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論文

Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of $$^{185}$$Re in the keV energy region

片渕 竜也*; 佐藤 八起*; 武部 花凛*; 井頭 政之*; 梅澤 征悟*; 藤岡 諒*; 齋藤 辰宏*; 岩本 信之

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 6 Pages, 2024/00

Measurements of the neutron capture cross section of $$^{185}$$Re have been limited in the keV energy region. In addition, existing measured data have discrepancies. In this study, the neutron time-of-flight method was employed to measure the capture cross section of $$^{185}$$Re at Tokyo Institute of Technology. The capture $$gamma$$-rays were detected with a large volume NaI(Tl) detector. The pulse-height weighting technique was applied to obtain the capture yield. The present results were corrected for neutron scattered effects and impurities in the sample. The measured cross sections were determined with the standard capture cross section of gold in the energy range from 15 to 90 keV, and compared with measured and evaluated data. The results of the measurement provided improved accuracy relative to previous studies in the keV energy range.

論文

Origin of dissolved organic matter in deep groundwater of marine deposits and its implication for metal binding

斉藤 拓巳*; 西 柊作*; 天野 由記; 別部 光里*; 宮川 和也

ACS ES&T Water (Internet), 3(12), p.4103 - 4112, 2023/12

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays important roles for the fate of contaminants and nutrients in the nature. Nevertheless, our understanding on DOM in deep groundwater is limited. This study tackled this issue by intensive groundwater sampling at various depths of an underground research laboratory. The origin and the binding properties of different fluorescent DOM components against Eu(III) were studied by fluorescence emission-excitation-matrices (EEMs) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Four components with distinctive fluorescent properties were obtained by PARAFAC: one marine humic-like component, two terrestrial humic-like components, and one protein-like component. It was revealed that Eu(III) strongly bound to the terrestrial humic-like components but less so to the marine humic-like component. The partial least squares (PLS) regression further revealed the origin and distributions of the components. It was suggested that microbial decomposition of the DOM components, the input of marine humic-like component from sedimentary rocks and mixing of fossil meteoric and sea waters determined their spatial distributions and affinities to Eu(III). These results indicated the dynamic nature of DOM in deep groundwater of marine deposits and provided an important insight to discuss their impacts on the migration of contaminants and nutrient in deep underground environments.

論文

${it In situ}$ Ga K-edge XANES study of Ga-exchanged zeolites at high temperatures under different atmospheres including vacuum, CO, and pressurized H$$_{2}$$

Huang, M.*; 金城 哲弥*; 安村 駿作*; 鳥屋尾 隆*; 松村 大樹; 齋藤 寛之*; 清水 研一*; 並木 則和*; 前野 禅*

Catalysis Science & Technology, 13(23), p.6832 - 6838, 2023/12

Ga-exchanged zeolites are promising catalysts for dehydrogenative alkane transformations. Reduced Ga species, such as Ga hydrides and Ga$$^{+}$$ cations, are possible active sites for alkane dehydrogenation based on in situ spectroscopic studies. However, most of the reported studies were conducted at lower temperatures compared with those encountered in actual operating conditions. In this study, the in situ Ga K-edge XANES analysis of Ga-exchanged MFI zeolite was performed under actual operating temperatures and different atmospheres (H$$_{2}$$, He, CO, vacuum, and C$$_{2}$$H$$_{6}$$). The absorption edge appeared at similarly lower energy values than that of Ga$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ in all atmospheres, whereas the main absorption peak intensity differed depending on the presence or absence of a hydride source in the gas phase. Higher intensities were observed under H$$_{2}$$ and C$$_{2}$$H$$_{6}$$ atmospheres than under CO and vacuum atmospheres.

論文

Polarization dependence of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the heavy fermion superconductor CeNi$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$

藤原 秀紀*; 中谷 泰博*; 荒谷 秀和*; 金井 惟奈*; 山神 光平*; 濱本 諭*; 木須 孝幸*; 関山 明*; 田中 新*; 海老原 孝雄*; et al.

New Physics; Sae Mulli, 73(12), p.1062 - 1066, 2023/12

We have performed soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on the heavy fermion superconductor CeNi$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ to examine the local 4${it f}$ electronic structure. The XAS spectra are qualitatively explained by ionic calculations, indicating a degree of localized character of the 4${it f}$ states, while sizable ${it cf}$-hybridization effects are also observed in the XAS spectra and those magnetic circular dichroism. In addition, the temperature dependence of linear dichroism in the XAS spectra indicates that the ground state symmetry is $$Gamma$$$$_{7}$$, and the excited states with $$Gamma$$$$_{6}$$ symmetry is above 390 K.

論文

Impact of the ground-state 4${it f}$ symmetry for anisotropic ${it cf}$ hybridization in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeNi$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$

藤原 秀紀*; 中谷 泰博*; 荒谷 秀和*; 金井 惟奈*; 山神 光平*; 濱本 諭*; 木須 孝幸*; 山崎 篤志*; 東谷 篤志*; 今田 真*; et al.

Physical Review B, 108(16), p.165121_1 - 165121_10, 2023/10

We report the ground-state symmetry of the Ce 4${it f}$ states in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeNi$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$, yielding anisotropic ${it cf}$ hybridization between the Ce 4${it f}$ states and conducting electrons. By analyzing linear dichroism in soft X-ray absorption and core-level hard X-ray photoemission spectra, the 4${it f}$ symmetry is determined as $$Sigma$$-type $$Gamma$$$$_{7}$$, promoting predominant hybridization with the conducting electrons originating from the Ge site. The band structures probed by soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission indicates that the Ge 4${it p}$ components contribute to the band renormalization through the anisotropic hybridization effects, suggesting that the control of the electronic structures of Ge orbital gives an impact to achieve the exotic phenomena in CeNi$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$.

論文

First observation of $$^{28}$$O

近藤 洋介*; Achouri, N. L.*; Al Falou, H.*; Atar, L.*; Aumann, T.*; 馬場 秀忠*; Boretzky, K.*; Caesar, C.*; Calvet, D.*; Chae, H.*; et al.

Nature, 620(7976), p.965 - 970, 2023/08

非常に中性子が過剰な原子核$$^{28}$$Oは、陽子、中性子ともに魔法数であることから古くからその性質に興味が持たれていたが、酸素の最後の束縛核$$^{24}$$Oよりも中性子が4個も多いため、これまで観測されてこなかった。この論文では、理化学研究所RIBFにて$$^{29}$$Fからの1陽子ノックアウト反応によって$$^{28}$$Oを生成し、そこから放出される中性子を測定することによって初めてその観測に成功した。核構造の観点からは、$$^{28}$$Oでは二重閉殻が保たれているか興味が持たれていたが、実験で得られた分光学的因子が殻模型計算で予言されて程度の大きいことから、閉殻構造をもたない可能性が高いことがわかった。

論文

Intruder configurations in $$^{29}$$Ne at the transition into the island of inversion; Detailed structure study of $$^{28}$$Ne

Wang, H.*; 安田 昌弘*; 近藤 洋介*; 中村 隆司*; Tostevin, J. A.*; 緒方 一介*; 大塚 孝治*; Poves, A.*; 清水 則孝*; 吉田 数貴; et al.

Physics Letters B, 843, p.138038_1 - 138038_9, 2023/08

$$^{29}$$Neからの1中性子除去反応を用いて、$$^{28}$$Neの詳細な$$gamma$$線分光を行った。平行運動量分布の解析に基づき、$$^{28}$$Neの準位構造とスピンパリティを決定し、初めて負のパリティ状態を同定した。測定された断面積と運動量分布から、N=20とN=28のシェルギャップの消失の証拠となる有意なintruder p-wave強度が明らかになった。束縛状態については、弱いf-waveの可能性のある強度が観測された。いくつかの有効相互作用を用いた大規模殻模型計算では、実験的に観測された大きなp-wave強度と小さなf-wave強度は再現されず、Ne同位体に沿った反転の島への遷移の完全な理論的記述への挑戦が続いていることを示している。

論文

Heterogeneous aggregation of humic acids studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

斉藤 拓巳*; 元川 竜平; 大窪 貴洋*; 三浦 大輔*; 熊田 高之

Environmental Science & Technology, 57(26), p.9802 - 9810, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Engineering, Environmental)

Aggregation of humic acids (HAs) were studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The combination of these techniques enables us to examine aggregation structures of heterogeneous HA particles. Two HAs with distinctive compositions were examined; a commercial HA (PAHA) and a HA extracted from deep sedimentary groundwater (HHA). While macroscopic coagulation tests showed that these HAs were stable in solutions except for HHA at pH $$<$$ 6, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that they formed aggregates with the sizes exceeding sub-micrometer length scale. The SAXS curves of PAHA remarkably varied with pD, whereas the SANS curves did not. With the help of theoretical fittings, it was revealed that PAHA aggregates consisted of two domains: poorly hydrated cores and well-hydrated proton-rich shells. The cores are (dis)aggregated with pD inside the aggregates of the shell. The SANS and SAXS curves of HHA resemble each other, and their intensities at low q increased with a decrease of pD, indicating the formation of homogeneous aggregates. This study revealed that distinctive aggregation behaviors exist in humic substances with heterogeneous structures like PAHA, which is invaluable for their roles in the fate of contaminants or nutrients in aqueous environments.

論文

Spontaneous topological Hall effect induced by non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in intercalated van der Waals materials

高木 寛貴*; 高木 里奈*; 見波 将*; 野本 拓也*; 大石 一城*; 鈴木 通人*; 柳 有起*; 平山 元昭*; Khanh, N.*; 軽部 皓介*; et al.

Nature Physics, 19(7), p.961 - 968, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:86.16(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In ferromagnets, electric current generally induces a transverse Hall voltage in proportion to the internal magnetization. This effect is frequently used for electrical readout of the spin up and down states. While these properties are usually not expected in antiferromagnets, recent theoretical studies predicted that non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order with finite scalar spin chirality - meaning a solid angle spanned by neighboring spins - can induce a large spontaneous Hall effect even without net magnetization or external magnetic field. This phenomenon, the spontaneous topological Hall effect, can potentially be used for the efficient electrical readout of the antiferromagnetic states, but it has not been experimentally verified due to a lack of appropriate materials hosting such magnetism. Here, we report the discovery of all-in-all-out type non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in triangular lattice compounds CoTa$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$ and CoNb$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$. These compounds are reported to host unconventionally large spontaneous Hall effect despite their vanishingly small net magnetization, and our analysis reveals that it can be explained in terms of the topological Hall effect that originates from the fictitious magnetic field associated with scalar spin chirality. These results indicate that the scalar spin chirality mechanism offers a promising route to the realisation of giant spontaneous Hall response even in compensated antiferromagnets, and highlight intercalated van der Waals magnets as a promising quasi-two-dimensional material platform to enable various nontrivial ways of electrical reading and possible writing of non-coplanar antiferromagnetic domains.

報告書

HTTR広領域中性子検出器の開発; 熱サイクル負荷に対する耐熱性能の向上

小澤 太教; 菅沼 拓朗; 本間 史隆; 東村 圭祐*; 鵜飼 隆由*; 齋藤 賢司

JAEA-Technology 2023-007, 24 Pages, 2023/06

JAEA-Technology-2023-007.pdf:2.24MB

HTTR広領域中性子検出器の高温環境下における信頼性向上を目的として、広領域中性子検出器の構造変更を検討した結果、リード線によってMIケーブル芯線と金属管を接合する構造を廃止し、MIケーブル芯線と金属管を直接接合する構造が短時間で対応できる最も信頼性が高い方法であることが明らかとなった。この方法で接続部分のモックアップを製作して熱サイクル試験及び高温耐久試験を実施した結果、HTTRの使用条件においても接続部分の健全性が保たれることが明らかとなった。

報告書

プルトニウム燃料第二開発室の廃止措置状況; GB No.W-9、F-1及び内装設備の解体

永井 佑哉; 周治 愛之; 川崎 猛; 會田 貴洋; 木村 泰久; 根本 靖範*; 小沼 武司*; 冨山 昇*; 平野 耕司*; 薄井 康弘*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2022-039, 117 Pages, 2023/06

JAEA-Technology-2022-039.pdf:11.96MB

日本原子力研究開発機構は多くの原子力施設を保有しているが、その多くで老朽化・高経年化への対応、東日本大震災及び福島第一原子力発電所の事故を受けた耐震化や新規制基準への対応が求められ、多額の予算を要する状況である。このため、役割を終えた原子力施設についても根本的なリスク低減及び維持管理費用の削減のために施設の廃止措置を進めることが望ましいが、廃止措置及び発生する放射性廃棄物の処理処分に必要な施設の整備・維持管理にも多額の費用が必要となる。この状況を踏まえ、原子力機構では(1)継続利用する施設を絞り込む「施設の集約化・重点化」、(2)新規制基準・耐震化対応、高経年化対策、リスク低減対策等の「施設の安全確保」及び(3)廃止措置、廃棄物の処理処分といった「バックエンド対策」を3つの柱とした「施設中長期計画」を策定した。本計画において、プルトニウム燃料第二開発室は廃止施設として位置付けられており、施設内に設置された設備の解体撤去を進めている。今回の解体撤去対象は、焙焼還元炉、ペレット粉砕設備、これらを包蔵するグローブボックスNo.W-9及びW-9と隣々接の工程室内に設置されているグローブボックスNo.D-1とを連結するトンネル形状のグローブボックスNo.F-1の一部であり、許認可等による約4年の作業中断期間を含めて平成26年2月から令和2年2月の約6年間をかけて作業を実施した。本報告書では、本解体撤去における作業実績、解体撤去を通して得られた知見をまとめたものである

論文

Temperature-variable apparatus for measuring Barnett field

埋田 真樹; 中堂 博之; 今井 正樹; 佐藤 奈々; 齊藤 英治

Review of Scientific Instruments, 94(6), p.063906_1 - 063906_8, 2023/06

We have developed experimental equipment for observing the Barnett effect, in which mechanical rotation magnetizes an object, at low temperatures. A sample in a rotor is rotated bidirectionally using a temperature-controlled high-pressure gas. The stray field generated from the sample due to the Barnett effect was detected using a fluxgate magnetic sensor with a sensitivity on the order of several picoteslas, even at low temperatures. By replacing the rotor with a solenoid coil, the magnetic susceptibility of the sample was estimated from the stray field to be of the same order of magnitude as that due to the Barnett effect. The Barnett field was estimated using the dipole model. To assess the performance of the setup at low temperatures, measurements were performed on commercial magnetite (Fe$$_3$$O$$_4$$) nanogranules. We confirmed the accordance of the $$it{g'}$$ factor between the experimental results using the present setup and those of our previous study performed at room temperature.

報告書

HTTR1次ヘリウム循環機フィルタの差圧上昇事象,1; 差圧上昇事象の原因調査

根本 隆弘; 荒川 了紀; 川上 悟; 長住 達; 横山 佳祐; 渡部 雅; 大西 貴士; 川本 大樹; 古澤 孝之; 猪井 宏幸; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2023-005, 33 Pages, 2023/05

JAEA-Technology-2023-005.pdf:5.25MB

HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor) RS-14サイクルの原子炉出力降下において、ヘリウムガス循環機のフィルタ差圧が上昇傾向となった。この原因を調査するため、1次ヘリウム純化設備のガス循環機の分解点検等を実施した結果、ガス循環機内のシリコンオイルミストがチャコールフィルタの性能低下で捕集できなくなり、1次系統に混入したためと推定された。今後は、フィルタ交換を実施するとともに、さらなる調査を進め、再発防止対策を策定する予定である。

論文

Treatment of U contaminated waste generated from nuclear fuel fabrication process, 1; Ce(IV) recovery by temperature swing extraction with monoamides

岩本 敏広; 齋藤 まどか*; 高畠 容子; 渡部 創; 渡部 雅之; 成瀬 惇喜*; 塚原 剛彦*

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2023/05

モノアミド抽出剤と温度応答性ポリマーを用いたゲル化抽出技術のウラン廃棄物処理への適用性の検討を行った。異なる構造を有する3種類のモノアミド抽出剤を用いた模擬溶液の分離試験により、溶液中のCe(IV)をゲル化抽出法により選択的に回収されることが示された。これらの試験結果をもとに、ゲル化抽出法に適したモノアミド抽出剤を選定した。

論文

Hydrogen occupation and hydrogen-induced volume expansion in Fe$$_{0.9}$$Ni$$_{0.1}$$D$$_x$$ at high $$P-T$$ conditions

市東 力*; 鍵 裕之*; 柿澤 翔*; 青木 勝敏*; 小松 一生*; 飯塚 理子*; 阿部 淳*; 齋藤 寛之*; 佐野 亜沙美; 服部 高典

American Mineralogist, 108(4), p.659 - 666, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:72.32(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Fe$$_{0.9}$$Ni$$_{0.1}$$H$$_x$$(D$$_x$$)の12GPa, 1000Kまでの高温高圧下における相関係と結晶構造をその場X線及び中性子回折測定により明らかにした。今回実験した温度圧力下において、Fe$$_{0.9}$$Ni$$_{0.1}$$H$$_x$$(D$$_x$$)ではFeH$$_x$$(D$$_x$$)とは異なり、重水素原子は面心立方構造(fcc)中の四面体サイトを占有しないことが明らかになった。単位重水素あたりの水素誘起膨張体積$$v_mathrm{D}$$は、fcc相で2.45(4) $AA$^3$$、hcp相で3.31(6) $AA$^3$$であり、FeD$$_x$$におけるそれぞれの値より著しく大きいことが明らかになった。また、$$v_mathrm{D}$$は温度の上昇に伴いわずかに増加した。この結果は、鉄に10%ニッケルを添加するだけで、金属中の水素の挙動が劇的に変化することを示唆している。$$v_mathrm{D}$$が圧力に関係なく一定であると仮定すると、地球内核の最大水素含有量は海洋の水素量の1-2倍であると推定される。

論文

Lanthanide and actinide ion complexes containing organic ligands investigated by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

平田 早紀子*; 日下 良二; 明地 省吾*; 為国 誠太*; 奥寺 洸介*; 浜田 昇賢*; 坂本 知優*; 本田 匠*; 松下 高輔*; 村松 悟*; et al.

Inorganic Chemistry, 62(1), p.474 - 486, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

A new technique, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy, was used for the structural investigation of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) complexes containing organic ligands. We synthesized thiol derivatives of organic ligands with coordination sites similar to those of diglycolamide (DGA), Cyanex-272, and $$N,N,N',N'$$-tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (TPEN), which have been used for separating Ln and An through solvent extraction. These ligands were attached on a gold surface deposited on an Si prism through S-Au covalent bonds; the gold surface enhanced the IR absorption intensity of the ligands. Aqueous solutions of Ln (Eu$$^{3+}$$, Gd$$^{3+}$$, Tb$$^{3+}$$) and An (Am$$^{3+}$$) ions were loaded onto the gold surface to form ion complexes. The IR spectra of the ion complexes were obtained using FT-IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode. In this study, we developed a new sample preparation method for SEIRA spectroscopy that enabled us to obtain the IR spectra of the complexes with a small amount of ion solution (5 $$mu$$L). This is a significant advantage for the IR measurement of radiotoxic Am$$^{3+}$$ complexes. In the IR spectra of DGA, the band attributed to C=O stretching vibrations at $$sim$$1630 cm$$^{-1}$$ shifted to a lower wavenumber by $$sim$$20 cm$$^{-1}$$ upon complexation with Ln and An ions. Moreover, the amount of the red-shift was inversely proportional to the extraction equilibrium constant reported in previous studies on solvent extraction. The coordination ability of DGA toward Ln and An ions could be assessed using the band position of the C=O band. The Cyanex-272- and TPEN-like ligands synthesized in this report also showed noticeable SEIRA signals for Ln and An complexes. This study indicates that SEIRA spectroscopy can be used for the structural investigation of ion complexes and provides a microscopic understanding of selective extraction of Ln and An.

論文

Spin and spin current; From fundamentals to recent progress

前川 禎通; 吉川 貴史*; 中堂 博之; 家田 淳一; 齊藤 英治

Journal of Applied Physics, 133(2), p.020902_1 - 020902_24, 2023/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:94.06(Physics, Applied)

Along with the progress of spin science and spintronics research, the flow of electron spins, i.e., spin current, has attracted interest. New phenomena and electronic states were explained in succession using the concept of spin current. Moreover, as many of the conventionally known spintronics phenomena became well organized based on spin current, it has rapidly been recognized as an essential concept in a wide range of condensed matter physics. In this article, we focus on recent developments in the physics of spin, spin current, and their related phenomena, where the conversion between spin angular momentum and different forms of angular momentum plays an essential role. Starting with an introduction to spin current, we first discuss the recent progress in spintronic phenomena driven by spin-exchange coupling: spin pumping, topological Hall torque, and emergent inductor. We, then, extend our discussion to the interaction/interconversion of spins with heat, lattice vibrations, and charge current and address recent progress and perspectives on the spin Seebeck and Peltier effects. Next, we review the interaction between mechanical motion and electron/nuclear spins and argue the difference between the Barnett field and rotational Doppler effect. We show that the Barnett effect reveals the angular momentum compensation temperature, at which the net angular momentum is quenched in ferrimagnets.

論文

Structure and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles in amorphous silica implanted with Fe ions and effect of subsequent energetic heavy ion irradiation

岩瀬 彰宏*; 福田 健吾*; 斎藤 勇一*; 岡本 芳浩; 千星 聡*; 雨倉 宏*; 松井 利之*

Journal of Applied Physics, 132(16), p.163902_1 - 163902_10, 2022/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Applied)

アモルファスSiO$$_{2}$$試料に380keVのFeイオンを室温で注入した。注入後、一部の試料に16MeVのAuイオンを照射した。SQUID磁束計を用いて磁気特性を調べ、透過型電子顕微鏡とX線吸収分光法(EXAFSとXANES)を用いてFe注入SiO$$_{2}$$試料のモルフォロジーを調べたところ、Feナノ粒子のサイズが大きくなっていることがわかった。Feナノ粒子の大きさは、Feの注入量の増加とともに大きくなった。Feナノ粒子の一部はFe酸化物からなり、Fe注入量の増加に伴い、Fe原子の価数や構造が金属$$alpha$$-Feに近くなった。Feを注入したSiO$$_{2}$$試料では、室温での磁性が観測された。少量のFeを注入した試料の磁化-磁場曲線はLangevinの式で再現され、Feナノ粒子が超常磁性的な振る舞いをすることが示唆された。また、Feを多量に注入した場合、磁化-磁場曲線は強磁性状態を示している。このような磁気特性の結果は、X線吸収の結果と一致する。その後の16MeVのAu照射により、Feナノ粒子は破砕され、その結果、磁化は減少した。

論文

Rotation of complex ions with ninefold hydrogen coordination studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and first-principles molecular dynamics calculations

大政 義典*; 高木 茂幸*; 戸嶋 健人*; 横山 凱乙*; 遠藤 亘*; 折茂 慎一*; 齋藤 寛之*; 山田 武*; 川北 至信; 池田 一貴*; et al.

Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(3), p.033215_1 - 033215_9, 2022/09

Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and neutron powder diffraction of the complex transition metalhydrides Li$$_5$$MoH$$_{11}$$ and Li$$_6$$NbH$$_{11}$$ were measured in a temperature range of 10-300 K to study their structures and dynamics, especially the dynamics of the hydrogen atoms. These hydrides contain unusual ninefold H coordinated complex ions (MoH$$_9^{3-}$$ or NbH$$_9^{4-}$$) and hydride ions (H$$^-$$). A QENS signal appeared $$>$$ 150 K due to the relaxation of H atoms. The intermediate scattering functions derived from the QENS spectra are well fitted by a stretched exponential function called the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts functions with a small stretching exponent $$beta approx$$ 0.3-0.4, suggesting a wide relaxation time distribution. The $$Q$$ dependence of the elastic incoherent structure factor is reproduced by the rotational diffusion of MH$$_9$$ (M = Mo or Nb) anions. The results are well supported by a van Hove analysis for the motion of H atoms obtained using first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. We conclude that the wide relaxation time distribution of the MH$$_9$$ rotation is due to the positional disorder of the surrounding Li ions and a unique rotation with MH$$_9$$ anion deformation (pseudorotation).

論文

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

大島 宏之; 森下 正樹*; 相澤 康介; 安藤 勝訓; 芦田 貴志; 近澤 佳隆; 堂田 哲広; 江沼 康弘; 江連 俊樹; 深野 義隆; et al.

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.3, 631 Pages, 2022/07

ナトリウム冷却高速炉(SFR: Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)の歴史や、利点、課題を踏まえた安全性、設計、運用、メンテナンスなどについて解説する。AIを利用した設計手法など、SFRの実用化に向けた設計や研究開発についても述べる。

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