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BWR lower head penetration failure test focusing on eutectic melting

山下 拓哉; 佐藤 拓未; 間所 寛; 永江 勇二

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 173, p.109129_1 - 109129_15, 2022/08

Decommissioning work occasioned by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) accident of March 2011 is in progress. Severe accident (SA) analysis, testing, and internal investigation are being used to grasp the 1F internal state. A PWR system that refers to the TMI-2 accident is typical for SA codes and testing, on the other hand, a BWR system like 1F is uncommon, understanding the 1F internal state is challenging. The present study conducted the ELSA-1 test, a test that focused on damage from eutectic melting of the liquid metal pool and control rod drive (CRD), to elucidate the lower head (LH) failure mechanism in the 1F accident. The results demonstrated that depending on the condition of the melt pool formed in the lower plenum, a factor of LH boundary failure was due to eutectic melting. In addition, the state related to the CRD structure of 1F unit 2 were estimated.


First demonstration of a novel single-end readout type position-sensitive optical fiber radiation sensor based on wavelength-resolved photon counting

寺阪 祐太; 渡辺 賢一*; 瓜谷 章*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1034, p.166793_1 - 166793_6, 2022/07

In this study, a single-end readout type position-sensitive optical fiber radiation sensor was developed. Using the wavelength dependency of light attenuation inside the optical fiber, the incident position of radiation at the fiber can be estimated reversely. Instead of a spectrometer, we employed bandpass filters and photon-counting head as a photodetector to improve detection efficiency. The detection efficiency of a 10 m long plastic scintillation fiber at the 5 m position from the readout end was evaluated to be in the range of 0.08-0.12 % for 662 keV gamma-rays from $$^{137}$$Cs and 2.6-3.9 % for beta-rays from $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y when a bandpass filter transmitting photons with a wavelength of 500 nm was used. A basic measurement test of radiation intensity distribution was conducted using a $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y radioactive point source. A field test was also performed at the difficult-to-return zone in Fukushima Prefecture, and the estimated dose rate distribution roughly agreed with the survey meter measurement.


Temporal variability of $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in coastal sediments off Fukushima

鈴木 翔太郎*; 天野 洋典*; 榎本 昌宏*; 松本 陽*; 守岡 良晃*; 佐久間 一幸; 鶴田 忠彦; 帰山 秀樹*; 三浦 輝*; 津旨 大輔*; et al.

Science of the Total Environment, 831, p.154670_1 - 154670_15, 2022/07

The monthly monitoring data (total 3647 samples) between May. 2011 and Mar. 2020 were analyzed to describe temporal variability of $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in coastal sediments off Fukushima. $$^{137}$$Cs concentration of sediment had decreasing trend, but non-linear model fitting suggested that this decreasing trend showed slower. Additionally, $$^{137}$$Cs concentration were up to 4.08 times greater in shallow sampling sites (7, 10, 20 m depth) following heavy rainfall events (before five months vs. after five months), such as typhoons. These were consistent with increasing particulate $$^{137}$$Cs (P-$$^{137}$$Cs) fluxes from river and increasing dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs (D-$$^{137}$$Cs) concentration in seawater. Finally, the numerical experiment was conducted and revealed that riverine $$^{137}$$Cs input could preserve $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in coastal sediment. These results indicate that riverine $$^{137}$$Cs input via heavy rainfall events is one of the main factors for preserving $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in coastal sediment off Fukushima.


Online solid-phase extraction-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometric quantification of $$^{90}$$Sr using $$^{88}$$Sr/$$^{86}$$Sr isotope dilution method

柳澤 華代*; 小田島 瑞樹*; 松枝 誠; 古川 真*; 高貝 慶隆*

Talanta, 244, p.123442_1 - 123442_7, 2022/07



Leaching behavior of multiphase solidified melt prepared from stainless steel and Zircaloy

池内 宏知

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(6), p.768 - 780, 2022/06

Formation of metallic fuel debris is highly probable in the damaged core of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Estimating the number of radionuclides released from the fuel debris to an aqueous solution is indispensable for proper handling of fuel debris and waste management. In the present study, a simple approach is introduced to roughly evaluate the mass of elements leached from complex multiphase surfaces considering the surface-area-weighted-average of the contributions of individual phases. Static leaching tests were performed under the acidic and the alkaline conditions to investigate the gap between the simplified assumption and the actual dissolution behavior. Alloy samples of a stainless steel-Zircaloy (SUS-Zry) solidified melt and two single-phase samples (Fe,Cr)$$_{2}$$Zr- and Zr$$_{2}$$(Fe,Ni)-type phases, which comprised the surface of the SUS-Zry alloy) were used in the static leaching tests. The masses of the Fe, Cr, Ni, and Zr leached from the SUS-Zry alloy fitted with those evaluated by the surface-area-weighted approach by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude of precision.


Radiation imaging using an integrated radiation imaging system based on a compact Compton camera under Unit 1/2 exhaust stack of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

佐藤 優樹; 寺阪 祐太

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(6), p.677 - 687, 2022/06

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) went into meltdown after being hit by a large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Measuring and understanding the distribution of radioactive contamination inside the FDNPS is essential for decommissioning work, reducing exposure to workers, and ensuring decontamination. This paper reports the visualization tests of radioactive contamination in the Unit 1/2 exhaust stack of the FDNPS using a compact Compton camera. Fixed-point measurements were conducted using only a Compton camera and moving measurements using an integrated radiation imaging system (iRIS) that combines a Compton camera with a simultaneous localization and mapping device. For the moving measurements, an operator carrying the iRIS acquires data continuously while walking in a passage near the stack. With both types of measurements, high-intensity contamination was detected at the base of the stack, and detailed three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the contamination was obtained from the moving measurement. The fixed-point measurements estimated the source intensity of the contamination from the reconstructed contamination image acquired by the Compton camera. Furthermore, workers can experience the work environment before actual work by importing a 3D structure model into a virtual reality system displaying the contamination image.



福島研究開発部門 福島研究開発拠点 楢葉遠隔技術開発センター

JAEA-Review 2021-069, 40 Pages, 2022/05




Chemical species of iodine during sorption by activated carbon; Effects of original chemical species and fulvic acids

加藤 友彰; 香西 直文; 田中 万也; Kaplan, D. I.*; 宇都宮 聡*; 大貫 敏彦

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(5), p.580 - 589, 2022/05



Development of a laser-driven ultrasonic technology for characterizations of heated and aged concrete samples

山田 知典; 大道 博行*; 柴田 卓弥

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(5), p.614 - 628, 2022/05

We have demonstrated a full noncontact laser technology to measure the velocity of ultrasonic waves and their spectra propagated through concrete samples exposed to specified high-temperature conditions with specified durations as models of concrete structures in a severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The velocities and spectra of the ultrasonic waves were strongly dependent on the exposed temperature, i.e., at a high-temperature condition of 400$$^{circ}$$C, the velocity was 3700 m/s, and at room temperature, the velocity was 5000 m/s. Experimental results are almost comparable to those obtained by the contact ultrasonic technique.


Simulation of the self-propagating hydrogen-air premixed flame in a closed-vessel by an open-source CFD code

Thwe, T. A.; 寺田 敦彦; 日野 竜太郎; 永石 隆二; 門脇 敏

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(5), p.573 - 579, 2022/05



Migration processes of radioactive cesium in the Fukushima nearshore area; Impacts of riverine input and resuspension

御園生 敏治; 中西 貴宏; 鶴田 忠彦; 尻引 武彦; 眞田 幸尚

Marine Pollution Bulletin, 178, p.113597_1 - 113597_9, 2022/05



Radiocesium-bearing microparticles cause a large variation in $$^{137}$$Cs activity concentration in the aquatic insect ${it Stenopsyche marmorata}$ (Tricoptera: Stenopsychidae) in the Ota River, Fukushima, Japan

石井 弓美子*; 三浦 輝*; Jo, J.*; 辻 英樹*; 斎藤 梨絵; 小荒井 一真; 萩原 大樹; 漆館 理之*; 錦織 達啓*; 和田 敏裕*; et al.

PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(5), p.e0268629_1 - e0268629_17, 2022/05

本研究では、福島県太田川で採集した解虫性トビケラ(Stenopsyche marmorata)および肉食性ヘビトンボ(Protohermes grandis)幼虫の水生昆虫個体における$$^{137}$$Cs放射能濃度のばらつきを調査した。トビケラ幼虫は散発的に高い放射能を示したが、ヘビトンボ幼虫ではばらつきは見られなかった。オートラジオグラフィーと走査型電子顕微鏡による分析から、これらのトビケラ幼虫試料には、不溶性のCs含有ケイ酸塩ガラス粒子である放射性Cs含有微粒子(CsMPs)が含まれていることが確認された。また、CsMPsはトビケラ幼虫の餌となりうるペリフィトンや漂流粒子状有機物にも含まれており、幼虫はCsMPsを同サイズの餌粒子とともに摂取している可能性が示唆された。淡水生態系におけるCsMPsの分布や生物による取り込みは比較的知られていないが、本研究はCsMPsが水生昆虫に取り込まれることを実証している。



熊谷 友多; 日下 良二; 中田 正美; 渡邉 雅之; 秋山 大輔*; 桐島 陽*; 佐藤 修彰*; 佐々木 隆之*

放射線化学(インターネット), (113), p.61 - 64, 2022/04



Volatilization of B$$_{4}$$C control rods in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors during meltdown; B-Li isotopic signatures in cesium-rich microparticles

笛田 和希*; 高見 龍*; 蓑毛 健太*; 諸岡 和也*; 堀江 憲路*; 竹原 真美*; 山崎 信哉*; 斉藤 拓巳*; 塩津 弘之; 大貫 敏彦*; et al.

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 428, p.128214_1 - 128214_10, 2022/04

Boron carbide control rods remain in the fuel debris of the damaged reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, potentially preventing re-criticality; however, the state and stability of the control rods remain unknown. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe analyses have revealed B-Li isotopic signatures in radioactive Cs-rich microparticles (CsMPs) that formed by volatilization and condensation of Si-oxides during the meltdowns. The CsMPs contain 1518-6733 mg kg$$^{-1}$$ of $$^{10+11}$$B and 11.99-1213 mg kg$$^{-1}$$ of Li. The $$^{11}$$B/$$^{10}$$B (4.15-4.21) and $$^{7}$$Li/$$^{6}$$Li (213-406) isotopic ratios are greater than natural abundances ($$sim$$4.05 and $$sim$$12.5, respectively), indicating that $$^{10}$$B(n,$$alpha$$)$$^{7}$$Li reactions occurred in B$$_{4}$$C prior to the meltdowns. The total amount of B released with CsMPs was estimated to be 0.024-62 g, suggesting that essentially all B remains in reactor Units 2 and/or 3 and is enough to prevent re-criticality; however, the heterogeneous distribution of B needs to be considered during decommissioning.


Post-test analyses of the CMMR-4 test

山下 拓哉; 間所 寛; 佐藤 一憲

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 8(2), p.021701_1 - 021701_13, 2022/04

Understanding the final distribution of core materials and their characteristics is important for decommissioning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). Such characteristics depend on the accident progression in each unit. However, boiling water reactor accident progression involves great uncertainty. This uncertainty, which was clarified by MAAP-MELCOR Crosswalk, cannot be resolved with existing knowledge and was thus addressed in this work through core material melting and relocation (CMMR) tests. For the test bundle, ZrO$$_{2}$$ pellets were installed instead of UO$$_{2}$$ pellets. A plasma heating system was used for the tests. In the CMMR-4 test, useful information was obtained on the core state just before slumping. The presence of macroscopic gas permeability of the core approaching ceramic fuel melting was confirmed, and the fuel columns remained standing, suggesting that the collapse of fuel columns, which is likely in the reactor condition, would not allow effective relocation of the hottest fuel away from the bottom of the core. This information will help us comprehend core degradation in boiling water reactors, similar to those in 1F. In addition, useful information on abrasive water suspension jet (AWSJ) cutting for debris-containing boride was obtained in the process of dismantling the test bundle. When the mixing debris that contains oxide, metal, and boride material is cut, AWSJ may be repelled by the boride in the debris, which may cut unexpected parts, thus generating a large amount of waste in cutting the boride part in the targeted debris. This information will help the decommissioning of 1F.


Depletion calculation of subcritical system with consideration of spontaneous fission reaction

Riyana, E. S.; 奥村 啓介; 坂本 雅洋; 松村 太伊知; 寺島 顕一

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(4), p.424 - 430, 2022/04

Modification of the Monte Carlo depletion calculation code OpenMC was performed to enable the depletion calculation of the subcritical neutron multiplying system. With the modified code, it became possible to evaluate the quantity of short half-life fission products from spontaneous and induced fissions in the subcritical system. As a preliminary study, it was applied to the fuel debris storage canister filled with nuclear materials and spontaneous fission nuclides. It was confirmed that the code could successfully provide a quantity of short half-life FPs over time and provide the relationship between the activity ratio of Kr-88 to Xe-135 and effective neutron multiplication factor of the canister.


Distribution, dynamics, and fate of radiocesium derived from FDNPP accident in the ocean

乙坂 重嘉*; 上平 雄基; 池之上 翼; 川村 英之

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(4), p.409 - 423, 2022/04



Estimation of long-term ex-vessel debris cooling behavior in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant unit 3

佐藤 一憲; 山路 哲史*; Li, X.*; 間所 寛

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 9(2), p.21-00436_1 - 21-00436_17, 2022/04

Interpretation for the two-week long Unit 3 ex-vessel debris cooling behavior was conducted based on the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) data and the site data such as pressure, temperature, gamma ray level and live camera pictures. It was estimated that the debris relocated to the pedestal was in partial contact with liquid water for about initial two days. With the reduction of the sea water injection flowrate, the debris, existed mainly in the pedestal region, became "dry", in which the debris was only weakly cooled by vapor and this condition lasted for about four days until the increase of the sea water injection. During this dry period, the pedestal debris was heated up and it took further days to re-flood the heated up debris.


Time-resolved 3D visualization of liquid jet breakup and impingement behavior in a shallow liquid pool

木村 郁仁*; 山村 聡太*; 藤原 広太*; 吉田 啓之; 齋藤 慎平*; 金子 暁子*; 阿部 豊*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 389, p.111660_1 - 111660_11, 2022/04

A new three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescent (3D-LIF) technology to obtain the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid jets in a shallow pool were developed. In this technology, firstly, a refractive index matching was applied to acquire a clear cross-sectional image. Secondly, a series of cross-sectional images was obtained by using a high-speed galvanometer scanner. Finally, to evaluate the unsteady 3D interface shape of liquid jet, a method was developed to reconstruct 3D shapes from the series of cross-sectional images obtained using the 3D-LIF method. The spatial and temporal resolutions of measurement were 4.7 $$times$$ 4.7 $$times$$ 1.0 lines/mm and 25 $$mu$$s, respectively. The shape of a 3D liquid jet in a liquid pool and its impingement, spreading and atomization behavior were reconstructed using the proposed method, successfully. The behaviors of atomized particles detached from the jet were obtained by applying data processing techniques. Diameters distribution and position of atomized droplets after detachment were estimated from the results.


French-Japanese experimental collaboration on fuel-coolant interactions in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Johnson, M.*; Delacriox, J.*; Journeau, C.*; Brayer, C.*; Clavier, R.*; Montazel, A.*; Pluyette, E.*; 松場 賢一; 江村 優軌; 神山 健司

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04


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