Nakashio, Nobuyuki*; Osugi, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Ishikawa, Joji; Hemmi, Ko; Iketani, Shotaro; Yokobori, Tomohiko
JAEA-Technology 2022-016, 47 Pages, 2022/08
The Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) started operation of the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVWF) for production of waste packages for disposal of low-level radioactive solid wastes (LLW). To clarify the operating conditions for homogenization of non-metallic LLW, preliminary tests were carried out using the plasma melting furnace of the non-metal melting unit. The fluidity of molten waste influences homogenization conditions of solidified products. It was clarified that the viscosity, which is determined by the chemical composition and the melting temperature, influence the fluidity of molten waste greatly through previous literature review and the small-scale melting tests. In the preliminary tests, the simulated waste with a cold tracer loaded in 200 L drums were melted. Using the waste chemical components (basicity, iron oxide concentration) as an experimental parameter, the homogeneity of the chemical components of the solidified product was investigated and the homogenization conditions of melting tests were examined. The retention ratio of the tracer in the molten bath was also confirmed. The viscosity of the molten wastes was measured and the correlation with homogeneity was examined. In addition, the technical requirements that should be concerned in advance for future actual operation were discussed.
Tamura, Koji; Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Taguchi, Tomitsugu*; Lim, H. H.*; Taira, Takunori*; Wakaida, Ikuo
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.405 - 415, 2021/04
Radiation dose rate effects on the properties of a compact fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system with a monolithic Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG composite ceramics were investigated for remote analysis in hazardous environment. To investigate radiation effects on the LIBS signal, properties related to the Nd:YAG laser operation such as oscillation threshold, output energy, oscillation timing, temporal pulse shape, and beam profile were measured as a function of the radiation dose rate from 0 to 10 kGy/hr in view of their influences to the signal. LIBS spectra of zirconium metal were measured under irradiation. Although signal intensity decreased considerably by irradiation, informative spectra were well obtained even at the maximum radiation dose rate. From the comparison of the LIBS-related parameters among the laser properties, signal reduction was mainly ascribed to the pulse energy reduction. Scintillation emission spectra were also measured from the ceramics during the irradiation, where the signal intensity increased linearly with the dose rate. The results show that the developed system.
Miyajima, Yusuke*; Saito, Ayaka*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Hirata, Takafumi*
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 45(1), p.189 - 205, 2021/03
Uncertainty for elemental and isotopic analyses of calcite by LA-ICP-MS is largely controlled by the homogeneity of the reference materials (RMs) used for normalization and validation. In order to produce calcite RMs with homogeneous elemental and isotopic compositions, we incorporated elements including U, Pb, and rare earth elements into calcite through heat- and pressure-induced crystallization from amorphous calcium carbonate that was precipitated from element-doped reagent solution. X-ray absorption spectra showed that U was present as U(VI) in the synthesized calcite, probably with a different local structure from that of aqueous uranyl ions. The uptake rate of U by our calcite was higher in comparison to synthetic calcite of previous studies. Variations of element mass fractions in the calcite were better than 12% 2RSD, mostly within 7%. The Pb/Pb ratio in the calcite showed 1% variations, while the U/Pb ratio showed 3-24% variations depending on element mass fractions. Using the synthetic calcite as primary RMs, we could date a natural calcite RM, WC-1, with analytical uncertainty as low as 3%. The method presented can be useful to produce calcite with controlled and homogeneous element mass fractions, and is a promising alternative to natural calcite RMs for U-Pb geochronology.
Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Wakaida, Ikuo; Tanabe, Rie*; Ito, Yoshiro*
Optics Express (Internet), 29(4), p.5205 - 5212, 2021/02
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with liquid jets was applied to the detection of trace sodium (Na) in aqueous solutions. The sensitivities of two types of liquid jets were compared: a liquid cylindrical jet with a diameter of 500 m and a liquid sheet jet with a thickness of 20 m. Compared with the cylindrical jet, the liquid sheet jet effectively reduced the splash from the laser-irradiated surface and produced long-lived luminous plasma. The limit of detection (LOD) of Na was determined to be 0.57 g/L for the sheet jet and 10.5 g/L for the cylindrical jet. The LOD obtained for the sheet jet was comparable to those obtained for commercially available inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometers.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Kyushu University*
JAEA-Review 2020-036, 176 Pages, 2021/01
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Research and Development of Transparent Materials for Radiation Shield Using Nanoparticles" conducted in FY2019. The present study aims to reduce radiation exposure of workers in debris retrieval/analysis and reduce deterioration of optical and electronic systems in remote cameras. For these purposes, we develop transparent radiation shield by making the shield materials into nanoparticles, and dispersing/solidifying them in epoxy resin. By making boride or heavy metal compounds into nanoparticles, we will also develop a radiation shield that shields both neutrons and gamma-rays, and also suppresses secondary gamma-rays produced from neutrons.
Taya, Hidetoshi*; Park, A.*; Cho, S.*; Gubler, P.; Hattori, Koichi*; Hong, J.*; Huang, X.-G.*; Lee, S. H.*; Monnai, Akihiko*; Onishi, Akira*; et al.
Physical Review C, 102(2), p.021901_1 - 021901_6, 2020/08
Abe, Yuta; Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Ikken; Nakagiri, Toshio; Ishimi, Akihiro
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021113_1 - 021113_9, 2020/04
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Kyushu University*
JAEA-Review 2019-039, 104 Pages, 2020/03
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2018. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Research and Development of Transparent Materials for Radiation Shield using Nanoparticles". The present study aims to reduce radiation exposure of workers in debris retrieval/analysis and reduce deterioration of optical and electronic systems in remote cameras. For these purposes, we develop transparent radiation shield by making the shield materials into nanoparticles, and dispersing/solidifying them in epoxy resin. By making BC and W into nanoparticles, we will also develop a radiation shield that shields both neutrons and gamma-rays, and also suppresses secondary gamma-rays produced from neutrons.
Physics of Plasmas, 26(12), p.120703_1 - 120703_5, 2019/12
This Letter presents the impacts of the hydrogen isotope mass and the normalized gyroradius on L-mode like hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas dominated by ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence using global full-f gyrokinetic simulations. In ion heated numerical experiments with adiabatic electrons, the energy confinement time shows almost no isotope mass dependency, and is determined by Bohm like scaling. Electron heated numerical experiments with kinetic electrons show clear isotope mass dependency caused by the isotope effect on the collisional energy transfer from electrons to ions, and the H and D plasmas show similar ion and electron temperature profiles at an H to D heating power ratio of . The normalized collisionless ion gyrokinetic equations for H and D plasmas become identical at the same , and collisions weakly affect ITG turbulence. Therefore, the isotope mass dependency is mainly contributed by the scaling and the heating sources.
Yamamoto, Masahiko; Do, V. K.; Taguchi, Shigeo; Kuno, Takehiko; Takamura, Yuzuru*
Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 155, p.134 - 140, 2019/05
The emission spectra of technetium (Tc) by liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry have been investigated in this study. From the spectra, 52 emission peaks of Tc were observed in the 250-500 nm wavelength range. All peaks were assigned to the neutral state or singly ionized state. The relative intensities of these peaks were similar to those excited by an electric spark. The strongest intensity peaks were found at 254.3 nm, 261.0 nm, and 264.7 nm. Spectral interferences of coexisting elements in highly active liquid waste of reprocessing stream on those three strongest peaks were investigated using simulated sample. No spectral interferences were observed around the 264.7 nm Tc peak. Therefore, analytical performance using 264.7 nm peak was evaluated. The detection limit, estimated on standard and blank samples in 0.4 M nitric acid, was 1.9 mg/L. The relative standard deviation of Tc standard sample (12.0 mg/L) was 3.8% (N = 5, 1).
Takamatsu, Yuki*; Ishii, Hiroto*; Oishi, Yuji*; Muta, Hiroaki*; Yamanaka, Shinsuke*; Suzuki, Eriko; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Kurosaki, Ken*
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 17(3/4), p.106 - 110, 2018/12
In order to establish the synthesis method of simulated fuel contacting Cesium (Cs) which is required for the evaluation of physical/chemical characteristics in fuel and release behavior of Cs, sintering tests of the cerium dioxide (CeO) based simulated fuels containing Cesium iodide (CsI) are performed by using spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The sintered CeO pellets with homogeneous distribution of several micro meter of CsI spherical precipitates were successfully obtained by optimizing SPS conditions.
Abe, Yuta; Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Ikken; Nakagiri, Toshio; Ishimi, Akihiro; Nagae, Yuji
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/07
Do, V. K.; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Takamura, Yuzuru*; Surugaya, Naoki; Kuno, Takehiko
Talanta, 183, p.283 - 289, 2018/06
We develop a novel analytical method employing liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry for measurement of total cesium in highly active liquid wastes. Limit of detection and limit of quantification are 0.005 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The method is validated and applied to the real samples.
Araki, Kenji*; Suzuki, Kei*; Gubler, P.; Oka, Makoto
Physics Letters B, 780, p.48 - 53, 2018/05
Charmonium spectral functions in vector and pseudoscalar channels at finite temperature are investigated through the complex Borel sum rules and the maximum entropy method. Our approach enables us to extract the peaks corresponding to the excited charmonia, as well as those of the ground states, which has never been achieved in usual QCD sum rule analyses. We show the spectral functions in vacuum and their thermal modification around the critical temperature, which leads to the almost simultaneous melting (or peak disappearance) of the ground and excited states.
Gubler, P.; Sato, Daisuke*
Physical Review D, 96(11), p.114028_1 - 114028_20, 2017/12
Exact sum rules for the longitudinal and transverse part of the vector channel spectral functions at nonzero momentum are derived in the first part of the paper. The sum rules are formulated for the finite temperature spectral functions, from which the vacuum component has been subtracted, and represent a generalization of previous work in which sum rules were derived only for the zero-momentum limit. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate how the sum rules can be used as constraints in spectral fits to lattice data at various temperatures, with the latest dynamical lattice quantum chromodynamics data at zero momentum.
Abe, Yuta; Nakagiri, Toshio; Watatani, Satoshi*; Maruyama, Shinichiro*
JAEA-Technology 2017-023, 46 Pages, 2017/10
This is a report on Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting work carried out on specimen, which was used for Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination by Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS) molten core behavior analysis group in February 2016. The simulated fuel assembly is composed of Zirconia for the outer crucible/simulated fuel, stainless steel for the control blade and Zircaloy (Zr) for the cladding tube/channel box. Therefore, it is necessary to cut at once substances having a wide range of fracture toughness and hardness. Moreover, it is a large specimen with an approximate size of 300 mm. In addition, epoxy resin has high stickiness, making it more difficult to cut. Considering these effects, AWJ cutting was selected. The following two points were devised, and this specimen could be cut with AWJ. If it was not possible to cut at one time like a molten portion of boride, it was repeatedly cut. By using Abrasive Suspension Jet (ASJ) system with higher cutting ability than Abrasive Injection Jet (AIJ, conventional method) system, cutting time was shortened. As a result of this work, the cutting method in Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination was established. Incidentally, in the cutting operation, when the cutting ability was lost at the tip of the AWJ, a curved cut surface, which occurs when the jet flowed away from the feeding direction, could be confirmed at the center of the test body. From the next work, to improve the cutting efficiency, we propose adding a mechanism such as turning the cutting member itself for re-cutting from the exit side of the jet and appropriate traverse speed to protect cut surface.
Analytical Sciences, 33(10), p.1097 - 1098, 2017/10
Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in various fields such as environmental, geological, and clinical sciences. In this report, recent advances of the ICP-MS analysis and expected applications are described.
Maruyama, Shinichiro*; Watatani, Satoshi*
Mitsui Sumitomo Kensetsu Gijutsu Kenkyu Kaihatsu Hokoku, (15), p.107 - 112, 2017/10
It is essential to estimate characteristics and forms of fuel debris for safe and reliable removing at the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F). For the estimation, melting behavior of fuel assembly in the accident is being researched. To proceed the research, the fuel debris were need to cut, and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) which had enough results for cutting ceramic material or mixed material of zirconium alloy and stainless. The test results demonstrated that AWJ could cut the fuel assembly and accumulated the cutting data which will be subservient when removing the fuel debris in future.
Mantica, P.*; Bourdelle, C.*; Camenen, Y.*; Dejarnac, R.*; Evans, T. E.*; Grler, T.*; Hillesheim, J.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Jakubowski, M.*; Ricci, P.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 57(8), p.087001_1 - 087001_19, 2017/08
This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 21st Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop, held in Leysin, Switzerland, during 5-8 September 2016. The workshop was organized under 8 topics: progress towards full-F kinetic turbulence simulation; high and low Z impurity transport, control and effects on plasma confinement; 3D effects on core and edge transport (including MHD, external fields and stellarators); predictive experimental design; electron heat transport and multi-scale integration; understanding power decay length in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL); role of the SOL in the L-H transition; validation of fundamental turbulence properties against turbulence measurements.
Physics of Plasmas, 24(8), p.080701_1 - 080701_5, 2017/08
An electron heating modulation numerical experiment based on a global full-f gyrokinetic model shows that transitions from ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence to trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence induced by electron heating generate density peaking and rotation changes. Toroidal angular momentum balance during the rotation changes is revealed by direct observation of toroidal angular momentum conservation, in which in addition to ion turbulent stress, ion neoclassical stress, radial currents, and toroidal field stress of ions and electrons are important. Toroidal torque flipping between ITG and TEM phases is found to be related to reversal of the ion radial current that indicates coupling of particle and momentum transport channels. The ion and electron radial currents are balanced to satisfy the ambipolar condition, and the electron radial current is cancelled by the electron toroidal field stress, which indirectly affects toroidal torque.