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論文

Real-time observation of rotational twin formation during molecular-beam epitaxial growth of GaAs on Si (111) by X-ray diffraction

鈴木 秀俊*; 仲田 侑加*; 高橋 正光; 池田 和磨*; 大下 祥雄*; 諸原 理*; 外賀 寛崇*; 森安 嘉貴*

AIP Advances (Internet), 6(3), p.035303_1 - 035303_6, 2016/03

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:26.22(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

The formation and evolution of rotational twin (TW) domains introduced by a stacking fault during molecular-beam epitaxial growth of GaAs on Si (111) substrates were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction. To modify the volume ratio of TW to total GaAs domains, GaAs was deposited under high and low group V/group III (V/III) flux ratios. For low V/III, there was less nucleation of TW than normal growth (NG) domains, although the NG and TW growth rates were similar. For high V/III, the NG and TW growth rates varied until a few GaAs monolayers were deposited; the mean TW domain size was smaller for all film thicknesses.

論文

Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using ${{it in situ}}$ X-ray diffraction

下村 憲一*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 佐々木 拓生; 高橋 正光; 大下 祥雄*; 神谷 格*

Journal of Applied Physics, 118(18), p.185303_1 - 185303_7, 2015/11

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:37.41(Physics, Applied)

Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by ${{it in situ}}$ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping, attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer. Photoluminescence wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing and the cap layer thickness. It is demonstrated that such information about strain is useful for designing and preparing novel device structures.

論文

${it In situ}$ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal-space mapping of InGaAs multilayer structures grown on GaAs(001) by MBE

佐々木 拓生; 高橋 正光; 鈴木 秀俊*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

Journal of Crystal Growth, 425, p.13 - 15, 2015/09

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:34.19(Crystallography)

${it In situ}$ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal space mapping (${it in situ}$ 3D-RSM) was employed for studying molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of InGaAs multilayer structures on GaAs(001). Measuring the symmetric 004 diffraction allowed us to separately obtain film properties of individual layers and to track the real-time evolution of both residual strain and lattice tilting. In two- layer growth of InGaAs, significant plastic relaxation was observed during the upper layer growth, and its critical thickness was experimentally determined. At the same thickness, it was found that the direction of lattice tilting drastically changed. We discuss these features based on the Dunstan model and confirm that strain relaxation in the multilayer structure is induced by two kinds of dislocation motion (dislocation multiplication and the generation of dislocation half-loops).

論文

Defect characterization in compositionally graded InGaAs layers on GaAs (001) grown by MBE

佐々木 拓生; Norman, A. G.*; Romero, M. J.*; Al-Jassim, M. M.*; 高橋 正光; 小島 信晃*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

Physica Status Solidi (C), 10(11), p.1640 - 1643, 2013/11

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:81.25

Defect characterization in compositionally step graded In$$_{x}$$Ga$$_{1-x}$$As layers with different thickness of the overshooting (OS) layer was performed using cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that the type and in-plane distribution of defects generated in the top InGaAs layer grown on step graded layers strongly depend on the thickness of the OS layer. In the thin OS layer, a high density of threading dislocations aligned along [110] was observed. In the thick OS layer, significant line defects associating composition variation were dominantly present. These features on defect type and distribution would relate to strain and configuration of the OS layer.

論文

Real-time observation of crystallographic tilting InGaAs layers on GaAs offcut substrates

西 俊明*; 佐々木 拓生; 池田 和磨*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 高橋 正光; 下村 憲一*; 小島 信晃*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

AIP Conference Proceedings 1556, p.14 - 17, 2013/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01

${it In situ}$ X-ray reciprocal space mapping during In$$_{x}$$Ga$$_{1-x}$$As/GaAs(001) MBE growth is performed to investigate effects of substrate misorientations on crystallographic tilting. It was found that evolution of the crystallographic tilt for the InGaAs films is strongly dependent on both layer structures and substrate misorientations. We discuss these observations in terms of an asymmetric distribution of dislocations.

論文

In situ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal-space mapping of GaAs epitaxial films on Si(001)

高橋 正光; 仲田 侑加*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 池田 和磨*; 神津 美和; Hu, W.; 大下 祥雄*

Journal of Crystal Growth, 378, p.34 - 36, 2013/09

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:46.16(Crystallography)

Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon substrates is a longstanding issue in semiconductor technology including optoelectronics, high-mobility devices and solar cells. In addition to a lattice mismatch of 4%, formation of antiphase domain boundaries makes the growth of GaAs/Si(001) more complicated than that of congeneric combinations, such as Ge/Si(001) and InGaAs/GaAs(001). In the present study, defects in GaAs/Si(001) epitaxial films are investigated by three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal-space mapping technique, which we have successfully applied for InGaAs/GaAs(001) growth. Experiments were carried out at a synchrotron beamline 11XU at SPring-8 using a molecular-beam epitaxy chamber integrated with a multi-axis X-ray diffractometer. Streaky scattering extending from the GaAs 022 peak in the $$langle 111rangle$$ directions was observed, indicating development of plane defects, such as facets and stacking faults.

論文

Observation of in-plane asymmetric strain relaxation during crystal growth and growth interruption in InGaAs/GaAs(001)

佐々木 拓生*; 下村 憲一*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 高橋 正光; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(2), p.02BP01_1 - 02BP01_3, 2012/02

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:10.06(Physics, Applied)

In-plane asymmetric strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy is studied by ${it in situ}$ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal space mapping. Repeating crystal growth and growth interruptions during measurements allows us to investigate whether the strain relaxation is limited at a certain thickness or saturated. We find that the degree of relaxation during growth interruption depends on both the film thickness and the in-plane directions. Significant lattice relaxation is observed in rapid relaxation regimes during interruption. This is a clear indication that relaxation is kinetically limited. In addition, relaxation along the [110] direction can saturate more readily than that along the [$${bar 1}$$10] direction. We discuss this result in terms of the interaction between orthogonally aligned dislocations.

論文

Real-time structural analysis of compositionally graded InGaAs/GaAs(001) layers

佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 稲垣 充*; 池田 和磨*; 下村 憲一*; 高橋 正光; 神津 美和*; Hu, W.; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; et al.

IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 2(1), p.35 - 40, 2012/01

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:25.26(Energy & Fuels)

Compositionally step-graded InGaAs/GaAs(001) buffers with overshooting (OS) layers were evaluated by several characterization techniques for higher efficiency metamorphic III-V multijunction solar cells. By high-resolution X-ray diffraction, we found that fully relaxed or tensile strained top layers can be obtained by choosing appropriate OS layer thickness. Moreover, from real-time structural analysis using ${it in situ}$ X-ray reciprocal space mapping (${it in situ}$ RSM), it was proved that the top layer is almost strained to the OS layers, and it is independent of the thicknesses of the OS layers. Dislocations in the vicinity of the OS layers were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the validity of results of ${it in situ}$ RSM was confirmed from the viewpoint of misfit dislocation behavior. Finally, by photoluminescence measurements, we showed that tensile strained top layers may be suitable for the improvement of minority-carrier lifetime.

論文

X-ray reciprocal space mapping of dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during InGaAs/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth

佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 高橋 正光; 大下 祥雄*; 神谷 格*; 山口 真史*

Journal of Applied Physics, 110(11), p.113502_1 - 113502_7, 2011/12

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:47.61(Physics, Applied)

Dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy was studied through ${it in situ}$ X-ray reciprocal space mapping. At the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, a hybrid system of molecular beam epitaxy and X-ray diffractometry with a two-dimensional detector enabled us to perform ${it in situ}$ reciprocal space mapping at high-speed and high-resolution. Using this experimental setup, the lattice constants, the diffraction broadenings along in-plane and out-of-plane directions, and the diffuse scattering were investigated. The strain relaxation processes were classified into four thickness ranges with different dislocation behavior. In addition, the existence of transition regimes between the thickness ranges was identified.

論文

Growth temperature dependence of strain relaxation during InGaAs/GaAs(0 0 1) heteroepitaxy

佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 崔 炳久*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

Journal of Crystal Growth, 323(1), p.13 - 16, 2011/05

 被引用回数:17 パーセンタイル:82.26(Crystallography)

In$$_{0.12}$$Ga$$_{0.88}$$As/GaAs(001)の分子線エピタキシャル成長中のひずみ緩和の様子をその場X線逆格子マッピングにより解析した。成長温度420, 445, 477$$^{circ}$$Cにおける残留ひずみ・結晶性の変化の様子が測定された。Dodson-Tsaoの運動学的モデルは、実験による残留ひずみの測定結果とよく一致することがわかった。さらにひずみ緩和過程における転位の運動の温度依存性の解析から、転位の運動の熱励起を議論することが可能になった。

論文

Real-time observation of anisotropic strain relaxation by three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs(001) growth

鈴木 秀俊*; 佐々木 拓生*; 崔 炳久*; 大下 祥雄*; 神谷 格*; 山口 真史*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司

Applied Physics Letters, 97(4), p.041906_1 - 041906_3, 2010/07

 被引用回数:30 パーセンタイル:76.51(Physics, Applied)

Real-time three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping measurement during In$$_{0.12}$$Ga$$_{0.88}$$As/GaAs(001) molecular beam epitaxial growth has been performed to investigate anisotropy in relaxation processes. Anisotropies, strain relaxation, and crystal quality in [110] and [1$$bar{1}$$0] directions were simultaneously evaluated via the position and broadness of 022 diffraction. In the small-thickness region, strain relaxation caused by $$alpha$$-dislocations is higher than that caused by $$beta$$-dislocations, and therefore crystal quality along [110] is worse than that along [1$$bar{1}$$0]. Rapid relaxation along both [110] and [1$$bar{1}$$0] directions occurs at almost the same thickness. After rapid relaxation, anisotropy in strain relaxation gradually decreases, whereas crystal quality along [1$$bar{1}$$0] direction, presumably due to $$beta$$-dislocations, becomes better that along [110] direction and the ratio does not decay with thickness.

論文

In situ study of strain relaxation mechanisms during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs growth by X-ray reciprocal space mapping

佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 崔 炳久*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.1268, 6 Pages, 2010/05

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01

The in situ X-ray reciprocal space mapping (in situ RSM) of symmetric diffraction measurements during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) growth were performed to investigate the strain relaxation mechanisms. The evolution of the residual strain and crystal quality were obtained as a function of InGaAs film thickness. Based on the results, the correlation between the strain relaxation and the dislocations during the film growth were evaluated. As a result, film thickness ranges with different relaxation mechanisms were classified, and dominant dislocation behavior in each phase were deduced. From the data obtained in in situ measurements, the quantitative strain relaxation models were proposed based on a dislocation kinetic model developed by Dodson and Tsao. Good agreement between the in situ data and the model ensured the validity of the dominant dislocation behavior deduced from the present study.

論文

${it In situ}$ real-time X-Ray reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs growth for understanding strain relaxation mechanisms

佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 崔 炳久*; Lee, J.-H.*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司; 新船 幸二*; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

Applied Physics Express, 2, p.085501_1 - 085501_3, 2009/07

 被引用回数:34 パーセンタイル:78.61(Physics, Applied)

${it In situ}$ real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during In$$_{0.12}$$Ga$$_{0.88}$$As/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced.

論文

Role of the impurities in production rates of radiation-induced defects in silicon materials and solar cells

Khan, A.*; 山口 真史*; 大下 祥雄*; Dharmarasu, N.*; 荒木 健次*; 阿部 孝夫*; 伊藤 久義; 大島 武; 今泉 充*; 松田 純夫*

Journal of Applied Physics, 90(3), p.1170 - 1178, 2001/08

 被引用回数:50 パーセンタイル:85.55(Physics, Applied)

ボロン(B),ガリウム(Ga),酸素(O)炭素(C)濃度の含有量を変化させたシリコン(Si)に1MeV電子線,10MeV陽子線照射を行い、発生する欠陥をDLTS測定、キャパシタンス測定により分析した。この結果、照射によりEv-0.36eVに格子間Cと格子間Oの複合欠陥(Ci-Oi)に起因する準位が発生すること、Ec-0.18eVに格子間BとOiの複合欠陥(Bi-Oi)が生成されることが明らかになった。また、GaドープSiではCi-Oiの発生が抑制されることを見出した。Ci-Oiは再結合中心として働くことから、この抑制はSi太陽電池の耐放射線性向上につながると考えられる。また、GaドープSiではEv+0.18eVに新たな準位が形成され、この準位は350$$^{circ}C$$での熱処理で消失することが判明した。

口頭

Crystal growth dynamics studied using in situ X-ray diffraction; Zero-, one- and two-dimensional structures

高橋 正光; Hu, W.; 神津 美和*; 佐々木 拓生*; 大下 祥雄*; 鈴木 秀俊*

no journal, , 

量子井戸構造から量子細線,量子ドット及び半導体ナノ構造の成長ダイナミクスを、その場X線回折によるデータに基づいて議論する。第一に、二次元量子構造である量子井戸構造は、多接合太陽電池やひずみ電界効果トランジスタなど、現在の半導体技術において最も重要な実用的意義を持っている。基板と成長膜では、熱膨張係数に大きな差があることが一般的であり、成長膜内のひずみや欠陥の生成機構の解明と制御のためには、その場測定が有効である。そのために開発したリアルタイムX線逆格子マッピング法と、そのInGaAs/GaAs(001)成長への応用について紹介する。第二に、一次元量子構造である量子細線は、形状が極端に異方的であることから、量子効果に由来する物性の観点からだけでなく、結晶成長の対象としても興味深い。本発表では、Auを触媒として用いた気相・液相・固相成長法によるGaAs量子細線成長のその場X線回折について報告する。第三に、究極の量子構造である量子ドットの成長のその場X線回折についても紹介する。

口頭

Si(001)上のGaAs成長のその場X線回折

仲田 侑加*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 池田 和磨*; Hu, W.; 神津 美和; 高橋 正光; 大下 祥雄*

no journal, , 

Si上のGaAsの成長には、安価で高効率な太陽電池の実現や光電子集積回路の実現が期待されている。しかし、Si上のGaAsの成長は成長初期から島状成長し、格子不整合や逆位相境界などにより、結晶欠陥も多い。デバイス応用が可能な単結晶膜を実現するためには、成長メカニズムの理解が必要である。本研究では、Si(001)上のGaAs層の成長メカニズムについて、三次元X線逆格子マッピングを用いて調べた。島状成長が進行している成長初期において、平均結晶粒径$$L$$は成長時間$$t$$の1/2乗に比例している。島の成長過程は(1)原子の表面拡散と(2)原子の島への取り込みに分けられる。この成長で見られた$$Lpropto t^{1/2}$$の依存性は、表面拡散が十分に速く、島への取り込みで成長速度が律速されていることを示している。

口頭

In situ X-ray diffraction study of GaAs growth on Si

高橋 正光; 仲田 侑加*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 池田 和磨*; Hu, W.; 神津 美和; 大下 祥雄*

no journal, , 

Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon substrates is a longstanding issue in semiconductor technology. In the present work, we have employed in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the Volmer-Weber growth of GaAs/Si. From the three-dimensional reciprocal space mappings, structural information, such as strains, crystalline domain size and defects, was obtained during growth. The time evolution of the island size was compared with the prediction from the general nucleation theory. From the power-law exponents, it was concluded that growth processes of GaAs on Si(001) and Si(111) are limited by interface transfer and surface diffusion, respectively.

口頭

メタモルフィックInGaAs/GaAs成長中の急激歪緩和観測

佐々木 拓生; 高橋 正光; 鈴木 秀俊*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*

no journal, , 

GaAs基板上のメタモルフィック(metamorphic) InxGa1-xAsは集光型太陽電池や高電子移動度トランジスタに代表されるように、In組成を変化させることでデバイスの幅広いパラメータ設計が可能となる。高性能なメタモルフィックInGaAsデバイスを実現するためには、それらの下地(緩衝層)作りが重要となるが、これまで緩衝層内での貫通転位の閉じ込めや完全歪緩和に向けた結晶の無歪化技術の開発が試みられてきた。我々はこれまでメタモルフィック結晶成長の本質ともいえる転位発生やすべり運動によって引き起こされる歪緩和過程の理解を試みてきた。そして、その場X線逆格子マッピング法を用いて、InGaAs単層から傾斜組成層まで多角的に歪緩和の素過程を検討してきた。本講演ではInGaAs二層成長時に起きる特徴的な急激歪緩和現象をもとに、多層成長中の歪緩和過程について検討した結果を報告する。

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