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JAEA Reports

An Attempt to estimate the migration pathway of slab-derived fluid using shear wave splitting analysis

Hiratsuka, Shinya; Asamori, Koichi; Saiga, Atsushi

JAEA-Research 2022-002, 38 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Research-2022-002.pdf:4.49MB

Deep groundwater originates from dehydration of Pacific and Philippine Sea slab subducting beneath Japanese islands, which has characteristics of high temperature and is rich in carbonate species. In this respect, it is very important for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste to estimate reservoir and migration pathway of deep groundwater. The region where cracks are densely distributed can be regarded as the migration pathway of slab-derived fluid. It is highly probable that the region has strong anisotropy. Shear wave propagating through anisotropic media splits into two mutually orthogonally polarized waves due to shear wave polarization anisotropy. In this report, we applied shear wave splitting analysis to Hongu area of Tanabe City, Wakayama Prefecture and estimated the spatial distribution of leading shear wave polarization direction (LSPD) and arrival time difference between leading and lagging shear waves (dt). Based on comparison with helium isotope ratio of ground water and bubbling gas samples and two-dimensional resistivity structure estimated by previous study, we attempt to estimate migration pathway of slab-derived fluid in Hongu area of Tanabe City, Wakayama Prefecture. The main results are summarized as follows. When helium isotope ratio of groundwater and bubbling gas samples is high, dt value tends to be large. Shear wave propagating through high and low resistivity anomaly zone show small and large dt values, respectively. Previous study suggested that slab-derived fluid migrates from deeper part of western side of Hongu area and wells out in Yunomine and Kawayu hot springs. This is consistent with spatial distribution of dt values estimated by this study.

Journal Articles

Development of the high-power spallation neutron target of J-PARC

Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03

The cross-flow type target was developed as the basic design of mercury target in J-PARC, and the design has been improved to realize the MW-class pulsed spallation neutron source. When the high-power and short-pulsed proton beam is injected into the mercury target, pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation. The pressure waves induce the cavitation damages on the target vessel. Two countermeasures were adopted, namely, the injection of microbubbles into mercury and the double walled structure at the beam window. The bubble generator was installed in the target vessel to absorb the volume inflation of mercury and mitigate the pressure waves. Also, the double walled target vessel was designed to suppress the cavitation damage by the large velocity gradient of rapid mercury flow in the narrow channel of double wall. Finally, we could attain 1 MW beam operation with the duration time of 36.5 hours in 2020, and achieved the long term stable operation with 740 kW from April in 2021. This report shows the technical development of the high-power mercury target vessel in view of thermal hydraulics to attain 1 MW operation.

Journal Articles

A Proposal of optimum calculation settings of continuous wavelet transform in magnetotelluric data processing

Ogawa, Hiroki; Hama, Yuki*; Asamori, Koichi; Ueda, Takumi*

Butsuri Tansa, 75, p.38 - 55, 2022/00

In the magnetotelluric (MT) method, so as to identify the subsurface resistivity structure, the apparent resistivity and phase profiles are calculated by transforming time-series data into spectral data. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is well known as a new method of time-frequency analysis instead of the short-time Fourier transform. The CWT is superior in processing non-stationary wideband signals like the MT signal by adjusting the size of the wavelet according to the value of frequency. However, the calculation settings of the CWT, such as the type of basis function and the wavelet parameter, are often determined empirically because of the arbitrariness of the shape of the wavelet. Although there might be differences between the calculated MT responses and the true responses due to improper settings of the CWT, there are no detailed studies considering the effect of numerical errors derived from spectral transforms on MT data. In this study, focusing on the frequency band between 0.001 Hz and 1 Hz, we examined the optimum calculation settings of the CWT in processing MT data in terms of suppressing the numerical errors caused by the spectral transform of time-series data. We also show the validity of the proposed calculation settings by applying the CWT to MT survey data of different types. Superiority of the CWT with proposed settings is suggested especially when the signal-to-noise ratio of observed data is low. Consequently, the proposed calculation settings were confirmed to strike a balance between the resolutions of the time and frequency domains well and will therefore be effective in obtaining reliable MT responses.

JAEA Reports

Measurement methods for the radioactive source distribution inside reactor buildings using a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Nagoya University*

JAEA-Review 2021-033, 55 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-033.pdf:2.9MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Measurement methods for the radioactive source distribution inside reactor buildings using a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor" conducted in FY2020. We are developing a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor that can estimate the radioactive source distribution "along lines" instead of "at points". To improve the conventional time-of-flight optical fiber radiation sensor for the application under high dose rate environment, basic evaluation tests were conducted using various optical fibers with different diameters and materials. We found the usefulness of quartz optical fiber as a one-dimensional radiation sensor with high position resolution. We also conducted the study of a newly-developed

JAEA Reports

Challenge to advancement of debris composition and direct isotope measurement by microwave-enhanced LIBS (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Ilabo*

JAEA-Review 2021-027, 62 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Review-2021-027.pdf:3.06MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Challenge to advancement of debris composition and direct isotope measurement by microwave-enhanced LIBS" conducted in FY2020. Although LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) is commercially available for application to remote composition measurement, it is not suitable for high radiation environment due to loss in optical fibers derived from the influence of radiation, reduction in laser transmission output, and nuclear fuel debris properties. There are general concerns of the signal strength decrease. In addition, since LIBS is generally considered to be unsuitable for isotope measurement, there are problems to be improved. In this research, we aimed to realize a lightweight and compact system by superimposing

Journal Articles

Energy-dependent angular distribution of individual $$gamma$$ rays in the $$^{139}$$La($$n, gamma$$)$$^{140}$$La$$^{ast}$$ reaction

Okudaira, Takuya*; Endo, Shunsuke; Fujioka, Hiroyuki*; Hirota, Katsuya*; Ishizaki, Kohei*; Kimura, Atsushi; Kitaguchi, Masaaki*; Koga, Jun*; Ninomi, Yudai*; Sakai, Kenji; et al.

Physical Review C, 104(1), p.014601_1 - 014601_6, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:46.35(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Analysis and mapping of detailed inner information of crystalline grain by wavelength-resolved neutron transmission imaging with individual Bragg-dip profile-fitting analysis

Sakurai, Yosuke*; Sato, Hirotaka*; Adachi, Nozomu*; Morooka, Satoshi; Todaka, Yoshikazu*; Kamiyama, Takashi*

Applied Sciences (Internet), 11(11), p.5219_1 - 5219_17, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:68.25(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Effect of gas microbubble injection and narrow channel structure on cavitation damage in mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi

Materials Science Forum, 1024, p.111 - 120, 2021/03

The mercury target vessel for the at the J-PARC neutron source is severely damaged by the cavitation caused by proton beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. To mitigate the cavitation damage, we adopted a double-walled structure with a narrow channel for the mercury at the beam window of the vessel. In addition, gas microbubbles were injected into the mercury to suppress the pressure waves. The front end of the vessel was cut out to inspect the effect of the damage mitigation technologies on the interior surface. The results showed that the double-walled target facing the mercury with gas microbubbles operating at 1812 MWh for an average power of 434 kW had equivalent damage to the single-walled target without microbubbles operating 1048 MWh for average power of 181 kW. The erosion depth due to cavitation in the narrow channel was clearly smaller than it was on the wall facing the bubbling mercury

JAEA Reports

Measurement methods for the radioactive source distribution inside reactor buildings using a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Nagoya University*

JAEA-Review 2020-063, 44 Pages, 2021/01

JAEA-Review-2020-063.pdf:2.55MB

JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project in FY2019. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Measurement methods for the radioactive source distribution inside reactor buildings using a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor" conducted in FY2019.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of acoustic anisotropy of granite by surface wave measurements

Okano, Aoi*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.633 - 636, 2021/01

This study evaluates the acoustic anisotropy of granite using surface waves. It is well-known that granite shows acoustic anisotropy due to preferentially oriented microcracks. Therefore it may be possible to gain information on the microcracks from the measurement of the acoustic anisotropy. In the conventional rock core elastic wave test, acoustic anisotropy has been evaluated by the ultrasonic transmission test. However, it is difficult to apply this method to field measurement and irregularly-shaped specimens. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to evaluate the acoustic anisotropy of granite using surface waves. By this method, the acoustic anisotropy was evaluated based on the changes in the surface wave amplitude, velocity, and frequency when the transmission direction was varied stepwise at a constant angle. As a result, the proposed surface wave technique evaluated acoustic anisotropy successfully. Furthermore, it was found that the acoustic anisotropy emerges because the microcracks change the apparent rigidity of the granite specimen.

Journal Articles

Development of microwave-assisted, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy without a microwave cavity or waveguide

Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Wakaida, Ikuo

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 59(6), p.062001_1 - 062001_6, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:12.34(Physics, Applied)

Using a semiconductor microwave source and a coaxial cable for microwave transmission, a compact microwave-assisted, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system without a microwave cavity or waveguide was developed. Several types of electrode heads were tested, so that the emission intensity was 50 times larger than without microwave. The limit of the enhancement effect was also found.

Journal Articles

Mitigation of cavitation damage in J-PARC mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081004_1 - 081004_6, 2020/02

The beam window of the mercury target vessel in J-PARC is severely damaged by the cavitation. The cavitation damage is a crucial factor to limit lifetime of the target because it increases with the beam power. Therefore, mitigating cavitation damage is an important issue to operate the target stably for long time at 1 MW. At J-PARC, to mitigate the cavitation damage: gas microbubbles are injected into mercury for suppressing pressure waves, and double-walled structure with a narrow channel of 2 mm in width to form high-speed mercury flow ($$sim$$4m/s) has been adopted. After operation, the beam window was cut to inspect the effect of the cavitation damage mitigation on inner wall. We optimized cutting conditions through the cold cutting tests, succeeding in cutting the target No.2 (without damage mitigation technologies) smoothly in 2017, and target No.8 with damage mitigation technologies. In the workshop, progress of cavitation damage observation for the target vessel will be presented.

Journal Articles

A Study on the propagation characteristics of surface waves in granite based on ultrasonic measurements

Kimoto, Kazushi*; Okano, Aoi*; Saito, Takayasu*; Sato, Tadanobu*; Matsui, Hiroya

Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, A2 (Oyo Rikigaku) (Internet), 76(2), p.I_97 - I_108, 2020/00

AA2020-0209.pdf:2.72MB

This study investigates the propagation characteristics of surface wave traveling in a random heterogeneous medium. For this purpose, ultrasonic measurements are performed on a granite block as a typical randomly heterogeneous medium. In this measurement, a line-focus transducer is used to excite ultrasonic waves, whereas a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to pickup the ultrasonic motion on the surface of the granite block. The measured waveforms are analysed in the frequency domain to evaluate the travel-time for each measurement point based on the Fermat's principle. From the ensemble of travel-times, the probability distribution is established as a function of travel-distance. The uncertainty of the travel-time and its spatial evolution are then investigated using the standard deviation of the travel-time as a measure of the uncertainty. As a result, it was found that the uncertainty is approximately proportional to the mean travel-time divided by the square root travel-distance.

Journal Articles

Improving fatigue performance of laser-welded 2024-T3 aluminum alloy using dry laser peening

Sano, Tomokazu*; Eimura, Takayuki*; Hirose, Akio*; Kawahito, Yosuke*; Katayama, Seiji*; Arakawa, Kazuto*; Masaki, Kiyotaka*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Shobu, Takahisa; Sano, Yuji*

Metals, 9(11), p.1192_1 - 1192_13, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:63.26(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The purpose of the present study was to verify the effectiveness of dry laser peening (DryLP), which is the peening technique without a sacrificial overlay under atmospheric conditions using femtosecond laser pulses on the mechanical properties such as hardness, residual stress, and fatigue performance. After DryLP treatment of the laser-welded 2024 aluminum alloy, the softened weld metal recovered to the original hardness of base metal, while residual tensile stress in the weld metal and heat-affected zone changed to compressive stresses. The fatigue life almost doubled at a stress amplitude of 180 MPa and increased by a factor of more than 50 at 120 MPa. As a result, DryLP was found to be more effective for improving the fatigue performance of laser-welded aluminum specimens with welding defects at lower stress amplitudes.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock in fiscal year 2017 and 2018 (Joint research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya

JAEA-Research 2019-005, 32 Pages, 2019/10

JAEA-Research-2019-005.pdf:6.13MB

It is important to evaluate the mechanical stability around the geological repository for high-level radioactive waste, during not only the design, construction and operation phases, but also the post-closure period over several millennia. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed in response to time dependent behaviors such as creep and stress relaxation. Therefore, this study has started as a joint research with Okayama University from 2016. This report summarize the results of the joint research performed in fiscal year 2017 and 2018. Based on the research results obtained in fiscal year 2016, automatic measurement system was developed, which can collect very large data on surface elastic wave propagation in a short time, also the applicability of various kinds of parameters derived from measured elastic wave data was examined.

Journal Articles

Proposal of laser-induced ultrasonic guided wave for corrosion detection of reinforced concrete structures in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning site

Furusawa, Akinori; Takenaka, Yusuke; Nishimura, Akihiko

Applied Sciences (Internet), 9(17), p.3544_1 - 3544_12, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:67.14(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Remote-controlled, non-destructive testing is necessary to detect corrosion of the reinforced concrete structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) de-commissioning site. This work aims to demonstrate that laser-induced ultrasonic guided wave technology can be applied to achieve this task. Hence, accelerated electrolytic corrosion is performed on a reinforced concrete specimen fabricated by embedding a steel rod into mortar. Waveforms of the laser-induced ultrasonic guided wave on the rod are measured with a previously employed piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe, for each fixed corrosion time. Based on the results of Fourier and wavelet transforms of the waveforms, issues concerning the detection and extent of rebar corrosion are discussed. It is exhibited that the changes in bonding strength due to corrosion are distinguishable in the frequency domain of the ultrasonic signal.

Journal Articles

Potential for remote controllable systematization of the method of testing reinforced concrete using guided-wave on rebar

Furusawa, Akinori; Nishimura, Akihiko; Takenaka, Yusuke; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05

The aim of this work presented here is to demonstrate the potential of our method for remote controllable systematization, of testing reinforced concrete based on ultrasonic guided-wave on rebar. In order to investigate how the deteriorated phenomena has the effects on the ultrasonic guided-wave propagating on the rebar, following experiments are conducted. Test pieces used for the experiments are made of bare steel rod and cylindrically pored mortar to be representing the actual reinforced concrete. Irradiating the end face of the rod with nanosecond pulsed laser makes the ultrasonic guided-wave induced, at the other end face, the guided wave signal is measured with ultrasonic receiver. One test piece is with no damage and the other is deteriorated test piece. The deterioration is made by electrolytic corroded method. The guided-wave signal from the deteriorated test piece is measured with respect to each energization time, the change in the waveform is investigated. Analyzing the results from the experiments above, it is found that the deterioration of rebar has remarkable effects on the guided-wave signal. The signal from test piece with no damage has strong peak at both specific frequency and lower region, on the other hand, signals from deteriorated test piece has only at the specific frequency depending on the diameter of the steel rod. Finally, discussion concerning with the experimental results and future perspective for remote controllable systematization of our method is carried out.

Journal Articles

Effect of a raw material powder on sintered CeO$$_{2}$$ pellets by 28 GHz microwave irradiation

Akashi, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Taku; Kato, Masato

Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 118, p.1391 - 1394, 2018/06

In this study, CeO$$_{2}$$ pellet sintering by irradiating microwave at a frequency of 28 GHz was carried out to investigate the effect of particle diameter of raw powder on the density of sintered pellet. The highest bulk density is 94.2 %T.D. under the condition of 30 min holding at 1473 K. The bulk density decreases with increasing the particle diameter of used raw powder. On the other hand, all of the apparent density of sintered pellet is more than 93.5 %T.D.. The difference between the bulk density and the apparent density is caused by the difference of open porosity for each sample pellet. It seems that the high density sintered pellets with porous structure are obtained because sample pellet is heated internally and uniformly in microwave sintering.

Journal Articles

Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 1; Pulsed spallation neutron source

Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aso, Tomokazu; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Oi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; et al.

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.8_1 - 8_26, 2017/09

At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high intensity and narrow pulse width to promote researches on a variety of science in the Materials and life science experimental facility. It was designed to be driven by the proton beam with an energy of 3 GeV, a power of 1 MW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is world's highest power level. A mercury target and three types of liquid para-hydrogen moderators are core components of the spallation neutron source. It is still on the way towards the goal to accomplish the operation with a 1 MW proton beam. In this paper, distinctive features of the target-moderator-reflector system of the pulsed spallation neutron source are reviewed.

Journal Articles

Multiple-wavelength neutron holography with pulsed neutrons

Hayashi, Koichi*; Oyama, Kenji*; Happo, Naohisa*; Matsushita, Tomohiro*; Hosokawa, Shinya*; Harada, Masahide; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Nitani, Hiroaki*; Shishido, Toetsu*; Yubuta, Kunio*

Science Advances (Internet), 3(8), p.e1700294_1 - e1700294_7, 2017/08

225 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)