Kobayashi, Taishi*; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Kitamura, Akira
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 138, p.151 - 158, 2019/11
The effect of -isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the solubility and redox of tetravalent and hexavalent uranium (U(IV), U(VI)) was investigated in the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) range of 613 and at total ISA concentration ([ISA]) = 1010 mol/dm. The dependence of U(IV) solubility on pH and [ISA] suggested the existence of U(OH)(ISA) as a dominant species within the investigated pH range of 612. For the U(VI)-ISA system, UO(OH)(ISA) was suggested as a dominant species at pH 713. The formation constants of the U(IV)-ISA and U(VI)-ISA complexes were determined by least-squares fitting of the solubility data. The solubility of U(IV) and U(VI) in the presence of ISA and its effect on the redox behavior were thermodynamically interpreted based on the obtained constants.
Kurikami, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Malins, A.; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106005_1 - 106005_11, 2019/11
To assess the uptake of Cs-137 (Cs) by freshwater fish, we developed a compartment model for the migration of Cs on the catchment scale from forests to river water. We modelled a generic forest catchment with Fukushima-like parameters to ascertain the importance of export pathways of Cs from forests to river water for the uptake of Cs by freshwater fish. The results suggest that the decreasing trend of Cs in river water and freshwater fish was due to combination of the decreasing trend in the forest leaves/needles and litter compartments, and the increasing trend in soil. The Cs concentrations within these forest compartments plateau at around ten years after the fallout due to Cs circulation in forests reaching an equilibrium state.
Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Namba, Kenji*; Zheleznyak, M.*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106041_1 - 106041_12, 2019/11
We developed a simple model to evaluate and predict Cs discharge from catchment using tank model and L-Q equation. Using this model, Cs discharge and discharge ratio from Abukuma River and 13 other rivers in Fukushima coastal region were estimated from immediately after Fukushima accident to 2017. Cesium-137 discharge ratio to the deposition amount in catchment through Abukuma River and 13 other rivers in Fukushima coastal region during about initial six months were estimated to be 18 TBq (3.1%) and 11 TBq (0.8%), respectively. These values were 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the previous study observed after June 2011, indicating that initial Cs discharge from catchment through rivers was a significant. However it was founded that an impact on the ocean derived from initial Cs discharge through river can be limited because Cs discharge from Abukuma River and 13 other rivers in Fukushima coastal region (29 TBq) was two orders of magnitude smaller than the direct release from FDNPP into the ocean (3.5 PBq) and from atmospheric deposition into the ocean (7.6 PBq).
Nuclear Human Resource Development Center
JAEA-Review 2019-009, 65 Pages, 2019/09
This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year (FY) 2017.
JAEA-Research 2019-004, 32 Pages, 2019/09
Steam and hydrogen generation history and gas leakage area are inversely evaluated by a thermal hydraulic analysis code GOTHIC. The analyzed period in the accident progression is from the arrival of reactor liquid level at the top of active fuel (TAF) until start of depressurization of reactor pressure vessel(RPV) by activation of automatic depressurization system(ADS). Based on the measured behaviors of the RPV and PCV pressures from 6:30 of March 13th until the ADS activation, some leakage from RPV to PCV is supposed during this period. The leakage path and area are inversely derived on plural possible accident scenarios. The leakage area are estimated to be no greater than 1 cm. This result suggests that the gas flow at the time of the main slumping would have been through S/C, where vapor condensation was effective, thus certain contribution of non-condensable gases like hydrogen seems necessary to explain the observed D/W pressure increase.
Suno, Hiroya; Machida, Masahiko
Chemical Physics Letters, 730, p.26 - 31, 2019/09
We perform quantum chemical calculations for the Cs, K, and Na complexes of norbadione A (NBA), a pigment molecule in mushrooms known to accumulate Cs. A numerical two-step approach, by Ota , is employed to examine its alkali-metal-cation complexation selectivity in aqueous solutions. Applying it to the neutral, di- and tetra-deprotonated NBAs, we confirm that the complexation selectivity on Cs emerges only in high pHs, in which the di-protonated NBA dominates, in agreement with experimental results. This is the first demonstration of the approach for a biological molecule whose selectivity is known to be anomalous.
Igarashi, Yasuhito*; Kogure, Toshihiro*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Miura, Hikaru*; Okumura, Taiga*; Satou, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 205-206, p.101 - 118, 2019/09
Scientists face challenge in identifying the radioactive materials which are found as dotted images on various imaging plate (IP) autoradiographic photos of radioactively contaminated materials by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP, or FDNPP) accident, such as air filter, fugitive dust, surface soil, agricultural materials, and water-shed samples. It has been revealed that they are minute particles with distinct morphology and elemental composition with high specific radioactivity, and different from those of the so-called Chernobyl hot particles. Basically, they are glassy particles once molten, composed of Si, O, Fe, Zn etc. with highly concentrated radiocaesium, which can be called as radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMP). At present, CsMP can be classified into two types, Types-A and -B, which are characterized by different specific radioactivity, Cs/Cs ratio, size and morphology, and geographic distribution around F1NPP. Such studies on the CsMP from various aspects have provided valuable information about what happened in the nuclear reactors during the F1NPP accident and fates of the CsMP in the environment. This review first provides a retrospective view on the research history of the CsMP, which is helpful to understand the unique character of the CsMP. Subsequently, more details about the current understanding of the natures of these hot particles, such as origin, morphology, chemical compositions, thermal properties, water-solubility, and secondary migration of CsMP in river and ocean systems are described with future prospects.
Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.922 - 931, 2019/09
Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yamano, Hidemasa
Nuclear Technology, 205(9), p.1164 - 1174, 2019/09
Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.
JAEA-Research 2019-002, 235 Pages, 2019/08
The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereinafter referred to 1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, JAEA has been conducting Long-term Environmental Dynamics Research concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.
Sector of Nuclear Fuel, Decommissioning and Waste Management Technology Development
JAEA-Evaluation 2019-006, 122 Pages, 2019/08
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as "JAEA") consulted the "Evaluation Committee for Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management" (hereinafter referred to as "Committee") to perform the interim evaluation of "technology development related to spent fuel reprocessing (vitrification technology of high-level radioactive liquid waste)" project, "decommissioning of nuclear facilities and associated technology development" project and "radioactive waste treatment and disposal and associated technology development" project in accordance with the "Guideline for evaluation of government R&D activities", the "Guideline for evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)" and the "Operational rule for evaluation of R&D activities" by JAEA. In response to JAEA's request, the Committee assessed each project results in the view points of execution method, plans, outcomes and so on. As a result of review, the Committee concluded that each project is reasonable in accordance with the evaluation method having been decided by the Committee.
Sugino, Kazuteru; Numata, Kazuyuki*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Takeda, Toshikazu*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 130, p.118 - 123, 2019/08
In MA sample irradiation test data calculations, the neutron fluence during irradiation period is generally scaled by using dosimetry data in order to improve calculation accuracy. In such a case, appropriate correction is required to burnup sensitivity coefficients obtained by the conventional generalized perturbation theory because some cancellations occur in the burnup sensitivity coefficients. Therefore, a new formula for the burnup sensitivity coefficient has been derived with the consideration of the neutron fluence scaling effect (NFS). In addition, the cross-section-induced uncertainty is evaluated by using the obtained burnup sensitivity coefficients and the covariance data based on the JENDL-4.0.
Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi*
Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster; Dispersion, Monitoring, Mitigation and Lessons Learned, p.230 - 242, 2019/08
An overview of SPEEDI is provided in the context of it development, functions, and role in the framework of nuclear emergency management. Thereafter, we examine how it was used and how it should be used for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident from a system developer perspective. We believe that our review can provide lessons or tasks for improving the prediction system and for considering better utilization of the system; it is also beneficial to consider reconstructing the framework of nuclear emergency management. Furthermore, we hope this review will prove useful in understanding and effectively using the atmospheric dispersion predictions from the system in the case of a similar accident in the future.
Wu, H.*; Wang, Y.*; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miller, C. J.*; Waite, T. D.*
Environmental Science; Water Research & Technology, 5(8), p.1400 - 1411, 2019/08
In this study, the distributions of iron and phosphorus species in a 1.25 m pilot scale submerged membrane bioreactor dosed with Fe(II) salts to either the membrane chamber or the 1st anoxic chamber were determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the iron and phosphorus K-edges. Significant differences in the distribution of Fe species were evident at the commencement of dosing depending on the chamber to which Fe(II) was dosed though these differences were much less distinct by the time steady state conditions were achieved. Both the co-precipitation of P with Fe and adsorption of phosphorus to iron oxides play important roles with regard to the removal of phosphorus from the MBR supernatant with the results of this work suggesting that P removal via formation of Fe(III)-phosphate mineral species is preferred if Fe(II) is dosed to the membrane chamber rather than the 1st anoxic chamber.
Fujiwara, Satoru*; Kono, Fumiaki*; Matsuo, Tatsuhito*; Sugimoto, Yasunobu*; Matsumoto, Tomoharu*; Narita, Tetsuhiro*; Shibata, Kaoru
Journal of Molecular Biology, 431(17), p.3229 - 3245, 2019/08
-synuclein (Syn) is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) with unknown function. Syn is known to form amyloid fibrils, which are implicated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. Elucidating the mechanism of fibril formation of Syn is therefore important for understanding the mechanism of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Here, using the quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques, we investigated the dynamic and structural properties of Syn. These results imply that fibril formation of Syn requires not only the enhanced local motions but also the segmental motions such that the proper inter-molecular interactions are possible.
Nakamura, Shoji; Kimura, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Shibahara, Yuji*; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*
KURNS Progress Report 2018, P. 106, 2019/08
Under the ImPACT project, the neutron capture cross-section measurements of Cesium-135 (Cs) among the long-lived fission products have been performed at Kyoto University. This paper reports measurements of the thermal-neutron capture cross-section of Cs at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR).
Takahara, Shogo; Pratama, M. A.*; Ikegami, Maiko*; Fukutani, Satoshi*
KURNS Progress Report 2018, P. 240, 2019/08
This report is the progress report on cooperation research with KURNS (Institute for Integrated Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University). The purpose of this cooperation research is to provide the insights for assessment of doses from internal exposures. To achieve this aim, we experimentally evaluated the absorption fraction in gastrointestinal system of Cs-137 in wild boar contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Dai-51-Kai Robutsuri Kaki Semina Tekisuto "Nensho Keisan No Kiso To Jissen", p.95 - 135, 2019/08
The burnup calculation function included in the versatile reactor analysis code system system MARBLE2 is introduced by an interactive execution demo. Although the main purpose of MARBLE2 is to analyze nuclear characteristics of fast reactors, the users can use it while assembling small functions according to purpose. Therefore, it can be applied other purposes than the nuclear characteristic analysis of fast reactors. In order to realize such usage, MARBLE is developed by using an object-oriented scripting language Python. As the Python implementation is short and easy to understand, the burnup function of MARBLE is explained by showing several examples of the implementation. In addition, an example of constructing a simple burnup calculation system using MARBLE is introduced.
Sudo, Ayako; Mizusako, Fumiki*; Hoshino, Kuniyoshi*; Sato, Takumi; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 18(3), p.111 - 118, 2019/08
Cooling rate of molten core materials during solidification significantly affects the segregation of major constituents of fuel debris. To understand general tendency of the segregation, liquefaction/solidification tests of simulated corium (UO, ZrO, FeO, BC and sim-FP oxides) were performed. Simulated corium was heated up to 2600C under Ar atmosphere and then cooled down with two different cooling processes; furnace cooling (average cooling rate is approximately 744C/min) and slow cooling (cooling rate in 2600C2300C is 5C/min and in 2300C1120C is approximately 788C/min). Element analysis detected three oxide phases with different composition and one metal phase in both solidified samples. Solubility of FeO in these oxide phases was mostly fixed to be 125at% in both samples, which is in reasonable accordance with the value estimated from UO-ZrO-FeO phase diagrams. However, a significant grain-growth of one oxide phase, rich in Zr-oxide, was detected only in the slowly cooled sample. The composition of this particular oxide phase is comparable to the initial average composition. The condensation is considered to be caused by the connection of remaining liquid agglomerates during slow solidification.
Nakatsuka, Toru; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.1650 - 1656, 2019/08
The OECD/NEA is launching a new project named "Analysis of Information from Reactor Buildings and Containment Vessels of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (ARC-F)" Project. This project will serve as the successor to the precedent NEA project, "Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Phase II" which investigated the accident scenarios, associated fission products behavior in the damaged units and source term to the environment. The ARC-F project comprises three tasks: Task 1: Refinement of analysis for accident scenarios and associated fission product transportation and dispersion; Task 2: Compilation and management of data and information; and Task 3: Discussion for future long-term project. Japan Atomic Energy Agency is the operating agent, responsible to lead all the tasks. Duration of the project is from January 2019 to December 2021 and the final report is planned to be published in 2022.