Kaburagi, Masaaki; Torii, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Toru
JAEA-Review 2019-031, 251 Pages, 2020/01
There is high expectation for advanced remote technology and robotics to reduce the radiation exposure for workers in harsh nuclear environments such as the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). However, the radiation tolerance of state-of-the-art key components, sensors and electronic devices, for remote operation is still limited. In order to extend the application of robotics in nuclear energy, it is pertinent to develop "Radiation hardness" of components and "Radiation smartness" in operation procedures. Furthermore, developments of "Radiation measurement" and "Technology to recognize the location and to grasp the surrounding environment", including the radiation imaging of the high dose-rate fields inside the FDNPS and the detection of nuclear fuel debris, are necessary for the future nuclear fuel debris retrieval. This Fukushima Research Conference aims to share the future vision for advancing the remote technology among experts from diverse fields.
Hegeds, M.*; Shiroma, Yoshitaka*; Iwaoka, Kazuki*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Suzuki, Takahito*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Yamada, Ryohei; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo*; Yamaguchi, Masaru*; Ogura, Koya*; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 323(1), p.197 - 204, 2020/01
The radioactivity of cesium in the water and sediments of two major rivers was measured along with airborne radioactivity in Namie Town, after the recent partial lift on the evacuation order in 2017. The observed concentrations were up to 384 11 mBq/L for Cs in unfiltered water and 1.28 0.09 mBq/m for Cs in air, while the sediment had a maximum of 44900 23.4 Bq/kg for Cs. The Cs/Cs ratios indicate the main origin of the cesium in the sediment to be Unit 1 in good agreement with previous reports on the accident.
Sector of Fukushima Research and Development
JAEA-Evaluation 2019-009, 182 Pages, 2019/12
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as "JAEA") consulted an assessment committee, "Evaluation Committee of Research and Development Activities for Fukushima Decommissioning" (hereinafter referred to as "Committee") for interim assessment of "Research and Development of the Technologies for Decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station" in accordance with "General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R&D) Activities" by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, "Guideline for Evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology" and "Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R&D Activities" by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the R&D activities for the period of four years from April 2015. The Committee evaluated the R&D program based on the explanatory documents prepared by JAEA and its oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director General and the research division heads. This report summarizes the results of the assessment by the Committee.
Planning and Co-ordination Office, Sector of Fukushima Research and Development
JAEA-Evaluation 2019-008, 129 Pages, 2019/12
The Committee evaluated the research and development programs and activities of during the period of about three years from April 2015. The Committee evaluated the research and development activities and programs based on the explanatory materials prepared by JAEA and its oral presentations with questions-and-answers sessions. This report summaries the results of the evaluation by the Committee with the Committee report.
Mori, Airi; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshida, Hiroko*; Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro
Health Physics, 117(6), p.606 - 617, 2019/12
Kim, M.; Malins, A.; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*; Yanagi, Hideaki*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105803_1 - 105803_10, 2019/12
To improve the accuracy of simulations for air dose rates over fallout contaminated areas, the distribution of the radionuclides within the environment should be modelled realistically, e.g. considering differences in radioactivity levels between agricultural land, urban surfaces, and forest compartments. Moreover simulations should model the shielding of rays by buildings, trees and land topography. Here we outline a system for generating three dimensional models of urban and rural areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The Cs and Cs radioactivity distribution can be set flexibly across the different components of the model. The models incorporate realistic representations of local buildings, based on nine common Japanese designs, individual conifer and broadleaf trees, and the topography of the land surface. Models are generated from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM) datasets, and refined by users assisted with ortho-photographs of target sites. Completed models are exported from the system in a format suitable for the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) for the calculation of air dose rates and other radiological quantities. The system is demonstrated by modelling a suburban area 4 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant that has yet to be decontaminated. Air dose rates calculated in PHITS were correlated with measurements taken across the site in a car-borne survey.
Wakiyama, Yoshifumi*; Onda, Yuichi*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Igarashi, Yasunori*; Kato, Hiroaki*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105990_1 - 105990_12, 2019/12
Cantarel, V.; Arisaka, Makoto; Yamagishi, Isao
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 102(12), p.7553 - 7563, 2019/12
The hydrogen gas (H) production of wasteforms is a major safety concern for encapsulating nuclear wastes. For geopolymers, the H produced by radiolytic processes is a key factor because of the large amount of water present in their porous structure. Herein, the hydrogen production was measured under Co gamma irradiation. The effect of water saturation and sample size were studied for pure geopolymers, or using zeolites as an example waste. When geopolymer monolithic samples were large and saturated by water, the hydrogen released was measured up to two orders of magnitude lower with a 40 cm long cylinder samples (1.910 mol/J) than a sample in powder form (2.210 mol/J). To interpret results, a simple model was used, considering only hydrogen production, a potential recombination and its diffusion in the geopolymer matrix. Knowing the diffusion constant of the matrix, the model was able to reproduce the evolution of the hydrogen release as a function of the water saturation level and predict the evolution when sample size is increased up to 40 cm.
Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Iwata, Ayako; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Watanabe, Masahisa; Funasaka, Hideyuki; Morita, Takami*
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 18(4), p.226 - 236, 2019/12
After direct discharges of highly-contaminated water from Unit 2 and 3 in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) in April to May 2011, Kanda suggested that relatively small run-off of radionuclides from 1F port into Fukushima coastal region has subsequently continued by using his estimation scheme. However, the estimation period was limited until September 2012, and there has been no report on the issue since the work. Therefore, this paper focuses on discharge inventory from 1F port until June 2018. In the missing period, the central government and Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings have done continuous efforts to stop the discharge, and consequently sea water concentration inside 1F port has diminished gradually. We show monthly discharge inventory of Cs-137 until June 2018 by two schemes, i.e., Kanda's scheme partially improved by authors and more sophisticated one using Voronoi tessellation reflecting the increment of the number of monitoring points inside 1F port. The results show that the former always presents overestimated results compared to the latter but the ratio of former to latter is less than one order. Based on these results, we evaluate impact of discharge inventory from 1F port into the coastal area and radiation does via fish digestion.
Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Komiya, Tomokazu; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Hiraga, Shogo*; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2019-016, 116 Pages, 2019/11
By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the FDNPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter has been conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2018 were summarized in this report. Discrimination method of gamma rays from Rn-progenies was also utilized to evaluate their effect on aerial radiation monitoring. In addition, analysis taken topographical effects into consideration was applied to previous results of airborne monitoring to improve the precision of conventional method.
Taniguchi, Keisuke*; Onda, Yuichi*; Smith, H. G.*; Blake, W.*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Yamashiki, Yosuke*; Kuramoto, Takayuki*; Saito, Kimiaki
Environmental Science & Technology, 53(21), p.12339 - 12347, 2019/11
Kurikami, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Malins, A.; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106005_1 - 106005_11, 2019/11
To assess the uptake of Cs-137 (Cs) by freshwater fish, we developed a compartment model for the migration of Cs on the catchment scale from forests to river water. We modelled a generic forest catchment with Fukushima-like parameters to ascertain the importance of export pathways of Cs from forests to river water for the uptake of Cs by freshwater fish. The results suggest that the decreasing trend of Cs in river water and freshwater fish was due to combination of the decreasing trend in the forest leaves/needles and litter compartments, and the increasing trend in soil. The Cs concentrations within these forest compartments plateau at around ten years after the fallout due to Cs circulation in forests reaching an equilibrium state.
Muto, Kotomi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi*; Koarashi, Jun
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106040_1 - 106040_10, 2019/11
Vertical distributions of Cs in the soil profile were observed at five forest sites with different vegetation types for 4.4 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and Cs migration in the organic layer and mineral soil was analyzed based on a comparison of models and observations. Cesium-137 migration from the organic layer was faster than that observed in European forests, suggesting that the mobility and bioavailability of Cs could be suppressed rapidly in Japanese forests. The diffusion coefficients of Cs in the mineral soil were estimated to be 0.042-0.55 cmy, which were roughly comparable with those of European forest soils affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Model predictions indicated Cs mainly distributed in the surface mineral soil at 10 years after the accident. It suggest that the Cs deposited onto Japanese forest ecosystems will be retained in the surface layers of mineral soil for a long time.
Nakama, Shigeo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Kenso; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Iijima, Kazuki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106013_1 - 106013_8, 2019/11
Trends of air dose rate decrease after decontamination works and factors which affect them constitute essential information for radiation protection, such as prediction of external exposure to the public and implementation of measures to reduce such exposure. This study investigated the decrease of air dose rate (ambient dose rate at 1 m above the ground) at 163 points across sub-urban areas in the evacuation zone around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the period of four years following the decontamination works carried out in November 2012. The air dose rate on the asphalt pavement decreased faster than on soil surfaces. In addition, air dose rates near the forest decreased at a slower pace than in open fields. These results suggest that the air dose rate in urbanized areas can decrease faster than in other types of land, even after decontamination. Based on comparisons with decrease rates obtained in other studies, the air dose rate tends to decrease faster outside the evacuation zone than inside it. The decrease in air dose rate after decontamination was slower than before decontamination. The contribution of the weathering effect and human activity was estimated to be about 80% and 20% of the ecological decrease rate, respectively.
Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Namba, Kenji*; Zheleznyak, M.*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106041_1 - 106041_12, 2019/11
We developed a simple model to evaluate and predict Cs discharge from catchment using tank model and L-Q equation. Using this model, Cs discharge and discharge ratio from Abukuma River and 13 other rivers in Fukushima coastal region were estimated from immediately after Fukushima accident to 2017. Cesium-137 discharge ratio to the deposition amount in catchment through Abukuma River and 13 other rivers in Fukushima coastal region during about initial six months were estimated to be 18 TBq (3.1%) and 11 TBq (0.8%), respectively. These values were 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the previous study observed after June 2011, indicating that initial Cs discharge from catchment through rivers was a significant. However it was founded that an impact on the ocean derived from initial Cs discharge through river can be limited because Cs discharge from Abukuma River and 13 other rivers in Fukushima coastal region (29 TBq) was two orders of magnitude smaller than the direct release from FDNPP into the ocean (3.5 PBq) and from atmospheric deposition into the ocean (7.6 PBq).
Nishioka, Shunichiro; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Suzuki, Eriko; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(11), p.988 - 995, 2019/11
In order to contribute to improvement of Cs chemisorption model used in severe accident analysis codes, the influence of chemical factors (temperature, atmosphere, concentration of affecting chemical elements etc.) on the Cs chemisorption behaviour onto stainless steel was investigated experimentally. It was found that the surface reaction rate constant used in the current Cs-chemisorption model was influenced by not only temperature, as already known, but also atmosphere, cesium hydroxide (CsOH) concentration in the gas phase and silicon content in SS304. Such chemical factors should be considered for the construction of the improved Cs-chemisorption model. Another important finding is that the chemisorption behavior at lower temperatures, around 873 K, could differ from those above 1073 K. Namely, Cs-Fe-O compounds would form as the main Cs-chemisorbed compounds at 873 K while Cs-Si-Fe-O compounds at more than 1073 K.
Kurihara, Momo*; Yasutaka, Tetsuo*; Aono, Tatsuo*; Ashikawa, Nobuo*; Ebina, Hiroyuki*; Iijima, Takeshi*; Ishimaru, Kei*; Kanai, Ramon*; Karube, Jinichi*; Konnai, Yae*; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322(2), p.477 - 485, 2019/11
We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of methods for determining low dissolved radiocesium concentrations in freshwater in Fukushima. Twenty-one laboratories pre-concentrated three of 10 L samples by five different pre-concentration methods (prussian-blue-impregnated filter cartridges, coprecipitation with ammonium phosphomolybdate, evaporation, solid-phase extraction disks, and ion-exchange resin columns), and activity of radiocesium was measured. The z-scores for all of the Cs results were within 2, indicating that the methods were accurate. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) indicating the variability in the results from different laboratories were larger than the RSDs indicating the variability in the results from each separate laboratory.
Dohi, Terumi; Muto, Kotomi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kanaizuka, Seiichi*; Iijima, Kazuki
KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.14 - 19, 2019/11
In order to investigate the effect of topography, meteorological condition, etc., on the spatial distribution of air dose rate on the main plume path, we evaluated walking survey data of air dose rates on Mt. Koutaishi and Mt. Juman, directed in northwest of and approximately 33 km and 11 km from the FDNPP. Measurements were performed on two orbital routs with different constant altitudes and general mountain trails in each mountain. The measurement data were compared with airborne monitoring results to investigate the relation between the dose rate distribution and elevation and orientation. At Mt. Koutaishi, the air dose rate was particularly high on the east side of the mountain, and the significant dependence of direction on the dose rate distribution was observed. Furthermore, high dose rate near the mountain foot indicates possibility of large deposition of Cs due to the plume passage from the FDNPP. At Mt. Juman, uniformly distribution of air dose rate was observed, and effect of wet deposition was considered. These results suggest the possibility of different deposition mechanisms in mountain range unit.
Tanaka, Sota; Kakinuma, Hotaru*; Adachi, Taro*; Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Takahashi, Sentaro*
KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.179 - 182, 2019/11
The concentration of Cs in flying insects was investigated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The insects were collected at about 11 km north west of the FDNPP at two different sites in the forest and riverside. The median concentration of Cs in flying insects in the forest was significantly higher than riverside. However, high concentration of Cs in detritus fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was observed at both sites. The concentration of fly at the forest and riverside were 1610 Bq/kg fw and 1810 Bq/kg fw, respectively. The result shows that the concentration of radiocesium in detritus fly were still high 8 years after the accident. This suggests that detritus food chain is a dominant transfer pathway of radiocesium to higher trophic level species such as spiders.
Iwasaki, Toshiki*; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi*; Nakajima, Teruyuki*; Watanabe, Akira*; Suzuki, Yasushi*; Kondo, Hiroaki*; Morino, Yu*; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Takigawa, Masayuki*; et al.
Atmospheric Environment, 214, p.116830_1 - 116830_11, 2019/10
The utilization of numerical atmospheric dispersion prediction (NDP) models for accidental discharge of radioactive substances was recommended by a working group of the Meteorological Society of Japan. This paper is to validate the recommendation through NDP model intercomparison in the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Emission intensity is assumed to be constant during the whole forecast period for the worst-case scenario unless time sequence of emission is available. We expect to utilize forecasts of surface air contaminations for preventions of inhalations of radioactive substances, and column-integrated amounts for mitigation of radiation exposure associated with wet deposition. Although NDP forecasts have ensemble spread, they commonly figure out relative risk in space and time. They are of great benefit to disseminating effective warnings to public without failure. The multi-model ensemble technique may be effective to improve the reliability.