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核セキュリティ入門,3; 核セキュリティのための核物質検知技術

高橋 佳之*; 小泉 光生

日本原子力学会誌, 62(8), p.452 - 456, 2020/08

本稿は、日本原子力学会誌の連載口座「核セキュリティ入門」に「核セキュリティのための核検知技術」という題名で、不法な核物質移転を検知するための技術開発について解説した記事の1章として寄稿するものである。解説記事では、原子力機構が文部科学省「核セキュリティ強化等推進事業費補助金」の一環として進めている技術開発のうち、レーザー・コンプトン散乱ガンマ線をプローブとした原子核共鳴蛍光散乱(Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: NRF)による核検知・測定技術開発を紹介した。このNRF技術は、核種特有のガンマ線吸収・放出を用いるため、核種を選択的に測定することができる。また、高エネルギーのガンマ線を使用するので貫通力が高く、粒子放出の閾値以下のガンマ線エネルギーを使用するので、照射による放射化がほとんどないという点に特徴がある。この技術を用いた遮蔽物中に隠ぺいされている核物質を検知する技術を提案し、その実証実験を進めている。


Development of active non-destructive analysis technologies for nuclear nonproliferation and security of JAEA

小泉 光生

Proceedings of 41st ESARDA Annual Meeting (Internet), p.260 - 267, 2019/05

The Japan atomic energy agency (JAEA) is developing active non-destructive analysis (NDA) technologies for nuclear nonproliferation and security under the support of the subsidiary of for "promotion of strengthening nuclear security or the like" of the Japanese government MEXT. One of the programs is "development of active neutron NDA techniques", in which four techniques are developed: i.e., Differential Die Away Analysis (DDA), Delayed Gamma-ray Analysis (DGA), Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA), and Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (PGA). These techniques are used to complement each other. They would be useful for nuclear material accountancy, applicable to both low- and high-level radioactive nuclear materials (NMs), and for nuclear security purposes such as detection of NM and explosive materials. Another program is development of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) technique for detection of NM hidden in a shield. This technique utilizes quasi monochromatic gamma-rays produced by laser Compton scattering (LCS) to irradiate a suspicious sample and observe NRF gamma-rays from that. Demonstration experiment of this technique will be performed soon. In this paper, the development projects are overviewed.


Electronic structure in heavy fermion compound UPd$$_2$$Al$$_3$$ through directional Compton profile measurement

小泉 昭久*; 久保 康則*; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; 櫻井 吉晴*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 88(3), p.034714_1 - 034714_6, 2019/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Directional Compton profiles of a heavy fermion compound UPd$$_2$$Al$$_3$$ are measured in the basal plane of the hexagonal lattice. A remarkable change of the two-dimensional electron occupation number densities has been observed between 20 K and 100 K. Obtained results are attributed to the modification of the 5$$f$$ electronic states.


Crystal structure and magnetic properties of new ternary uranium compound U$$_3$$TiBi$$_9$$

本山 岳*; 芳賀 芳範; 山口 明*; 川崎 郁斗*; 住山 昭彦*; 山村 朝雄*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.157 - 160, 2018/11

The crystal structure of the newly discovered compound U$$_3$$TiBi$$_9$$ was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. This compound shows an antiferromagnetic ordering at 31.5 K. A clear anomaly was observed at the transition temperature on the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity.


Unusual pressure evolution of the Meissner and Josephson effects in the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt$$_3$$

郷地 順*; 住山 昭彦*; 山口 明*; 本山 岳*; 木村 憲彰*; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; 大貫 惇睦

Physical Review B, 93(17), p.174514_1 - 174514_5, 2016/05

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:91.5(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The Josephson effect between a single crystal UPt$$_3$$ and a conventional superconductor Al has been investigated under pressure. A possible change of the superconducting order parameter has been detected at a critical $$P_c$$ where the symmetry-breaking antiferromagnetic order disappears. The conclusion is also supported by the different behaviors observed in Josephson current and penetration depth.


Josephson effect and point-contact spectroscopy studies of the anomaly observed in the superconducting state of the heavy-fermion compound UBe$$_{13}$$

郷地 順; 住山 昭彦*; 山口 明*; 本山 岳*; 芳賀 芳範; 大貫 惇睦

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 84(9), p.094714_1 - 094714_5, 2015/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:84.95(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A heavy Fermion compound UBe$$_{13}$$ shows superconductivity below 0.9 K. Earlier study detected an anomaly at 0.7 K deep within the superconducting phase, which was attributed to an additional magnetic phase transition. In this paper, Josephson effect and point-contact spectroscopy have been used to investigate the anomaly in detail. The increase of the Josephson critical current and a continuous drop of the zero-bias conductivity below 0.7 K strongly suggest an enhancement of superconducting order parameter rather than magnetic effects.


Proton order-disorder phenomena in a hydrogen-bonded rhodium-$$eta$$$$^{5}$$-semiquinone complex; A Possible dielectric response mechanism

満身 稔*; 江崎 一成*; 小松 裕貴*; 鳥海 幸四郎*; 宮東 達也*; 水野 元裕*; 東 信晃*; 宮崎 裕司*; 中野 元裕*; 北河 康隆*; et al.

Chemistry; A European Journal, 21(27), p.9682 - 9696, 2015/06

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:73.52(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

A newly synthesized one-dimensional (1D) hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) rhodium(II)-$$eta$$$$^{5}$$-semiquinone complex, [Cp$$^{*}$$Rh($$eta$$$$^{5}$$-$$p$$-HSQ-Me$$_{4}$$)]PF$$_{6}$$ exhibits a paraelectric-;antiferroelectric second-order phase transition at 237.1 K. Neutron and X-ray crystal structure analyses reveal that the H-bonded proton is disordered over two sites in the room-temperature (RT) phase. The phase transition would arise from this proton disorder together with rotation or libration of the Cp$$^{*}$$ ring and PF$$_{6}$$ ion. The relative permittivity $$varepsilon$$$$_{b}$$' along the H-bonded chains reaches relatively high values (ca., 130) in the RT phase.


Magnetic and electronic properties of URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ revealed by comparison with nonmagnetic references ThRu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ and LaRu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$

江見 直哉*; 濱端 良輔*; 中山 大将*; 三木 俊宙*; 小山 岳秀*; 上田 光一*; 水戸 毅*; 小堀 洋*; 松本 裕司*; 芳賀 芳範; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 84(6), p.063702_1 - 063702_4, 2015/06

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:31.88(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

NMR/NQR measurements have been carried out on ThRu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ and LaRu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ which are the nonmagnetic references of the heavy fermion URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$. Ru-NQR measurements suggest the relatively close electronic configuration between ThRu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ and URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ at high temperature. However, significant delocalization was observed in URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ at low temperatures. Si-NMR experiments on URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ revealed Ising-like spin fluctuations in the hidden-order state.


Irradiation effect of gamma rays on cyanate ester/epoxy resins, 3

出崎 亮; 上地 宏樹*; 羽倉 吉彦*; 岸 肇*

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 29, 2015/03

本研究では、J-PARCやITERに設置される超伝導磁石システム用電気絶縁材料として応用が期待されているシアネートエステル/エポキシ樹脂について、物理化学的特性変化の面から放射線照射効果を解明することを目的としている。これまでに、室温真空中において100MGyまでガンマ線を照射すると、水素, 一酸化炭素, 二酸化炭素が発生すること、樹脂のガラス転移温度が初期値の80%である180$$^{circ}$$Cまで低下することを明らかにしているが、本報では、放射線照射によって分解する化学構造の解明を核磁気共鳴法による分子構造解析により行なった。その結果、シアネートエステルとエポキシの間の架橋構造を構成するシアヌレート, イソシアヌレート, オキサゾリジノン骨格に結合するエーテル鎖が切断されていることが分かった。以上のことから、シアネートエステル/エポキシ樹脂に放射線を照射すると、シアネートエステルとエポキシの間で形成される架橋構造におけるエーテル鎖が切断され、ガス発生やガラス転移温度の低下が起こることが明らかになった。


Josephson effect between UPt$$_3$$ and conventional superconductors under pressure

郷地 順*; 住山 昭彦*; 山口 明*; 本山 岳*; 木村 憲彰*; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; 大貫 惇睦

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 3, p.011067_1 - 011067_6, 2014/06

The Josephson critical current $$I_{rm c}$$ between a single crystal UPt$$_3$$ and conventional superconductors has been measured under pressure. The observation of $$I_{rm c}$$ well above the critical pressure 0.25 GPa, together with a Fraunhofer-like pattern in the magnetic field modulation of $$I_{rm c}$$ indicates that the Josephson effect is allowed in the superconducting state of UPt$$_3$$.


Effects of $$gamma$$-ray irradiation on a cyanate ester/epoxy resin

出崎 亮; 上地 宏樹*; 羽倉 吉彦*; 岸 肇*

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 98, p.1 - 6, 2014/05

 被引用回数:14 パーセンタイル:16.04(Chemistry, Physical)




鈴木 道隆*; 吉川 真央*; 飯村 健次*; 佐藤根 大士*; 石井 克典

粉体工学会誌, 50(6), p.405 - 409, 2013/06



Fluorescence decay processes following resonant 2p photoexcitation of Ar atoms and clusters studied using a time-resolved fluorescence and photoion coincidence technique

下條 竜夫*; 池上 剛史*; 本間 健二*; Harries, J.; 為則 雄祐*

Journal of Physics B; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 46(7), p.075102_1 - 075102_9, 2013/04

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:76.7(Optics)

The novel spectroscopic technique of time-resolved fluorescence-photo-ion coincidence spectroscopy (TFPICO) has been applied to the investigation of the decay processes of 2p inner-shell excited Ar atoms and clusters. For the Ar atom, only that fluorescence accompanying the production of Ar$$^+$$ showed a strong dependence on excitation energy. This dependence is discussed in terms of competing Auger decay processes. For Ar clusters, the TFPICO spectra for dimer ions (Ar$$_2$$)$$^+$$ revealed long-lifetime fluorescence components which can be attributed to the "third excimer continuum". With this work we demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for investigating the decay processes of inner-shell excited atoms and clusters.


Improved sensitivity of magnetic measurements under high pressure in miniature ceramic anvil cell for a commercial SQUID magnetometer

立岩 尚之; 芳賀 芳範; 松田 達磨*; Fisk, Z.; 池田 修悟*; 小林 寿夫*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 84(4), p.046105_1 - 046105_3, 2013/04

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:43.18(Instruments & Instrumentation)



Measurement of the Josephson effect of heavy-fermion superconductor UPt$$_3$$ as a test of the odd-parity order parameter

郷地 順*; 住山 昭彦*; 本山 岳*; 山口 明*; 木村 憲彰*; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; 大貫 惇睦

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 81(11), p.113701_1 - 113701_4, 2012/11

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:52.52(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The Josephson critical current I$$_c$$ between a single-crystal UPt$$_3$$ and Al has been measured for the junctions on the UPt$$_3$$ surface perpendicular to the hexagonal axes. The obtained results contradict the $$E_{2u}$$ scenario for the odd-parity order parameter in UPt$$_3$$, in which the Josephson effect is forbidden in the three directions, whereas the recently proposed $$E_{1u}$$ scenario permits, at least, the $$a$$- and $$c$$-axis Josephson couplings.


Effect of the soft X-rays on highly hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

神田 一浩*; 横田 久美子*; 田川 雅人*; 戸出 真由美; 寺岡 有殿; 松井 真二*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 50(5), p.055801_1 - 055801_3, 2011/05



Effect of the soft X-rays on highly hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

神田 一浩*; 横田 久美子*; 田川 雅人*; 戸出 真由美; 寺岡 有殿; 松井 真二*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 50(5), p.055801_1 - 055801_3, 2011/05

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:60.22(Physics, Applied)

The effect of soft X-ray irradiation of diamond-like carbon films in vacuum was investigated using synchrotron radiation (SR). Etching and the desorption of hydrogen upon SR exposure in vacuum occurred in highly hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) films; these processes were not observed in the irradiation of a low-hydrogenated DLC film. The extent of decrease in hydrogen content due to SR exposure was found to decrease with increasing the etching ratio of the H-DLC film. This indicates that hydrogen desorption from the H-DLC films competed with the etching process. Namely, the modified surface, in which hydrogen content was decreased by SR exposure, was immediately removed from the H-DLC film that had a high etching rate.


Long-lived, highly excited neutral hydrogen atom production following oxygen 1s photoexcitation of gas-phase water molecules

Harries, J.; 下條 竜夫*; 本間 健二*; 國分 美希*; Sullivan, J. P.*; Lebech, M.*; 東 善郎*

Journal of Physics B; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 44(9), p.095101_1 - 095101_7, 2011/05

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:54.23(Optics)

We have studied the production of long-lived, highly-excited, neutral hydrogen atom fragments following oxygen 1s inner-shell excitation/ionization of gas-phase water molecules using synchrotron radiation. Striking differences to fragment ion and low-$$n$$ neutral H yields are observed close to threshold. To investigate the decay pathways involved the neutral fragments were also detected in coincidence with H$$^+$$, O$$^{2+}$$, O$$^+$$, and OH$$^+$$ fragments.


Dissociation and recapture dynamics in H$$_2$$O following O 1s inner-shell excitation

下條 竜夫*; 大浦 正樹*; 國分 美希*; 本間 健二*; Harries, J.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 288, p.012023_1 - 012023_7, 2011/04

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:5.49



Magnetic field and pressure phase diagrams of uranium heavy-fermion compound U$$_2$$Zn$$_{17}$$

立岩 尚之; 池田 修悟*; 芳賀 芳範; 松田 達磨; 山本 悦嗣; 杉山 清寛*; 萩原 政幸*; 金道 浩一*; 大貫 惇睦*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 80(1), p.014706_1 - 014706_8, 2011/01

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:44.93(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

重い電子系化合物U$$_2$$Zn$$_{17}$$について53Tまでの磁化測定を行った。ネール温度$$T_{rm N}$$=9.7K以下の反強磁性状態で、32Tの強磁場中でメタ磁性転移が観測され、磁気相図が作成された。われわれは、U$$_2$$Zn$$_{17}$$の反強磁性転移の圧力効果をダイヤモンドアンビルセルを用いて行った。反強磁性転移温度は、4.7GPaまで圧力に強く依存せず、5GPa以上で加圧とともに増大する。電気抵抗の温度依存について理論解析の結果得られた、$$T^2$$項の係数$$A$$,反強磁性ギャップ$$Delta$$の圧力依存について議論する。

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