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JAEA Reports

Development of tailor-made adsorbents for uranium recovery from seawater on the basis of uranyl coordination chemistry (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2021-041, 42 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-041.pdf:2.03MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of tailor-made adsorbents for uranium recovery from seawater on the basis of uranyl coordination chemistry" conducted in FY2020. On the basis of deep understanding on uranyl coordination chemistry, we design molecular structures of pentadentate ligands as functional moieties for uranium adsorption from seawater and study coordination chemistry of uranyl ion with those ligands in order to resolve current problems in uranium recovery technology from seawater and to develop novel selective and efficient adsorbents for this purpose.

JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2020; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design, 3

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Mitsui, Wataru*; Yamamoto, Yudai*; Nakagawa, Kyoichi*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nagasumi, Satoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-016, 16 Pages, 2021/09

JAEA-Technology-2021-016.pdf:1.8MB

As a summer holiday practical training 2020, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the downsizing of reactor core were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a 1.6 m radius reactor core, containing 54 (18$$times$$3 layers) fuel blocks with 20% enrichment of $$^{235}$$U, and BeO neutron reflector, could operate continuously for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW. Number of fuel blocks of this compact core is 36% of the HTTR core. As a next step, the further downsizing of core by changing materials of the fuel block will be studied.

Journal Articles

Great achievements of M. Salvatores for nuclear data adjustment study with use of integral experiments

Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 154, p.108100_1 - 108100_11, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:41.86(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the design of innovative nuclear reactors such as fast reactors, the improvement of the prediction accuracies for neutronics properties is an important task. The nuclear data adjustment is a promising methodology for this issue. The idea of the nuclear data adjustment was first proposed in 1964. Toward its practical application, however, a great deal of study has been conducted over a long time. While it took about 10 years to establish the theoretical formulation, the research and development for its practical application has been conducted for more than half a century. Researches in this field are still active, and the fact suggests that the improvement of the prediction accuracies is indispensable for the development of new types of nuclear reactors. Massimo Salvatores, who passed away in March 2020, was one of the first proposers to develop the nuclear data adjustment technique, as well as one of the great contributors to its practical application. Reviewing his long-time works in this area is almost the same as reviewing the history of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. The authors intend that this review would suggest what should be done in the future toward the next development in this area. The present review consists of two parts: a) the establishment of the nuclear data adjustment methodology and b) the achievements related to practical applications. Furthermore, the former is divided into two aspects: the study on the nuclear data adjustment theory and the numerical solution for sensitivity coefficient that is requisite for the nuclear data adjustment. The latter is separated to three categories: the use of integral experimental data, the uncertainty quantification and design target accuracy evaluation, and the promotion of nuclear data covariance development.

JAEA Reports

Investigation and consideration on evaluation of radiation doses to residents in the case of a nuclear emergency

Hashimoto, Makoto; Kinase, Sakae; Munakata, Masahiro; Murayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Masa; Takada, Chie; Okamoto, Akiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sukegawa, Masato; Kume, Nobuhide*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2020-071, 53 Pages, 2021/03

JAEA-Review-2020-071.pdf:2.72MB

In the case of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and the Armed Attack Situation Response Law, undertakes technical supports to the national government and local governments. The JAEA is requested to support to evaluate radiation doses to residents in a nuclear emergency, which is specified in the Basic Disaster Management Plan and the Nuclear Emergency Response Manual. For the dose evaluation, however, its strategy, target, method, structure and so on have not been determined either specifically or in detail. This report describes the results of investigation and consideration discussed in the "Working Group for Radiation Dose Evaluation at a Nuclear Emergency" established within the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center to discuss technical supports for radiation dose evaluation to residents in the case of a nuclear emergency, and aims at contributing to specific and detailed discussion and activities in the future for the national government and local governments, also within the JAEA.

Journal Articles

Criticality configuration design methodology applied to the design of fuel debris experiment in the new STACY

Gunji, Satoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Clavel, J.-B.*; Duhamel, I.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.51 - 61, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The new critical assembly STACY will be able to contribute to the validation of criticality calculations related to the fuel debris. The experimental core designs are in progress in the frame of JAEA/IRSN collaboration. This paper presents the method applied to optimize the design of the new STACY core to measure the criticality characteristics of pseudo fuel debris that simulated Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) of the fuel debris. To ensure that a core configuration is relevant for code validation, it is important to evaluate the reactivity worth of the main isotopes of interest and their k$$_{rm eff}$$ sensitivity to their cross sections. In the case of the fuel debris described in this study, especially for the concrete composition, silicon is the nucleus with the highest k$$_{rm eff}$$ sensitivity to the cross section. For this purpose, some parameters of the core configuration, as for example the lattice pitches or the core dimensions, were adjusted using optimization algorithm to find efficiently the optimal core configurations to obtain high sensitivity of silicon capture cross section. Based on these results, realistic series of experiments for fuel debris in the new STACY could be defined to obtain an interesting feedback for the MCCI. This methodology is useful to design other experimental conditions of the new STACY.

JAEA Reports

Development of tailor-made adsorbents for uranium recovery from seawater on the basis of uranyl coordination chemistry (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2020-026, 41 Pages, 2020/12

JAEA-Review-2020-026.pdf:3.25MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of Tailor-Made Adsorbents for Uranium Recovery from Seawater on the Basis of Uranyl Coordination Chemistry". On the basis of deep understanding on uranyl coordination chemistry, we design molecular structures of pentadentate ligands as functional moieties for uranium adsorption from seawater and study coordination chemistry of uranyl ion with those ligands in order to resolve current problems in uranium recovery technology from seawater and to develop novel selective and efficient adsorbents for this purpose.

Journal Articles

Voltage drop analysis and leakage suppression design for mineral-insulated cables

Hirota, Noriaki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(12), p.1276 - 1286, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The influence of materials of mineral-insulated (MI) cables on their electrical characteristics upon exposure to high-temperature conditions was examined via a transmission test, in the objective of achieving the stability of the potential distribution along the cable length. Occurrence of a voltage drop along the cable was confirmed for aluminum oxide (Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) and magnesium oxide (MgO), as insulating materials of the MI cable. A finite-element method (FEM)-based analysis was performed to evaluate the leakage in the potentials, which was found at the terminal end. Voltage drop yields by the transmission test and the analysis were in good agreement for the MI cable of Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ and MgO materials, which suggests the reproducibility of the magnitude relationship of the experimental results via the FEM analysis. To suppress the voltage drop, the same FEM analysis was conducted, the diameter of the core wires ($$d$$) and the distance between them ($$l$$) were varied. Considering the variation of $$d$$, the potential distribution in the MI cable produced a minimum voltage drop corresponding to a ratio $$d/D$$ of 0.35, obtained by dividing $$d$$ with that of the insulating material ($$D$$). In case of varying $$l$$, a minimum voltage drop was l/$$D$$ of 0.5.

JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2019; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design, 2

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Nakashima, Koki*; Nakagawa, Naoki*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; Chikhray, Y.*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-008, 16 Pages, 2020/08

JAEA-Technology-2020-008.pdf:2.98MB

As a summer holiday practical training 2019, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the $$^{235}$$U enrichment and burnable poison of the fuel, which enables continuous operation for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW, were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a fuel with $$^{235}$$U enrichment of 12%, radius of burnable poison and natural boron concentration of 1.5 cm and 2wt% are required. As a next step, the downsizing of core will be studied.

JAEA Reports

Technical design of the pressure-resistant chamber for open inspections of the storage containers of nuclear fuel materials

Marufuji, Takato; Sato, Takumi; Ito, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fujishima, Tadatsune; Nakano, Tomoyuki

JAEA-Technology 2019-006, 22 Pages, 2019/05

JAEA-Technology-2019-006.pdf:2.84MB

Radioactive contamination incident occurred at Plutonium Fuel Research Facility (PFRF) in Oarai Research and Development Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency on June 6, 2017. During inspection work of storage container containing nuclear fuel materials, the PVC bag packaging in the storage container ruptured when a worker opened the lid in the hood, and a part of contents was spattered over the room. The cause of the increase of internal pressure of the storage container was gas generation by alpha radiolysis of the epoxy resin mixed with nuclear fuel materials. Opening inspection of about 70 similar containers stored in PFRF has been planned to confirm the condition of the contents and to stabilize the stored materials containing organic compounds. For safe and reliable open inspection of the storage containers with high internal pressure in the glove box, it is necessary to develop a pressure-resistant chamber in which the storage containers are opened and the contents are inspected under gastight condition. This report summarizes the concerns and countermeasures of the chamber design and the design results of the chamber.

Journal Articles

Preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological emergency as a designated public corporation

Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05

In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2015 - March 31, 2016)

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2017-011, 54 Pages, 2017/07

JAEA-Review-2017-011.pdf:3.46MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national and some local governments in case of a nuclear incident. In case of a nuclear emergency, the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) dispatches experts of JAEA, supplies the governments with emergency equipment, and gives them technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various drills/exercises and training courses to nuclear emergency responders. In FY2015, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Improvement of hardware and software for technical support activities (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency responders ; (3) Researches on nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and dissemination of useful information for emergency responders; (4) Arrangements for technical support for aerial monitoring; and (5) Technical contributions to Asian countries on nuclear emergency preparedness and response.

Journal Articles

Model verification and validation procedure for a neutronics design methodology of next generation fast reactors

Ohgama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Kazumi*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Kan, Taro*; Maruyama, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Kenji; Sugino, Kazuteru; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Oki, Shigeo

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2017/04

Journal Articles

New remarks on KERMA factors and DPA cross section data in ACE files

Konno, Chikara; Sato, Satoshi; Ota, Masayuki; Kwon, Saerom; Ochiai, Kentaro

Fusion Engineering and Design, 109-111(Part B), p.1649 - 1652, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:49.04(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Recently we have examined KERMA factors and DPA cross section data in the latest official ACE files of JENDL-4.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and FENDL-3.0 in more detail and we found out the following new problems on the KERMA factors and DPA cross section data. (1) NJOY bugs and incorrect nuclear data generated KERMA factors and DPA cross section data of no increase with decreasing neutron energy in low neutron energy. (2) Huge helium production data caused drastically large KERMA factors and DPA cross section data in low neutron energy. (3) It seemed that NJOY could not adequately process capture cross section data in File 6, not File 12-15. (4) KERMA factors with the kinematics method are not correct for nuclear data libraries without detailed secondary particle data (energy-angular distribution data). These problems should be resolved based on our study.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015)

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2016-005, 55 Pages, 2016/05

JAEA-Review-2016-005.pdf:3.61MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, is a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of nuclear and/or radiological incidents. In order to fulfill the tasks as the designated public institution, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear/radiological emergency, the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives them technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear preparedness and response to emergency responders including the national and local government officers, in addition to the JAEA staff members. The NEAT also researches nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations on the above research theme. In the FY2014, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency responders for the national and local governments, (3) Researches on nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and release to the public as useful information, (4) Technical contributions to Asian countries on nuclear emergency preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations.

JAEA Reports

Development of the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE2

Yokoyama, Kenji; Jin, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Yasushi*; Hazama, Taira

JAEA-Data/Code 2015-009, 120 Pages, 2015/07

JAEA-Data-Code-2015-009.pdf:1.93MB

The second version of the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE2, has been developed. A lot of new functions have been added inMARBLE2 by using the base technology developed in the first version (MARBLE1). Introducing the remaining functions of the conventional code system (JOINT-FR and SAGEP-FR), MARBLE2 enables one to execute almost all analysis functions of the conventional code system with the unified user interfaces of its subsystem, SCHEME. In particular, the sensitivity analysis functionality is available in MARBLE2. On the other hand, new built-in solvers have been developed, and existing ones have been upgraded. Furthermore, some other analysis codes and libraries developed in JAEA have been consolidated and prepared in SCHEME. In addition, several analysis codes developed in the other institutes have been additionally introduced as plug-in solvers. Consequently, $$gamma$$-ray transport calculation and heating evaluation become available. As for another subsystem, ORPHEUS, various functionality updates and speed-up techniques have been applied based on user experience of MARBLE1 to enhance its usability.

Journal Articles

Applicability study of nuclear graphite material IG-430 to VHTR

Osaki, Hirotaka; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Konishi, Takashi; Ishihara, Masahiro

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2015/05

For the design on the VHTR graphite components, it is desirable to employ graphite material with higher strength. IG-430 graphite has been developed as an advanced candidate for VHTR. However, the new developed IG-430 does not have enough databases for the design of HTGR. In this paper, the compressive strength (Cs) of IG-430, one of important strengths for design data, is statistically evaluated. The component reliability is evaluated based on the safety factors defined by the graphite design code, and the applicability as the VHTR graphite material is discussed. It was found that IG-430 has higher strength (about 11%) and lower standard deviation (about 27%) than IG-110 which is one of traditional graphites used for HTGR, because the crack in IG-430 would not easy to propagate rather than IG-110. Since fracture probability for IG-430 is low, the higher reliability of core-component will be achieved using IG-430. It is expected that IG-430 is applicable for VHTR graphite material.

Journal Articles

Design study around beam window of ADS

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Nishihara, Kenji; Saito, Shigeru; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Takano, Hideki*; et al.

Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on the Utilisation and Reliability of High Power Proton Accelerators, p.325 - 334, 2005/11

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting the research and development (R&D) on the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System (ADS) for the effective transmutation of minor actinides (MAs). The ADS proposed by JAERI is the 800 MWth, Pb-Bi cooled, tank-type subcritical reactor loaded with (MA+Pu) nitride fuel. The Pb-Bi is also used as the spallation target. In this study, the feasibility of the ADS was discussed with putting the focus on the design around the beam window. The partition wall was placed between the target region and the ductless-type fuel assemblies to keep the good cooling performance for the hot-spot fuel pin. The flow control nozzle was installed to cool the beam window effectively. The thermal-hydraulic analysis showed that the maximum temperature at the outer surface of the beam window could be repressed below 500 $$^{circ}$$C even in the case of the maximum beam power of 30 MW. The stress caused by the external pressure and the temperature distribution of the beam window was also below the allowable limit.

JAEA Reports

On the requirement for remodelling the spent nuclear fuel transportation casks for research reactors; A Review of the drop impact analyses of JRC-80Y-20T

Review Group on the Structure of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Casks for

JAERI-Review 2005-023, 133 Pages, 2005/07

JAERI-Review-2005-023.pdf:18.88MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) constructed two stainless steel transportation casks, JRC-80Y-20T, for spent nuclear fuels of research reactors and had utilized them for transportation since 1981. A modification of the design was applied to the USA for transportation of silicide fuels. Additional analyses employing the impact analysis code LS-DYNA that was often used for safety analysis were submitted by the JAERI to the USA to show integrity of the packages; the casks were still not approved, because inelastic deformation was occurred on the surface of the lid touching to the body. To resolve this problem on design approval of transportation casks, a review group was formed at the end of this June. The group examined the impact analyses by reviewing the input data and performing the sensitivity analyses. As the drop impact analyses were found to be practically reasonable, it was concluded that the approval of the USA for the transportation casks could not be obtained just by revising the analyses; therefore, remodelling the casks is required.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis of three-dimensional two-phase flow behavior in a fuel assembly

Takase, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ose, Yasuo*; Akimoto, Hajime

WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences, Vol.50, p.183 - 192, 2005/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nuclear design

Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Ando, Hiroei*; Yamashita, Kiyonobu*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.23 - 36, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:60.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the nuclear design of the HTTR, the reactivity balance is planned so that the design requirements are fully satisfied. Moreover, the reactivity coefficients are evaluated to confirm the safety characteristics of the reactor. The power distribution in the core was optimized by changing the uranium enrichment to maintain the fuel temperature at less than the limit (1600$$^{circ}$$C). Deviation from the optimized distribution due to the burnup of fissile materials was avoided by flattening time-dependent changes in local reactivities. Flattening was achieved by optimizing the specifications of the burnable poisons. The original nuclear design model had to be modified based on the first critical experiments. The Monte Carlo code MVP was also used to predict criticality of the initial core. The predicted excess reactivities are now in good agreement with the experimental results.

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