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JAEA Reports

Annual report on the effluent control of low level liquid waste in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories FY2015

Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Kono, Takahiko; Nagaoka, Mika; Inoue, Kazumi; Yoshii, Hideki*; Otani, Kazunori*; Hiyama, Yoshinori*; Kikuchi, Masaaki*; Sakauchi, Nobuyuki*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2017-001, 115 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Review-2017-001.pdf:3.57MB

Based on the regulations (the safety regulation of Tokai reprocessing plant, the safety regulation of nuclear fuel material usage facilities, the radiation safety rule, the regulation about prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, which are related with the nuclear regulatory acts, the local agreement concerning with safety and environment conservation around nuclear facilities, the water pollution control law, and bylaw of Ibaraki prefecture), the effluent control of liquid waste discharged from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been performed. This report describes the effluent control results of the liquid waste in the fiscal year 2015. In this period, the concentrations and the quantities of the radioactivity in liquid waste discharged from the reprocessing plant, the plutonium fuel fabrication facilities, and the other nuclear fuel material usage facilities were much lower than the limits authorized by the above regulations.

Journal Articles

DECOMMISSIONING OF A PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED WASTE INCINERATOR FACILITY

; Tobita, Noriyuki; Koakutsu, Toru

Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM '01) (CD-ROM), 0 Pages, 2002/00

None

JAEA Reports

Low-cycles fatigue properties of structural materials exposed in flowing sodium at high temperature (I); Test results of sodium exposed materials for 10000 hours

*; *; Koakutsu, Toru; *; *

PNC TN9410 89-148, 158 Pages, 1989/10

PNC-TN9410-89-148.pdf:30.62MB

For the purpose of the verification of the evaluation method on the sodium environmental effect on the mechanical properties of the structural materials used for the prototype LMFBR "MONJU" and the rationalization of the evaluation method for large scale LMFBRs, SUS 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (NT) were carried out. Test specimens were exposed to a sodium loop for 10,000 hours at 400 $$sim$$600$$^{circ}$$C simulating the primary and secondary coolant systems of the prototype LMFBR "MONJU". After the exposure, fatigue tests were performed in sodium environment. Fatigue tests were also performed on the thermal aged material for 10.000 hours in inert gas. The results obtaind were as follows. (1)The difference between the fatigue lives of sodium exposed materials and thermal aged materials was very small for both kinds of steels and these lives were almost the same as these of as - received materials. (2)Caburization was recognized on the surface of SUS 304 and SUS 316 austenitic stainless steels in the cage tested in sodium after sodium exposed. In the case of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (NT), some decarburization was observed at 500 $$^{circ}$$C. (3)The fatigue lives didnot depend on the exposure history such as sodium exposed materials and thermal aged materials for 10,000 hours. The carburization and decarburization effects were very small on fatigue life. The fatigue lives were affected by the environment in which fatigue tests are conducted.

JAEA Reports

Wear test in out-of-core sodium between fuel cladding tube and wire for "JOYO" MK-I

Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Koichi; Koakutsu, Toru; *; *; *

PNC TN941 81-183, 115 Pages, 1981/09

PNC-TN941-81-183.pdf:14.82MB

The wear mark was observed between fuel cladding tube and adjacent wrapping wire in the fuelassembly irradiated at the "JOYO" MK-I core. It is necessitated that the formation mechanism, formation condition in the core and the effect of wear mark on the integrity of fuel cladding tube are clarified. The out-of-core sodium test was conducted at the Sodium Tachnology Section, O-arai Engineering Center, PNC, to estimate the load condition in the core and grasp the growth of wear mark. The test conditions were as follows: sodium temperature of 550$$^{circ}$$C, cold trap temparatures of 120$$^{circ}$$C and 150$$^{circ}$$C, contact loads of 59 - 885g, sliding frequency of 1 Hz and sliding cycles of 10$$^{4}$$, 10$$^{5}$$ and 10$$^{6}$$. The test results obtained are as follows. (1)The wear depth linearly increases with increasing load and logarithm of sliding cycle, respectively. The growth of wear mark changes from initial wear to steady state wear. (2)The contact load between fuel cladding tube and wrapping wire in "JOYO" MK-I core is estimated as lower than 250g by the analysis using the test results, wear depth values, obtained at the present test. (3)The higher the contact load, the smoother the morphology of wear mark surface was. The increase of hardness was observed on the sliding surface, but the compositional and crystalline structure change and the crack caused by fatigue were not observed. (4)The sliding resistance between fuel cladding tube and wrapping wire incrementally increases with sliding and, there after, it is apt to be constant at ca. 5$$times$$10$$^{5}$$ sliding cycles. (5)There is not significant difference in the wear depth and the sliding reststance, respectively, between at cold trap temperatures of 120$$^{circ}$$C and 150$$^{circ}$$C. (6)The estimation of the growth of wear mark until the JOYO MK-I No.6 cycle by the present test results shows that the growth of wear depth is slight even after No.6 cycle.

JAEA Reports

In-Sodium tests of hard facing materials (VII); Corrosioh, friction and self-welding test results at cold trap temperature of 120$$^{circ}$$C

Hasegawa, Naruo; *; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Koichi; Nakasuji, Takashi; Koakutsu, Toru

PNC TN941 80-127, 124 Pages, 1980/08

PNC-TN941-80-127.pdf:17.97MB

It is an important subject to clarify the tribological behaviors of structural materials applied for contacting and/or sliding parts of "MONJU" components and take a measure to meet the design condition. From this point of view, a series of parameter tests are conducted on stellite No.6, Colmonoy No.5, Inconel 718 and LC-1C selected by the screening tests, and SUS 316, SUS 304 and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel as main structural materials for "MONJU". Among parameters, the effect of oxygen content in sodium on tribological behaviors is one of disputed points. As the cold trap temperature of "MONJU" primary system is intended to decrease from 140$$^{circ}$$C (or 145$$^{circ}$$C) to 120$$^{circ}$$C, the authors started the tests whose parameter is cold trap temperature. This report describes the test results obtained partially. The test items and test conditions are as follows: I. Corrosion Test Sodium temperature : 600$$^{circ}$$C, Exposure time : 2,000 hr. Cold trap temperature : 120$$^{circ}$$C II. Friction Test Sodium temperature : 600$$^{circ}$$C, Exposure time : 2,000 hr., Contact stress : 0.3kg/mm$$^{2}$$. Cold trap temperature : 120$$^{circ}$$C III. Self-Welding Test Sodium temperature : 450 $$sim$$ 700$$^{circ}$$C, Dwell time : 200 hr., Contact stress : 4 kg/mm$$^{2}$$ , cold trap temperature : 120 $$^{circ}$$C Comparison of as-received material with pre-exposed material. Estimation of self-weldability by tension breakaway. Main results obtained are as follows: I. Corrosion Test (1)Corrosion behavior did not indicate apparent difference between cold trap temperature of 120$$^{circ}$$C and 140$$^{circ}$$C. (2)Stellite No.6 showed an increase in weight and other materials tested showed a reduction in weight. II. Friction Test (Stellite No.6/itself and LC-1C/itself) (1)Kinetic friction coefficients did not show apparent difference between cold trap temperature of 120$$^{circ}$$C and 140$$^{circ}$$C. (2)Kinetic friction coefficients did not depend on sodium exposure time. III. ...

JAEA Reports

In-sodium tests of hard facing materials (VI); Temperature dependence of self-welding characteristics by tension breakaway

Kano, Shigeki; Hasegawa, Naruo; Nakayama, Koichi; Koakutsu, Toru; *; Nakasuji, Takashi

PNC TN941 79-144, 47 Pages, 1979/08

PNC-TN941-79-144.pdf:8.06MB

It is requested to obtain the self-welding characteristics in sodium on the contacting materials of "MONJU" components. By tension breakaway method, the tests were up to date conducted on many kinds of materials in sodium which was not cold-trapped$$^{(1)}$$ and was purified by the cold trap temperature of 190$$^{circ}$$C$$^{(2)}$$ or 145$$^{circ}$$C$$^{(3)}$$. These results were used for material screening. The present study relates to the dwell temperature dependence of 200 hrs. self-welding characteristics on the selected hard facing materials and main structural materials of "MONJU" in 450 $$sim$$ 700$$^{circ}$$C sodium purified by the cold trap temperature of 140$$^{circ}$$C or 145$$^{circ}$$C. The main results obtained are as follows. (1)The breakaway stress shows the apparent dwell temperature dependence. (2)The combinations of SUS 304/itself and SUS 316/itself self-weld above 500$$^{circ}$$C and the breakaway stress increases linearly with the dwell temperature. (3)Ferritic steels exhibit the higher breakaway stress than austenitic stainless steels. (4)The combination of LC-1C/itself does not easily self-weld even at 700$$^{circ}$$C. The combinations of Stellite No.6/itself, Colmonoy No.5/itself and Inconel 718/itself self-weld at 700$$^{circ}$$C and do not self-weld at 600$$^{circ}$$C. Only Colmonov No.5 breakaways at the inside as well as the self-welded interface. (5)Only Colmonoy No.5 shows the apparent corroded surface among the test materials after exposure to 700$$^{circ}$$C sodium for 200 hrs. LC-1C exhibits flaking partially from the substratum. It is because the coating layer (0.2 mm thick) was too thick and there were the problems of the grid blast method on substratum surface and the manufacturing method on coating edge.

JAEA Reports

In - Sodium tests of hard facing materials (IV); Effect of Exposure time in sodium on friction coefficient

Koakutsu, Toru; Kano, Shigeki; Hasegawa, Naruo; *; Nakayama, Koichi; Nakasuji, Takashi

PNC TN941 79-105, 39 Pages, 1979/07

PNC-TN941-79-105.pdf:1.14MB

In view of anti-self-welding and low friction, hard facing materials are applied to the sliding parts of "MONJU" components. But it is thought that the self-welding and friction behavior of these materials is affected by sodium corrosion during long-term application at high temperature. At present report, a friction test was conducted in sodium to investigate the effect of the exposure time in flowing sodium on friction coefficient. This report describes the friction test results for Stellite No.6, Colmonoy No.5, Inconel 718, LC-1C (chromium carbide/nichrome binder) and SUS 316 under the following test conditions : the test temperature of 600$$^{circ}$$C, the cold trap temperature of 140$$^{circ}$$C, the test duration of 2000 hrs., the sodium velocity of 0.7 m/sec, the contact stress of 0.3 Kg/mm$$^{2}$$, the sliding stroke of $$pm$$5 mm and the sliding velocity of O $$sim$$ 0.63 mm/sec, The results obtained are as follows. (1)All of test materials except for Colmonoy No.5 did not show the exposure time dependency of kinetic friction coefficient ($$mu$$$$_{k}$$), (2)Degraded layer was appatently observed on the surface of Colmonoy No.5. (3)The coating method must be improved for LC-1C, because the LC-1C of 0.2 mm thick showed edge chipping. (4)The $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ values were as follows. [Stellite No.6/self : 0.15 $$sim$$ 0.35] [Colmonoy No.5/self : 0.15 $$sim$$ 1.5] [Inconel 718/self : 0.65 $$sim$$ 1.15] [LC-1C/self : 0.35 $$sim$$ 0.55] [SUS 316/self : 1.0 $$sim$$ 1.2]

JAEA Reports

In-sodium tests of hard facing materials (III)

Hasegawa, Naruo; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Koichi; Koakutsu, Toru; *; Nakasuji, Takashi

PNC TN941 79-26, 44 Pages, 1979/04

PNC-TN941-79-26.pdf:1.91MB

Friction, wear and self-welding resistant materials are applied for many contact and/or sliding parts in FBR components. The pad material of a fuel assembly wrapper tube is a ypical example. Wrapper tube pads of "MONJU" size were trially manufactured with four kinds of hard facing material selected by up to date R&D tests ((1)Stellite No.6 (2)Colmonoy No.6, (3)LC-1C (Chromium Carbide), (4)Inconel 718). In this study, these pads were exposed to 600$$^{circ}$$C sodium for 2,000 hrs.. The following results were obtained. (1)The dimension between the inside of wrapper tube and the pad surface partially changed max. 200$$mu$$m due to the heating during sodium exposure. (2)Stellite No.6: After exposure, the surface showed general corrosion and selective corrosion at the grain boundary. The hardness slightly decreased to Hv 600 and surface roughness slightly increased. (3)Colmonoy No.6: After exposure, the surface showed severe general corrosion, then the depletion of boron and silicon and the degraded layer were observed in the vicinity of the exposed surface. The hardness of this layer significantly decreased to Hv 300 and the surface roughness slightly in creased. (4)LC-1C: After exposure, the surface showed slight general corrosion but cross-sectional micrograph was stable. The hardness increased to Hv 1,100 and the surface roughness slightly increased. (5)Inconel 718 : After exposure, the surface corrosion was slight, but titanium, niobium and molybdenum were depleted in the vicinity of the expoded surface. The hardness and surface roughness did not change before and after exposure.

JAEA Reports

Wear tests of materials for FBR in sodium environment (VI); Long term sliding test results

Hasegawa, Naruo; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Koichi; Koakutsu, Toru; *; Nakasuji, Takashi

PNC TN941 78-100, 48 Pages, 1978/01

PNC-TN941-78-100.pdf:1.67MB

A series of experiments in sodium and argon environments have been carried out to develop and screen the friction and wear resistant materials used for sliding components of the sodium cooled reactor. As results of these test, we selected out several materials for candidated alloys. The present study was carried out about combination of Stellite No.6/Self, Colmonoy No.5/Self, Inconel 718/Self and Stellite No.6/SUS304 and long term sliding test (150 hrs.). The results obtained were compared with those of short term sliding test (15 min.) of preceding studies. The results obtained are as follows, (1)Kinetic friction coefficients ($$mu$$$$_{k}$$) of Stellite No.6/Self and Colmonoy No.5/Self were in approximate agreement with short term test of proceding studies ($$mu$$$$_{k}$$: 0.2$$sim$$0.4) (2)$$mu$$$$_{k}$$ of Inconel 718/self showed a stable behavior with the sliding time although it raised at the begining of the test. (3)$$mu$$$$_{k}$$ of Stellite No.6/SUS 304 indicated a variable behavior at the begining of the test, but after 40 hours sliding, it showed a stable behavior with the lapse of time and $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ was about 0.6$$sim$$0.7. (4)The Wear depth of Stellite No.6/Self and Colmonoy No.5/Self did not shift for the sliding time. (5)wear depth of Inconel 718 was 2 to 3 times greater than that of Stellite No.6 and Colmonoy No.5. (6)Stellite No.6/SUS304 combination showed the greatest wear depth of all material combinations tested.

JAEA Reports

None

Kano, Shigeki; Koakutsu, Toru; Hasegawa, Naruo; Nakayama, Koichi; Nakasuji, Takashi; Atsumo, Hideo

PNC TN941 77-111, 95 Pages, 1977/06

PNC-TN941-77-111.pdf:4.43MB

A corrosion test of hard facing material has been conducted in 600$$^{circ}$$C sodium for 2000 hrs. Test pieces were Co base alloys, Ni base alloys and carbides which were provided for tribology studies in sodium. These materials were compared with SUS304, SUS316 and another corrosion and heat resisting alloys by simultaneous exposure. Analysis methods after exposure were as follows: surface roughness, hardness, corrosion rate, surface morphology and metallurgical structure which have influence on friction and self-welding behavior. The results obtained are as follows: (1)Stellitew alloys: Part of test pieces showed weight gain. Change of surface roughness was minute. Structural change was not observed in the surface vicinity of sodium contact. However, hardness increase was observed. (2)Ni base hard facing materials such as Colmonoy alloys: Corrosion rates were high and hardness was reduced. A degraded layer of 10$$mu$$m through 40$$mu$$m was observed on the surface of Colmonoy alloys and their surface roughness increased. (3)Inconel alloys: Corrosion rates were double those of stainless steels. A degraded layer of 1$$mu$$m through 4$$mu$$m was observed on the surface. Change in surface roughness was minute. (4)Corrosion and heat resisting alloys: Corrosion rates showed one to two times greater than those of stainless steels. Change in surface roughness was minute. No change in surface layer was observed. However, precipitates were observed in the metallurgical structures of some alloy types. (5)Carbides: Large increase of surface roughness was observed. LC-1C exhibited stripping from substratum. LW-1N40 indicated wide variation in corrosion rates. (6)Other materials: SUS316 produced a sigma phase at the grain boundary of sodium surface contact.

JAEA Reports

In sodium tests of hard facing materials, 2; Test Result in room temperature argon

Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Koichi; Hasegawa, Naruo; Koakutsu, Toru; Namekawa, Masaru; Nakasuji, Takashi; Atsumo, Hideo

PNC TN941 77-179TR, 48 Pages, 1977/01

PNC-TN941-77-179TR.pdf:2.29MB

JAEA Reports

In sodium tests of hard facing materials, 2; Test Result in room temperature argon

Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Koichi; Hasegawa, Naruo; Koakutsu, Toru; Nakasuji, Takashi; Namekawa, Masaru; Atsumo, Hideo

PNC TN941 77-179, 48 Pages, 1977/01

PNC-TN941-77-179.pdf:2.55MB
PNC-TN941-77-179TR.pdf:2.29MB

A series of experiments have been carried out to develop and screen friction and wear resistant materials used for sliding components of a sodium cooled reactor. Preceding studies $$^{(1)-(5)}$$ clarified the short-term friction and wear characteristics of various materials in 450$$^{circ}$$C sodium. A present study relates to clarify friction and wear behavior in argon environment, where a part of sliding components are located, and compare test data in room temperature argon with those in 450do sodium. The results obtained are as follows: (1)Static friction coefficients ($$mu$$s) in argon were almost lower than 0.2. They were apt to be lower than those in sodium. (2)Kinetic friction coefficients ($$mu$$k) in argon varied with load. The difference of $$mu$$k in argon and sodium depended on material combination. (3)Wear rates were remarkably high in argon. Wear rates of Colmonoy and Stellite were not detected in sodium, but were detected in argon. (4)Sliding surface was more roughened in argon, and hardness of sliding surface was almost lower in argon than in sodium. (5)There is the significant difference between friction and wear characteristics argon and those in sodium. Then, it is difficult that in-sodium behavior is estimated with in-argon data. (6)The above-mentioned difference in room temperature argon and 450$$^{circ}$$C sodium will be greater when the test is carried out in higher temperature argon.

JAEA Reports

Wear tests of materials for FBR in sodium environment (V); Differences between Colmonoy and Stellite alloys

Kano, Shigeki; *; Nakayama, Koichi; Hasegawa, Naruo; Koakutsu, Toru; Atsumo, Hideo; Nakasuji, Takashi

PNC TN941 76-81, 25 Pages, 1976/07

PNC-TN941-76-81.pdf:0.88MB

A series of experiments in sodium environment have been carried out to develop and screen the friction and wear resistant materials used for sliding components of the sodium cooled reactor. The present study relates to the friction and wear characteristics of nickel-basealloy "Colmonoy" and cobalt-base alloy "Stellite" with respect to temperature, load, sliding velocity, sliding mode and sodium flushing. Also several experiments were carried out in argon and atmospheric environments, and they were compared with those in sodium. The results obtained were as follows : (1)As the sodium temperature is raised, the kinetic friction coefficient ($$mu$$$$_{k}$$) of Stellite alloy becomes higher, but that of colmonoy alloy remains constant or is rather lower. The $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ of Collmonoy alloy becomes lower by 540$$^{circ}$$C sodium flushing. (2)Both static friction coefficient ($$mu$$$$_{s}$$) and $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ of Colmonoy alloy are lower than those of Stellite alloy in sodium environment. (3)The dependence of $$mu$$$$_{s}$$ and $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ upon the load is low in sodium environment. In argon the dependence of $$mu$$$$_{s}$$ upon the load is not found, while $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ varies according to the load. (4)The friction behavior is influenced by sliding mode. The $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ in oscillating sliding is higher than that in one-directional continuous sliding. Also the sliding surface in oscillating sliding is more roughened. (5)The dependence of $$mu$$$$_{k}$$ upon the sliding velocity is not found in sodium environment except for that in low velocity area. (6)The kinetic friction coefficient is apt to be higher in argon than in sodium. Also the wear rate is much higher in argon.

JAEA Reports

Screening test for duct pad materials of fuel assembly (I); Frictional coefficient in a sodium environment

Mizobuchi, Shotaro*; *; Koakutsu, Toru; Atsumo, Hideo

PNC TN941 75-55, 42 Pages, 1975/07

PNC-TN941-75-55.pdf:2.59MB

We have been conducted experiments to select for the contacting and sliding material use in F.B.R.. In present study, we tested in simulated condition for 6 kind of the candidated materials as duct pad of fuel assembly. The following results were obtained, (1)SUS316 showed a bad frictional behivor as the high frictional coefficient of 0.8, and hard chrome plating, also, have been unstable frictional behavior and become to the lower hardness after tested in 540$$^{circ}$$C sodium. (2)The brush-finished chrome carbide showed the more stable frictional behaivor than the grinder-finished material, and frictional coefficient showed approximately 0.5. This coefficient was independent on the temperature in this test. (3)Colmonoy No.6 indicated the lowest frictional coefficient of 0.34 in materials of present studys. But, stellite No.6 showed a little unstable friction behavior even if tested in 280$$^{circ}$$C sodium. (4)Each of tested materials were observed increasing frictional coefficient, after tested dwelling in 540$$^{circ}$$C sodium. It was recognized that colmonoy No.6 and the brush-finished chrome carbide seem to be the promising as duct pad materials.

JAEA Reports

Construction report of medium purity material test loop

*; Kano, Shigeki; Koakutsu, Toru; *; *; Atsumo, Hideo

PNC TN965 73-03, 130 Pages, 1973/09

PNC-TN965-73-03.pdf:9.97MB

We constructed Medium purity material test loop in March, 1972. In this report, we described the basic conceptional design, the outline, the operation mode, the constraction history and the test run about the loop. In the end of this report, we piked up the future problems gaiued by our works.

JAEA Reports

None

Kano, Shigeki; *; *; *; *; Koakutsu, Toru; Atsumo, Hideo

PNC TN952 71-02, 271 Pages, 1971/10

PNC-TN952-71-02.pdf:7.69MB

None

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