 2016/01


The plasma jet cutting technology (Max output current is 250A) is developed for the dismantling of nuclear facilities in Oarai Research and Development Center. The plasma jet cutting technology is applicable to take out the debris. The plasma jet torch (Max output current is 600A) was produced for this application. This torch is available for the cutting of thick core internal materials in water. The ability of taking out debris and core internal material has been confirmed.

Journal Articles

Determination of tungsten and molybdenum concentrations from an X-ray range spectrum in JET with the ITER-like wall configuration

Nakano, Tomohide; Shumack, A.*; Maggi, C. F.*; Reinke, M.*; Lawson, K.*; Coffey, I.*; P$"u$tterich, T.*; Brezinsek, S.*; Lipschultz, B.*; Matthews, G. F.*; et al.

Journal of Physics B; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 48(14), p.144023_1 - 144023_11, 2015/07

 Times Cited Count:28 Percentile:83.19(Optics)

The $$mbox{W}^{45+}$$ and $$mbox{W}^{46+}$$ 3p-4d inner shell excitation lines in addition to $$mbox{Mo}^{32+}$$ 2p-3s lines have been identified from the spectrum taken by an upgraded high-resolution X-ray spectrometer. It is found from analysis of the absolute intensities of the $$mbox{W}^{46+}$$ and $$mbox{Mo}^{32+}$$ lines that W and Mo concentrations are in the range of $$sim10^{-5}$$ and $$sim10^{-6}$$, respectively, with a ratio of $$sim$$ 5% for ELMy H-mode plasmas with a plasma current of 2.0- 2.5 MA, a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7 T and a neutral beam injection power of 14-18 MW. For the purpose of checking self-consistency, it is confirmed that the W concentration determined from the $$mbox{W}^{45+}$$ line is in agreement with that from the $$mbox{W}^{46+}$$ line within 20% and that the plasma effective charge determined from the continuum of the first order reflection spectrum is also in agreement with that from the second order within 50%. Further, the determined plasma effective charge is in agreement with that determined from a visible spectroscopy, confirming that the sensitivity of the X-ray spectrometer is valid and that probably the W and the Mo concentrations are also valid.

Journal Articles

News from Broader Approach activities, 51

Ishii, Yasutomo; Matsunaga, Go

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 90(10), p.641 - 643, 2014/10

Loading of the dust from JET (Joint European Torus) to DEMO R&D Building, holding of the joint research joint meeting regarding the BA prototype reactor design and safety, and the progress of the satellite tokamak (JT-60SA) plan are reported. The test sample, carbon and beryllium tiles coated tungsten on the surface, obtained in ITER simulated driving that performed in JET was brought into DEMO R&D building, Rokkasho Institute on August 18, 2014. Preparation of materials analysis has started. The joint research joint meeting of the BA prototype reactor design and safety was held in Rokkaho on July 30-31st. A lively discussion about the current situation and individual design task of Japan-EU prototype reactor design research has taken place. In addition to the JT-60SA tokamak body, the development of heating devices are also progressing well in Naka. To disseminate information to the domestic community a major event in the BA activities.

Journal Articles

Physics comparison and modelling of the JET and JT-60U core and edge; Towards JT-60SA predictions

Garcia, J.*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Baiocchi, B.*; Giruzzi, G.*; Honda, Mitsuru; Ide, Shunsuke; Maget, P.*; Narita, Emi*; Schneider, M.*; Urano, Hajime; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 54(9), p.093010_1 - 093010_13, 2014/09

 Times Cited Count:35 Percentile:86.77(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of purine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

Shimada, Hiroyuki*; Fukao, Taishi*; Minami, Hirotake*; Ukai, Masatoshi*; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Fukuda, Yoshihiro*; Saito, Yuji

Journal of Chemical Physics, 141(5), p.055102_1 - 055102_8, 2014/08

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:53.72(Chemistry, Physical)

106 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)