Sanada, Yukihisa; Misono, Toshiharu; Shiribiki, Takehiko*
Kaiyo Riko Gakkai-Shi, 27(2), p.37 - 44, 2023/12
This paper summarizes the general situation of marine monitoring conducted after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the experience of development and operation of USVs, and the possibility of applying unmanned vessels as a tool for nuclear disaster prevention in the future. 0.01 Bq/L or less for seawater and 10 Bq/L or less for seabed soil. Operational tests of three USVs have been continuously conducted for use in such environmental radiation monitoring. Development of these UAVs is underway with a view to utilizing them for seawater sampling, direct measurement of the seafloor soil surface layer, and seafloor soil sampling, depending on their performance. It is necessary to promote the development of USVs for future nuclear power plant accidents.
Sato, Ikken; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimomura, Kenta; Cibula, M.*; Mizokami, Shinya*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 414, p.112574_1 - 112574_20, 2023/12
Yasumiishi, Misa*; Masoudi, P.*; Nishimura, Taku*; Ochi, Kotaro; Ye, X.*; Aldstadt, J.*; Komissarov, M.*
Radiation Measurements, 168, p.106978_1 - 106978_16, 2023/11
In this study, we surveyed air dose rates using hand-held and backpack-type scintillators in a forest of deciduous and evergreen trees in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The effects of topographic features on air dose rates were examined using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) against five selected topographic parameters. The air dose rates were distributed unevenly in the forest, and air dose rates varied by more than 1Sv/h as a function of time, likely owing to ground wetness etc. The effect of different topographic parameters varied between survey dates. The MARS model predictions with all topographic parameters yielded an R of 0.54 or higher. To discuss whether the effect of topography on air dose rates and soil contamination levels is consistent, air dose rates measured in the field were compared with those estimated from the depth profile of radiocesium in soil. Most air dose rates estimated from the soil samples were in the range of field measurements.
Akiyama, Yoichi; Shibanuma, So; Yanagisawa, Kenichi*; Yamada, Taichi; Suzuki, Kenta; Yoshida, Moeka; Ono, Takahiro; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Kaho; Morimoto, Kyoichi; et al.
JAEA-Review 2023-015, 60 Pages, 2023/09
Naraha Center for Remote Control Technology Development (NARREC) was established in Japan Atomic Energy Agency to promote a decommissioning work of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Daiichi NPS). NARREC consists of a Full-scale Mock-up Test Building and Research Management Building. Various test facilities are installed in these buildings for the decommissioning work of Fukushima Daiichi NPS. These test facilities are intended to be used for various users, such as companies engaged in the decommissioning work, research and development institutions, educational institutions and so on. The number of NARREC facility uses was 84 in FY2021. We participated booth exhibitions and presentations on the decommissioning related events. Moreover, we also contributed to the development of human resources by supporting the 6th Creative Robot Contest for Decommissioning. As a new project, "Narahakko Children's Classroom" was implemented for elementary school students in Naraha Town. This report summarizes the activities of NARREC in FY2021, such as the utilization of facilities and equipment of NARREC, the development of remote-control technologies for supporting the decommissioning work, arrangement of the remote-control machines for emergency response, and training for operators by using the machines.
Nihei, Naoto*; Yoshimura, Kazuya
Agricultural Implications of Fukushima Nuclear Accident (IV), p.33 - 40, 2023/09
Yanagisawa, Kayo; Matsueda, Makoto; Furukawa, Makoto*; Ishiniwa, Hiroko*; Wada, Toshihiro*; Hirata, Takafumi*; Takagai, Yoshitaka*
Analyst, 148(18), p.4291 - 4299, 2023/09
Quantitative imaging of trace elements was successfully performed by online isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (online LA-ICP-IDMS). The sample aerosols produced by LA are mixed online with the mist created from an isotopically enriched spike solution via an in-house cyclonic spray chamber, which has a gas port on the top. Quantification was continuously achieved in each spot; subsequently, quantitative imaging was realized. Fe and Sr were selected as the model elements, and their spot quantifications based on online-isotope dilution. The method was applied to actual biological hard tissues, and the results were compared with electron probe microanalyzer data.
Togawa, Orihiko; Hokama, Tomonori; Hiraoka, Hirokazu
JAEA-Review 2023-013, 48 Pages, 2023/08
When radionuclides are released into the atmospheric environment at a nuclear emergency, protective measures such as evacuation and temporal relocation are carried out using motor vehicles such as private cars and buses to reduce radiation exposure to residents. To confirm conditions of contamination for the evacuated or relocated residents, contamination inspection is conducted, in which it is important not to spoil its rapidity. In the present inspection, wipers and tires are designated to first measuring parts, and they are basically inspected by persons using GM survey meters. Utilization of portable radiation portal monitors is also being considered for rapid and efficient inspection of motor vehicles. In order to contribute to rapid and efficient operation of contamination inspection, this report investigated conditions of contamination and measures of decontaminations for motor vehicles at a nuclear emergency. Although available documents and information were quite few, results of the investigations described in the related documents were extracted and rearranged according to the objectives of this report. Furthermore, these results were considered from a viewpoint of rapid and efficient operation of contamination inspection.
Ota, Masakazu; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nagakubo, Azusa; Hirouchi, Jun; Hayashi, Naho; Abe, Tomohisa; Funaki, Hironori; Nagai, Haruyasu
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 264, p.107198_1 - 107198_15, 2023/08
One of the current major radiation exposure pathways from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident-fallout is inhalation of the re-suspended Cs occurring in air. While wind-induced soil particle resuspension has been recognized as a primary mechanism of Cs resuspension, studies following the FDNPP accident suggested that fungal spores can be a significant source of the atmospheric Cs particularly in the rural areas such as difficult-to-return zone (DRZ). To elucidate the relative importance of the two resuspension phenomena, we propose a model simulating resuspension of Cs as soil particles and fungal spores, and applied it to DRZ. Our model's calculation showed that soil particle resuspension was responsible for the surface-air Cs observed during winter-spring, but could not account for the higher Cs concentrations observed in summer-autumn. The higher concentrations in the summer-autumn were in general reproduced by implementing fungal spore Cs emission, that replenished low soil particle Cs resuspension in that period. According to our model's concept, Cs accumulation in fungal spores and high spore emission rate characterized by the rural environment were likely responsible for the abundance of spore Cs in the air. It was inferred that the influence of the fungal spores on the atmospheric Cs would last longer since un-decontaminated forests still exist in DRZ.
Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kadowaki, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Katsunori
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.980 - 1001, 2023/08
It is essential to establish a method for reconstructing the source term and spatiotemporal distribution of radionuclides released into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident for emergency countermeasures. We examined the dependency of a source term estimation method based on Bayesian inference using atmospheric dispersion simulation and environmental monitoring data on the availability of various monitoring data. Additionally, we examined the applicability of this method to a real-time estimation conducted immediately after an accident. A sensitivity analysis of the estimated source term during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident for combinations of various monitoring data indicated that using monitoring data with a high temporal and spatial resolution and the concurrent use of air concentration and surface deposition data is effective for accurate estimation. A real-time source term estimation experiment assuming the situation of monitoring data acquisition during the FDNPS accident revealed that this method could provide the necessary source term for grasping the overview of surface contamination in the early phase and evaluating the approximate accident scale. If the immediate online acquisition of monitoring data and regular operation of an atmospheric dispersion simulation are established, this method can provide the source term in near-real time.
Sato, Yuki; Terasaka, Yuta
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.1013 - 1026, 2023/08
Maeda, Makoto; Segawa, Mariko; Toh, Yosuke; Endo, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Shoji; Kimura, Atsushi
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 332(8), p.2995 - 2999, 2023/08
Yamashita, Susumu; Uesawa, Shinichiro; Ono, Ayako; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 10(4), p.22-00485_1 - 22-00485_25, 2023/08
A detailed evaluation for air cooling of fuel debris in actual reactors will be essential in fuel debris retrieval under dry conditions. To understand the heat transfer in and around fuel debris, which is assumed as a porous medium in the primary containment vessel (PCV) mechanistically, we newly applied the porous medium model to the multiphase and multicomponent computational fluid dynamics code named JUPITER (JAEA Utility Program for Interdisciplinary Thermal-hydraulics Engineering and Research). We applied the Darcy-Brinkman model as for the porous medium model. This model has high compatibility with JUPITER because it can treat both a pure fluid and a porous medium phase simultaneously in the same manner as the one-fluid model in multiphase flow simulation. We addressed the case of natural convection with a high-velocity flow standing out nonlinear effects by implementing the Forchheimer model, including the term of the square of the velocity as a nonlinear effect to the momentum transport equation of JUPITER. We performed some simple verification and validation simulations, such as the natural convection simulation in a square cavity and the natural convective heat transfer experiment with the porous medium, to confirm the validity of the implemented model. We confirmed that the result of JUPITER agreed well with these simulations and experiments. In addition, as an application of the updated JUPITER, we performed the preliminary simulation of air cooling of fuel debris in the condition of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 2 including the actual core materials. As a result, JUPITER calculated the temperature and velocity field stably in and around the fuel debris inside the PCV. Therefore, JUPITER has the potential to estimate the detailed and accurate thermal-hydraulics behaviors of fuel debris.
Okita, Shoichiro; Fukaya, Yuji; Sakon, Atsushi*; Sano, Tadafumi*; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Unesaki, Hironobu*
Nuclear Science and Engineering, 197(8), p.2251 - 2257, 2023/08
Shi, W.*; Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*; Okamoto, Koji*
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 162, p.104792_1 - 104792_19, 2023/08
Predicting radioactive source distributions inside reactor building rooms based on monitoring air dose rates is one of the most essential steps towards decommissioning of nuclear power plants. However, the attempt is rather a difficult task, because it can be generally mapped onto mathematically ill-posed problem. Then, in order to successfully perform the inverse estimations on radioactive source distributions even in such ill-posed conditions, we suggest that a machine learning method, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) minimizing the loss function, is a promising scheme. For the purpose of its feasibility demonstrations in real building rooms, we employ PHITS code to make LASSO input as the above matrix C connecting the radioactive source vector P defined on surface meshes of structural materials with the air dose rate vector Q measured at internal positions inside the rooms. We develop a mathematical criterion on the number of monitoring points to correctly predict source distributions based on the theory of Candes and Tao. Then, we confirm that LASSO actually shows extremely high possibility for source distribution reconstructions as far as the number of detection points satisfies our criterion. Moreover, we verify that radioactive hot spots can be truly reconstructed in an experiment setup. At last, we examine an influence factor like detector-source distance to enhance the predicting possibility in the inverse estimation. From the above demonstrations, we propose that LASSO scheme is a quite useful way to explore hot spots as seen in damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.
Morishita, Yuki; Sagawa, Naoki; Takada, Chie; Momose, Takumaro; Takasaki, Koji
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 199(13), p.1376 - 1383, 2023/08
It is very important to evaluate the diameters (activity median aerodynamic diameter) of Plutonium diocide (PuO) particles for internal exposure dose evaluation. In this study, a method of evaluating PuO particle diameters using an alpha-particle imaging detector, which can measure the change of the shape of alpha-particle energy spectrum of an individual particle, was developed. PuO particles with different diameters were modeled by Monte Carlo simulation, and the change in the shape of the energy spectrum for each particle diameter was evaluated. Two different patterns were modeled, namely, the case of PuO and the case of PuO (including isotopic composition of Pu). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the PuO particle diameter from the obtained parameters. The simulated diameters and the diameters obtained with the regression model were in good agreement.
Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Kondo, Akira*
Water (Internet), 15(15), p.2734_1 - 2734_18, 2023/08
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused an accumulation of Cs in coastal sediment. The Cs supply from rivers to the ocean can affect the long-term fate of Cs in coastal sediment. Since the Fukushima coastal river basins include large decontaminated and evacuation order areas, considering the decontamination work and resumption of agriculture is important for predicting the Cs supply. We conducted a 30-year prediction of the Cs supply from the Fukushima coastal rivers to the ocean using a distributed radiocesium prediction model, considering the effects of human activities. In river basins with decontaminated and evacuation order areas, human activities reduced the total Cs outflow from agricultural lands, urban lands, and forest areas to the rivers and the Cs supply to the ocean by 5.0% and 6.0%, respectively. These results indicated that human activities slightly impacted the Cs outflow and supply. The Cs supply from rivers impacted by the accident to the coastal sediment was estimated to correspond to 11-36% of the total Cs in the coastal sediment in the early phase of the accident. Therefore, the Cs supply from rivers to the ocean is important for the long-term behavior of Cs in coastal sediment.
Fueda, Kazuki*; Komiya, Tatsuki*; Minomo, Kenta*; Horie, Kenji*; Takehara, Mami*; Yamasaki, Shinya*; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Toshihiko*; Grambow, B.*; Law, G. T. W.*; et al.
Chemosphere, 328, p.138566_1 - 138566_12, 2023/07
Daido, Hiroyuki*; Yamada, Tomonori
ILT-APR-34; ILT 2023 Nempo (Internet), p.1 - 5, 2023/07
The decommissioning of Fukushima and the contribution to reconstruction have become national issues. The authors participated in the "Analysis of fine particles generated by laser processing and development of nuclide identification method" (represented by Professor Shuichi Hasegawa of the University of Tokyo), which was adopted as one of the JAEA's publicly solicited projects for this purpose, from FY 2018 to FY 2021 as a subcontractor, The authors conducted research on the observation, evaluation and analysis of the interaction between lasers and various laser-irradiated targets. This report outlines the results of the research in which the authors took part. In the experiments, laser irradiation was carried out on test specimens set up in an irradiation chamber, and shadowgraphs were taken using a high-speed camera and a He-Ne laser. As an example of the experimental results, shadowgraphs of metal (stainless steel) and metal oxide (zirconia), irradiation traces after laser irradiation, and the relationship between laser irradiation power and jet mass are shown, and the interaction between the laser and the metal or metal oxide is discussed. The results will not only contribute to the decommissioning technology of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, but also to laser processing technology and laser interaction research.
Kazama, Hiroyuki; Konashi, Kenji*; Suzuki, Tatsuya*; Koyama, Shinichi; Maeda, Koji; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Takashi; Abe, Chikage*; Shikamori, Yasuyuki*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 38(8), p.1676 - 1681, 2023/07
Suzuki, Seiya; Arai, Yoichi; Okamura, Nobuo; Watanabe, Masayuki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.839 - 848, 2023/07
The fuel debris, consisting of nuclear fuel materials and reactor structural materials, generated in the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant can become deteriorated like rocks under the changes of environmental temperature. Although the fuel debris have been cooled by water for 10 years, they are affected by seasonal and/or day-and-night temperature changes. Therefore, in evaluating the aging behavior of the fuel debris, it is essential to consider the changes in environmental temperature. Assuming that the fuel debris are deteriorated, radioactive substances that have recently undergone micronization could be eluted into the cooling water, and such condition may affect defueling methods. We focused on the effect of repeated changes in environmental temperature on the occurrence of cracks, and an accelerated test using simulated fuel debris was carried out. The length of the crack increases with increasing number of heat cycle; therefore, the fuel debris become brittle by stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the mechanical deterioration of the fuel debris is similar to that of rocks or minerals, and it became possible to predict changes in the length of the crack in the simulated fuel debris and environmental model.