Wan, T.; 直江 崇; 粉川 広行; 二川 正敏; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Materials, 12(4), p.681_1 - 681_15, 2019/02
To perform basic R&D for future Accelerator-driven Systems (ADSs), Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) will construct an ADS target test facility. A Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation target will be installed in the target test facility and bombarded by pulsed proton beams (250 kW, 400 MeV, 25 Hz, and 0.5 ms pulse duration). To realize the LBE spallation target, cavitation damage due to pressure changes in the liquid metal should be determined preliminarily because such damage is considered very critical from the viewpoint of target safety and lifetime. In this study, cavitation damage due to pressure waves caused by pulsed proton beam injection and turbulent liquid metal flow, were studied numerically from the viewpoint of single cavitation bubble dynamics. Specifically, the threshold of cavitation and effects of flow speed fluctuation on cavitation bubble dynamics in an orifice structure, were investigated in the present work. The results show that the LBE spallation target will not undergo cavitation damage under normal nominal operation conditions, mainly because of the long pulse duration of the pulsed proton beam and the low liquid metal flow velocity. Nevertheless, the possibility of occurrence of cavitation damage, in the orifice structure under certain extreme transient LBE flow conditions cannot be neglected.
Wan, T.; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Nuclear Technology, 205(1-2), p.188 - 199, 2019/01
To perform basic research and development to realize future accelerator-driven systems, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy spallation target will be installed within the framework of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The target will be bombarded by high-power pulsed proton beams (250 kW, 400 MeV, 25 Hz, and 0.5 ms in pulse duration). The Beam Window (BW) of the spallation target is critical because it should survive under severe conditions that occur, i.e., high temperature, high irradiation, intense stress, and various kinds of damage. Therefore, the target vessel should be carefully designed to obtain an adequate safety margin. Our previous research indicates that there is a stagnant flow region in the LBE at the BW tip due to the symmetric configuration of the target, which causes high temperature and concentration of stress on the BW. On the basis of our previous work, three types of upgraded target head designs are studied in the current research to reduce/move the stagnant flow region from the BW tip and to increase the target safety margin. Thermal-hydraulic analyses and structural analyses for the target head designs are carried out numerically under a steady-state condition. Results illustrate that the designs can almost eliminate the stagnant flow region in the LBE. As a consequence, the concentration of thermal stress on the BW is released and greatly decreased. The safety margin of the target is improved through this study.
Wan, T.; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2018/10
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) will build a spallation target in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) to perform basic R&Ds for future Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs). A Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation target with a Beam Window (BW) will be bombed by high-power pulsed proton beams. However, it was found that the original LBE target design leads to some stagnant/re-circular flow regions in LBE and an extreme off-balance flow pattern in the annular flow channel. In the present study, optimization of the entire target design was performed on the basis of the target head design experiences obtained in our former studies. Efforts were focused on to eliminate those stagnant/re-circular flow regions and to balance the flow velocity in the annular flow channel. Parameters having impacts on the LBE flow pattern were systematically investigated. A number of case studies were performed and several original design measures were figured out to optimize the LBE flow behavior. Thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses results showed that the stagnant and re-circular flow regions can be reduced effectively, and a relative balance LBE flow can be obtained in the annular flow channel due to the modified designs. Maximum temperature and generated stress on BW have been greatly reduced. The updated target design improves the target safety margin.
Wan, T.; 斎藤 滋
Metals, 8(8), p.627_1 - 627_22, 2018/08
In this study, an LBE loop referred to as JLBL-1 was used to experimentally study the behavior of 316L SS when subjected to FAC for 3000 h under non-isothermal conditions. An orifice tube specimen, consisting of a straight tube that abruptly narrows and widens at each end, was installed in the loop. The specimen temperature was 450 centigrade, and a temperature difference between the hottest and coldest legs of the loop was 100 centigrade. The oxygen concentration in the LBE was less than 10 wt.%. The Reynolds number in the test specimen was approximately 5.310. The effects of various hydrodynamic parameters on FAC behavior were studied with the assistance of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses, and then a mass transfer study was performed by integrating a corrosion model into the CFD analyses. The results show that the local turbulence level affects the mass concentration distribution in the near-wall region and therefore the mass transfer coefficient across the solid/liquid interface. The corrosion depth was predicted on the basis of the mass transfer coefficient obtained in the numerical simulation and was compared with that obtained in the loop; the two results agreed well.
斎藤 滋; 大林 寛生; Wan, T.; 大久保 成彰; 菅原 隆徳; 遠藤 慎也; 佐々 敏信
Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerators (AccApp '17) (Internet), p.448 - 457, 2018/05
原子力機構は、加速器駆動システム(ADS: accelerator-driven systems)の設計に必要なデータを得るために、J-PARC計画の中でADSターゲット実験施設(TEF-T: Target Test Facility)の建設を計画している。TEF-Tでは、鉛ビスマス共晶合金(LBE: Lead-Bismuth Eutectic)の核破砕ターゲットに250kWの陽子ビームを入射し、ADSの構造材候補材についてLBE流動下での照射試験を実施する。TEF-Tを実現するために、様々な研究開発が行われている。LBEターゲットとターゲット台車の設計検討は大きく進捗した。ターゲットループの保守と照射試料の照射後試験を行うホットセルについては概念設計を終えた。要素技術開発として、TEF-TターゲットのモックアップループとLBE流動下での材料腐食データを得るためのループが製作され、本格運転へ向け準備中である。LBEループのための酸素濃度制御システムも開発された。遠隔操作によるターゲット交換試験も実施中である。その他、TEF-Tの実現に向けた現在の研究開発状況についても報告する。
Wan, T.; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 13 Pages, 2017/09
To realize the future Accelerator-driven systems (ADSs), an ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) will be constructed within the framework of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project to carry out basic R&Ds. A LBE spallation target will be installed in the TEF-T facility and be bombarded by high power pulsed proton beams (250 kW, 400 MeV, 25 Hz, 0.5 ms in pulse duration). The beam window (BW) of the spallation target is critical because it should survive under severe conditions, i.e., high temperature, high irradiation, intense stress and various occurred damage. Therefore, the target vessel should be carefully designed to obtain enough safety margin. Our previous research indicated that there are stagnant flow region in LBE at the BW tip due to the symmetric configuration of target, which causes high temperature and stress concentration on the BW. To reduce/move the stagnant flow region from BW tip and to increase the target safety margin, on the basis of our previous work, three types of upgraded target head designs were performed steadily in the present study. The thermal-hydraulic analyses and structural analyses for the target head designs have been carried out numerically under a steady-state condition. Results illustrated that the designs can almost eliminate the stagnant flow region in LBE. As a consequence, the thermal stress concentration on BW has been released and greatly decreased. The safety margin of target has been improved through this study.
大林 寛生; 平林 勝; Wan, T.; 佐々 敏信
Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09
JAEA has been performing various R&Ds for ADS as a dedicated system for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides such as MA. The ADS utilizes the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a spallation target material and a coolant. JAEA planning a construction of ADS target test Facility (TEF-T) under the framework of J-PARC project as a preliminary phase before the construction of demonstrative ADS. A major role of TEF-T is to acquire the irradiation data of candidate structural materials by using LBE spallation target system. The flow-monitoring device is one of the indispensable components to assure the safety of target system and to maintain the material irradiation condition. LBE is obviously opaque heavy liquid metal, and it is used in a high temperature condition. The goal of this study is to develop a durable and a reliable flowmeter for LBE spallation target system. To measure the flowing velocity in high temperature liquid metal, JAEA has been developed a flow-monitoring device by using ultrasonic. At first, we assessed several requirements for developed device by thermal-fluid and structural analysis. To overcome these requirement, we developed the plug immersion type of ultrasonic flowmeter. As a result of application test, it was successfully confirmed usefulness of the developed ultrasonic flowmeter under demonstration condition of TEF-T environment.
Wan, T.; 直江 崇; 涌井 隆; 二川 正敏; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Materials, 10(7), p.753_1 - 753_17, 2017/07
A lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target will be installed in the Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The spallation target vessel filled with LBE is made of type 316 stainless steel. However, various damages, such as erosion/corrosion damage and liquid metal embrittlement caused by contact with flowing LBE at high temperature, and irradiation hardening caused by protons and neutrons, may be inflicted on the target vessel, which will deteriorate the steel and might break the vessel. To monitor the target vessel for prevention of an accident, an ultrasonic technique has been proposed to establish off-line evaluation for estimating vessel material status during the target maintenance period. Basic R&D must be carried out to clarify the dependency of ultrasonic wave propagation behavior on material microstructures and obtain fundamental knowledge. As a first step, ultrasonic waves scattered by the grains of type 316 stainless steel are investigated using new experimental and numerical approaches in the present study. The results show that the grain size can be evaluated exactly and quantitatively by calculating the attenuation coefficient of the ultrasonic waves scattered by the grains. The results also show that the scattering regimes of ultrasonic waves depend heavily on the ratio of wavelength to average grain size, and are dominated by grains of extraordinarily large size along the wave propagation path.
Wan, T.; 直江 崇; 涌井 隆; 二川 正敏; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 842(1), p.012010_1 - 012010_10, 2017/06
Spallation targets are the key components of accelerator driven systems (ADSs) that are being developed in the world. Erosion damages on the target vessels are anticipated. To prevent accidents occurrence due to erosion of spallation target vessel, the damage evaluation technique is desirable. The excited vibration of LBE target vessel will be monitored remotely to establish the technique. In this study, the basic researches were carried out through experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the interaction between ultrasonic waves and damage to understand the correlation between structural vibration and damage degree. Specimens with distributed erosion damage was irradiated by laser shots, and the vibration was detected by a laser vibrometer subsequently. A technique, Wavelet Differential Analysis (WDA), was developed to quantitatively and clearly indicate the differences caused by damage in the vibration signals. The results illustrated that the developed technique is sensitive to erosion damage with small size and is capable of quantitatively evaluating erosion damage. It is expected that the developed techniques can be applied to monitor the real spallation targets in the future.
佐々 敏信; 斎藤 滋; 大林 寛生; 菅原 隆徳; Wan, T.; 山口 和司*; 吉元 秀光
NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.111 - 116, 2017/06
Wan, T.; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.117 - 127, 2017/06
JAEA has proposed an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for nuclear transmutation. To realize the future ADS, the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) will be constructed under the framework of J-PARC. In TEF-T, pulsed proton beams will bombard a Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target to produce neutrons. To design the target, the verification of target structural integrity is the primary task. For this purpose, firstly, cavitation damage caused by the negative pressure in LBE is an essential issue needs to be considered. In the present study, the possibility of cavitation damage occurrence caused by pressure waves and turbulent LBE flow was investigated for the TEF-T LBE target through the numerical simulations. Results show that the maximum expansion ratio of cavitation bubble is only 1.2 due to the pressure waves, so that severe cavitation damage will not occur due to the pressure waves; the maximum negative pressure due to the turbulent LBE flow is only -4.5 kPa on a steady-state flow condition, which is too small to drive the growth of bubbles, so neither cavitation damage will occur due to the turbulent LBE flow. Secondly, the LBE flow behavior needs to be investigated because it determines the temperature distribution on the LBE target vessel, which affects the integrity of the target vessel. The CFD analyses have been carried out to study LBE flow pattern. However, some stagnant regions exist in the LBE for the original target design. To solve this problem, the target head was modified to reduce the stagnant region effectively and efficiently. The CFD analyses results showed that the stagnant region has been effectively reduced due to the modification of target head. As a result, thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses results showed that the maximum temperature on the LBE vessel is decreased by 35 degree centigrade, and the maximum thermal stress on the BW has been decreased by approximately 31 MPa. The safety margin of target has been improved.
Wan, T.; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
可視化情報学会誌(USB Flash Drive), 36(Suppl.2), 8 Pages, 2016/10
An ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) will be constructed within the framework of J-PARC project. A LBE spallation target will be installed in the TEF-T, and be bombarded by high power pulsed proton beams. During the operation, the erosion/cavitation damage imposed on the target vessel might be a key factor that determines its lifetime. Therefore, an in-situ structural integrity evaluation technique for the TEF-T target is expected to be established to inspect the damage. The vibration of LBE target vessel excited by pressure waves, which caused by the heat deposition in a short time due to the pulsed proton beam injection, will be monitored remotely to establish the technique. In this study, the basic research was carried out to investigate the relationship between structural vibration and damage. Samples with global- and locally-distributed erosion/cavitation damage were remotely evaluated by using laser generator and detector of ultrasonic waves. The influences of number and depth of damage on sample to structural vibration were studied through experiments and numerical simulations. A technique, Wavelet Differential Analysis (WDA), was developed to quantitatively and clearly "visualize" the differences caused by damage in the vibration signals. The results showed that the structural vibration is very dependent on damage, and the developed technique is applicable of quantitatively indicate this dependency.
Wan, T.; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信
Proceedings of 11th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-11) (USB Flash Drive), 12 Pages, 2016/10
To solve basic technique issues for the accelerator-driven system (ADS), Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) will construct the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) within the framework of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project. A Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation target with a Beam Window (BW) will be installed at TEF-T. LBE will be adopted as spallation material as well as coolant. For the TEF-T target, an annual channel was made between the outside LBE vessel and inner tube to flow the LBE. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses results showed that some stagnant regions exist at the center of BW and in the inner tube. Temperature in these regions are high and might deteriorate the soundness of target vessel. The purpose of this study is to optimize the LBE flow to decrease the temperature with the expectation that the safety margin of target can be improved in consequence. Efficient methods were developed to achieve this objective with minimizing the modification of target structure. Firstly, additional slits were made to flow LBE to reduce the stagnant region in the inner tube. Moreover, fin-type flow guides were added to reduce the stagnant region at the center of BW. As a result, the stagnant region in the inner tube was almost reduced and the stagnant region was moved away from the center of BW approximately 10 mm. Maximum temperature and thermal stress on the BW were consequently decreased.
Wan, T.; 直江 崇; 涌井 隆; 羽賀 勝洋; 粉川 広行; 二川 正敏
JAEA-Conf 2015-002, p.76 - 87, 2016/02
Wan, T.; 直江 崇; 二川 正敏
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 468, p.321 - 330, 2016/01
A double-wall structure mercury target will be installed at the high-power pulsed spallation neutron source in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Cavitation damage on the inner wall is an important factor governing the lifetime of the target-vessel. To monitor the structural integrity of the target vessel, displacement velocity at a point on the outer surface of the target vessel is measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The measured signals can be used for evaluating the damage inside the target vessel because of cyclic loading and cavitation bubble collapse caused by pulsed-beam induced pressure waves. The wavelet differential analysis (WDA) was applied to reveal the effects of the damage on vibrational cycling. To reduce the effects of noise superimposed on the vibration signals on the WDA results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), statistical methods were applied. Results from laboratory experiments, numerical simulation results with random noise added, and target vessel field data were analyzed by the WDA and the statistical methods. The analyses demonstrated that the established in-situ diagnostic technique can be used to effectively evaluate the structural response of the target vessel.
大林 寛生; 武井 早憲; Wan, T.; 粉川 広行; 岩元 大樹; 佐々 敏信
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 8, p.041002_1 - 041002_7, 2015/09
The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a designed target beam window (BW) of J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility by the numerical analysis with a 3D model. In the typical case, the peak current density and the profile of the proton beam were set to 20 A/cm and a Gaussian shape, respectively. The flow rate of Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) coolant and temperature at the inlet were 1 l/sec and 350 C. In this case, the maximum velocity of LBE and the maximum temperature appeared at the top of the BW were about 1.2 m/sec and 477 C. The maximum shear stress was 190 MPa, which was observed at the center on the outside surface of a beam window. The value was lower than the tolerance level of the stress strength of the material given by the legal limitation which is applied to the fast reactor. The repeated stress was evaluated to be below a permission level. Accordingly, the feasibility of a designed BW was confirmed in terms of structural design.
Angell, C.; Hammond, S. L.*; Karwowski, H. J.*; Kelley, J. H.*; Krtika, M.*; Kwan, E.*; 牧永 あや乃*; Rusev, G.*
Physical Review C, 91(3), p.039901_1 - 039901_2, 2015/03
The present manuscript is an erratum to a previously published paper "Evidence for radiative coupling of the pygmy dipole resonance to excited states" [Phys. Rev. C 86, 051302(R) (2012)].
Xiong, Z.; 直江 崇; Wan, T.; 二川 正敏; 前川 克廣*
Procedia Engineering, 101, p.552 - 560, 2015/03
Awaludin, R.*; Gunawan, A. H.*; Lubis, H.*; Sriyono*; Herlina*; Mutalib, A.*; 木村 明博; 土谷 邦彦; 棚瀬 正和*; 石原 正博
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 303(2), p.1481 - 1483, 2015/02
Wan, T.; 直江 崇; 涌井 隆; 二川 正敏; 前川 克廣*
Applied Mechanics and Materials, 566, p.629 - 636, 2014/06
MW級のパルス核破砕中性子源の水銀ターゲット容器では、陽子線入射による熱衝撃により水銀中に圧力波が発生する。この圧力波によってターゲット容器に衝撃的な振動が励起されると共に、内壁には固液界面で生じるキャビテーションによる損傷が形成される。本研究では、狭隘な水銀(厚さ2mm)を隔てた2重壁構造を有する水銀ターゲット容器について、内壁のキャビテーション損傷あるいは疲労破壊を振動の計測により外側から非破壊的に診断する手法について検討した。内壁の損傷とターゲット容器の振動との相関について、1, 5, 10, 20, 40mmの貫通穴によって損傷を模擬した数値解析により系統的に調べた。損傷の差異による容器の振動応答の変化を定量的に評価するために、振動応答波形に対して、ウェーブレット変換と統計処理を用いた波形解析手法を考案した。さらに、2重壁構造を模擬した水銀を充填した容器に対する圧力波負荷試験での振動速度をレーザーにより計測し、本手法の適用性を検証した。その結果、振動波形は、損傷を模擬した穴の直径に依存して変化すること、直径10mm以上であれば、明確な振動の差として損傷を検出できることを明らかにした。