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Journal Articles

Recent improvements of probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code PASCAL for reactor pressure vessels

Lu, K.; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.

International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 199, p.104706_1 - 104706_13, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Characterization of bremsstrahlung and $$gamma$$-rays of fuel debris

Matsumura, Taichi; Okumura, Keisuke; Fujita, Manabu*; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Terashima, Kenichi; Riyana, E. S.

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 199, p.110298_1 - 110298_8, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Study on the relation between the crystal structure and thermal stability of FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$

Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kusaka, Ryoji; Kumagai, Yuta; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki*; Kirishima, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 568, p.153847_1 - 153847_10, 2022/09

FeUO$$_{4}$$, CrUO$$_{4}$$, and Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ are monouranates containing pentavalent U. Even though these compounds have similar crystal structures, their formation conditions and thermal stability are significantly different. To determine the factors causing the difference in thermal stability between FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$, their crystal structures were evaluated in detail. A Raman band was observed at 700 cm$$^{-1}$$ in all the samples. This Raman band was derived from the stretching vibration of the O-U-O axis band, indicating that Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ was composed of a uranyl-like structure in its lattice regardless of its "x"' value. M$"o$ssbauer measurements indicated that the Fe in FeUO$$_{4}$$ and Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ were trivalent. Furthermore, Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ lost its symmetry around Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ with increasing electron densities around Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$, as the abundance of Cr increased. These results suggested no significant structural differences between FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$. Thermogravimetric measurements for UO$$_{2}$$, FeUO$$_{4}$$, and CrUO$$_{4}$$ showed that the temperature at which FeUO$$_{4}$$ decomposed under an oxidizing condition (approximately 800 $$^{circ}$$C) was significantly lower than the temperature at which the decomposition of CrUO$$_{4}$$ started (approximately 1250 $$^{circ}$$C). Based on these results, we concluded that the decomposition of FeUO$$_{4}$$ was triggered by an ``in-crystal'' redox reaction, i.e., Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ $${+}$$ U$$^{mathrm{V}}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Fe$$^{mathrm{II}}$$ $${+}$$ U$$^{mathrm{VI}}$$, which would not occur in the CrUO$$_{4}$$ lattice because Cr$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ could never be reduced under the investigated condition. Finally, the existence of Cr$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ in FexCr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ effectively suppressed the decomposition of the Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ crystal, even at a very low Cr content.

Journal Articles

Calculating off-axis efficiency of coaxial HPGe detectors by Monte Carlo simulation

Omer, M.; Shizuma, Toshiyuki*; Hajima, Ryoichi*; Koizumi, Mitsuo

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 198, p.110241_1 - 110241_7, 2022/09

Journal Articles

BWR lower head penetration failure test focusing on eutectic melting

Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Takumi; Madokoro, Hiroshi; Nagae, Yuji

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 173, p.109129_1 - 109129_15, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Structure, stability, and actinide leaching of simulated nuclear fuel debris synthesized from UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and stainless-steel

Kirishima, Akira*; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kumagai, Yuta; Kusaka, Ryoji; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Sato, Nobuaki*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 567, p.153842_1 - 153842_15, 2022/08

To understand the chemical structure and stability of nuclear fuel debris consisting of UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and Stainless Steel (SUS) generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan in 2011, simulated debris of the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr system and other fundamental component systems were synthesized and characterized. The simulated debris were synthesized by heat treatment for 1 to 12 h at 1600$$^{circ}$$C, in inert (Ar) or oxidative (Ar + 2% O$$_{2}$$) atmospheres. $$^{237}$$Np and $$^{241}$$Am tracers were doped for the leaching tests of these elements and U from the simulated debris. The characterization of the simulated debris was conducted by XRD, SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopy, which provided the major uranium phase of the UO $$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris was the solid solution of U$$^{mathrm{IV}}$$O$$_{2}$$ (s.s.) with Zr(IV) and Fe(II) regardless of the treatment atmosphere. The long-term immersion test of the simulated debris in pure water and that in seawater revealed the macro scale crystal structure of the simulated debris was chemically very stable in the wet condition for a year or more. Furthermore, the leaching test results showed that the actinide leaching ratios of U, Np, Am from the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris were very limited and less than 0.08 % for all the experiments in this study.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of sodium mist behavior in turbulent Rayleigh-B$'e$nard convection using new developed mist models

Ohira, Hiroaki*; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Ezure, Toshiki

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 172, p.109075_1 - 109075_10, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0

In order to evaluate the mist behavior in the cover gas region of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in good accuracy, turbulent model for Rayleigh-B$'e$nard convection (RBC) was selected, and the Reynolds-averaged number density and momentum equations for mist behavior were developed and incorporated into the OpenFOAM code. In the first stage, the RBC in a simple parallel channel was calculated using Favre-averaged k-$$omega$$ SST model. The average temperature and flow characteristics agreed well with results from DNS, LES, and experiments. Then the basic heat transfer experiment simulating the cover gas region of SFRs was calculated using this turbulent model and new mist models. The calculated average temperature distribution in the height direction and the mist mass concentration agreed well with the experimental results. We developed a method that could simulate the mist behavior in turbulent RBC environments and the cover gas region of SFRs with high accuracy.

Journal Articles

Integral experiment of $$^{129}$$I(n, $$gamma$$) using fast neutron source in the "YAYOI" reactor

Nakamura, Shoji; Toh, Yosuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Hatsukawa, Yuichi*; Harada, Hideo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(7), p.851 - 865, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The present study performed integral experiments of $$^{129}$$I using a fast-neutron source reactor "YAYOI" of the University of Tokyo to validate evaluated nuclear data libraries. The iodine-129 sample and flux monitors were irradiated by fast neutrons in the Glory hole of the YAYOI reactor. Reaction rates of $$^{129}$$I were obtained by measurement of decay gamma-rays emitted from $$^{130}$$I. The validity of the fast-neutron flux spectrum in the Glory hole was confirmed by the ${it C/E}$ ratios of the reaction rates of flux monitors. The experimental reaction rate of $$^{129}$$I was compared with that calculated with both the fast-neutron flux spectrum and evaluated nuclear data libraries. The present study revealed that the evaluated nuclear data of $$^{129}$$I cited in JENDL-4.0 should be reduced as much as 18% in neutron energies ranging from 10 keV to 3 MeV, and supported the reported data by Noguere ${it et al.}$ below 100 keV.

Journal Articles

First demonstration of a novel single-end readout type position-sensitive optical fiber radiation sensor based on wavelength-resolved photon counting

Terasaka, Yuta; Watanabe, Kenichi*; Uritani, Akira*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1034, p.166793_1 - 166793_6, 2022/07

Journal Articles

Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants using multi-fidelity simulations

Zheng, X.; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 223, p.108503_1 - 108503_12, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Engineering, Industrial)

Journal Articles

Temporal variability of $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in coastal sediments off Fukushima

Suzuki, Shotaro*; Amano, Yosuke*; Enomoto, Masahiro*; Matsumoto, Akira*; Morioka, Yoshiaki*; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Kaeriyama, Hideki*; Miura, Hikaru*; Tsumune, Daisuke*; et al.

Science of the Total Environment, 831, p.154670_1 - 154670_15, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Online solid-phase extraction-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometric quantification of $$^{90}$$Sr using $$^{88}$$Sr/$$^{86}$$Sr isotope dilution method

Yanagisawa, Kayo*; Odashima, Mizuki*; Matsueda, Makoto; Furukawa, Makoto*; Takagai, Yoshitaka*

Talanta, 244, p.123442_1 - 123442_7, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Analytical)

The determination of a low concentration of $$^{90}$$Sr was achieved by the combination of online SPE-ICP-QMS and ID method using $$^{88}$$Sr/$$^{86}$$Sr ratio. No requirement of radioactive standard material and the preparation process of the calibration curve was in the quantification process and data acquisition can be in one-shot sample injection. The proposed method allowed the rapid (within 15 min/sample) quantification of $$^{90}$$Sr in the presence of significant interferences such as isobaric $$^{90}$$Zr and other elements. The LOD for $$^{90}$$Sr was 5.6 Bq/L for a 10 mL injection and this could be improved by simply increasing the sample volume injected.

JAEA Reports

Study on radioactivity evaluation method of research reactors using DORT and MCNP codes

Kochiyama, Mami; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2022-009, 56 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Technology-2022-009.pdf:4.15MB

It is necessary to evaluate radioactivity inventory in wastes before disposal of low-level radioactive wastes generated from dismantling research reactors. It is efficient for owners of each research reactor to use a common radioactive evaluation method in order to comply with the license application for disposal facility. In this report, neutron transport and activation calculations were carried out for the Rikkyo University research reactor in order to examine a common radioactivity evaluation method for burial disposal of radioactive wastes generated by dismantling. We adopted the neutron transport codes DORT and MCNP and the activation code ORIGEN-S with cross-section libraries based on JENDL-4.0 and JENDL/AD-2017. The radioactivity concentrations obtained by the radiochemical analysis and both calculation codes were in agreement by 0.4 to 3 times. Therefore, by appropriately considering this difference, the radioactivity evaluation method by DORT, MCNP and ORIGEN-S can be applied to the radioactivity evaluation for buried disposal. In order to classify wastes from dismantling by clearance or buried disposal method according to their radioactivity levels, we also created radioactivity concentration distributions in the concrete area and graphite thermal column area.

JAEA Reports

Continuous improvement activities on nuclear facility maintenance in Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency in 2021

Task Force on Maintenance Optimization of Nuclear Facilities

JAEA-Technology 2022-006, 80 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Technology-2022-006.pdf:4.24MB

The Task force on maintenance optimization of nuclear facilities was organized in the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) since November 2020, in order to adequately respond to "the New nuclear regulatory inspection system since FY 2020" and to continuously improve the facility maintenance activities. In 2021, the task force has studied (1) optimization of the importance classification on maintenance and inspection of nuclear facilities, and (2) improvement in setting and evaluation of the performance indicators on safety, maintenance and quality management activities, considering "the Graded approach" that is one of the basic methodologies in the new nuclear regulatory inspection system. Each nuclear facility (research reactors, nuclear fuel material usage facilities, others) in the NSRI will steadily improve their respective safety, maintenance and quality management activities, referring the review results suggested by the task force.

JAEA Reports

Development of the technology for preventing radioactive particles' dispersion during the fuel debris retrieval (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2022-010, 155 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-010.pdf:9.78MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the technology for preventing radioactive particles' dispersion during the fuel debris retrieval" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to clarify the behavior of microparticles in gas and liquid phases in order to steadily confine radioactive microparticles during fuel debris retrieval in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, TEPCO. As measures to prevent dispersion of microparticles, (1) a method to suppress the dispersion with minimum amount of water utilizing water spray etc., and (2) a method to suppress the dispersion by solidifying fuel

JAEA Reports

Basic research on the stability of fuel debris including alloy phase (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2022-009, 73 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-009.pdf:2.08MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Basic research on the stability of fuel debris including alloy phase" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study focus on fuel debris consisting of oxide phase and alloy phase generated by the high temperature chemical reaction between structure materials (SUS pipes, pressure vessels, etc.) and fuels (melted fuels, claddings components, etc.). We synthesize the simulated debris of UO$$_{2}$$-SUS system and UO$$_{2}$$-Zr(ZrO$$_{2}$$)-SUS system by high-temperature heat treatment, and measure their chemical property and dissolution behavior in water. Also, we will conduct

JAEA Reports

Development of the sintering solidification method for spent zeolite to long-term stabilization (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Shibaura Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2022-008, 116 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-008.pdf:5.36MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the sintering solidification method for spent zeolite to long-term stabilization" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to develop a new sintering solidification method in which glass is added as a binder to spent zeolite which is adsorbed radionuclides such as Cs and the nuclides are immobilized by sintering them. In this project, the optimum conditions for sintering solidification and the basic performance of the sintered solidified body will be evaluated by cold tests, and they will be demonstrated by hot tests. In FY2020, the cold tests

JAEA Reports

Identification of altered phases of fuel debris by laser fluorescence spectroscopy (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2022-007, 59 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-007.pdf:2.09MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Identification of altered phases of fuel debris by laser fluorescence spectroscopy" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to identify alteration phases occurring on the surface fuel debris at various conditions, using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), which is a selective analytical technique for U(VI), a major constituent of fuel debris and stable in oxidizing conditions. In particular, we pursue to improve its sensitivity and resolution by performing measurements at ultra-low temperature and identify multiple and heterogeneous U(VI)

JAEA Reports

Study on degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2022-005, 93 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-005.pdf:6.95MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study on degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions" conducted in FY2020. In the project, radiochemists, nuclear chemists, nuclear physicists, material scientists, and environmental biologists are teamed to elucidate the mechanism of the degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions. In fiscal year 2020, the members of the project team have conducted on the degradation of He ions irradiated simulated fuel debris, complex formation of tetravalent elements, uranium (VI) detection in microchannel, sorption of trivalent elements by iron bearing materials, and microbial degradation by model microorganisms and

JAEA Reports

Fluorination method for classification of the waste generated by fuel debris removal (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy*

JAEA-Review 2022-003, 126 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-003.pdf:8.01MB

JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Fluorination Method for Classification of the Waste Generated by Fuel Debris Removal" conducted in FY2020.

20435 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)