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Aging of fuel-containing materials (fuel debris) in the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) Nuclear Power Plant and its implication for the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

北垣 徹; Krasnov, V.*; 池田 篤史

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 576, p.154224_1 - 154224_14, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:1.3(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Nuclear fuel debris is a complex material containing a wide range of elements, compounds, and radiation. This complexity renders all the stages of the treatment of nuclear fuel debris extremely difficult and troublesome in the technical context. The whole treatment of nuclear fuel debris is also an extremely long-term process for tens of thousands of years, during which the aging of nuclear fuel debris is an unavoidable but critical issue. This applies to the decommissioning of the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). This review article aims at collecting and summarizing the knowledge and information about the aging of materials containing nuclear fuels (fuel-containing materials) formed as a result of the accident at ChNPP-4 in the light of the decommissioning of 1F and assessing the potential effects of aging on the nuclear fuel debris remaining in the damaged 1F reactors.


アルファダストの検出を目指した超高位置分解能イメージング装置の開発(委託研究); 令和3年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-065, 111 Pages, 2023/03




Establishing an evaluation method for the aging phenomenon by physical force in fuel debris

鈴木 誠矢; 荒井 陽一; 岡村 信生; 渡部 雅之

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 10 Pages, 2023/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.04(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Radiation imaging of a highly contaminated filter train inside Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 using an integrated Radiation Imaging System based on a Compton camera

佐藤 優樹; 寺阪 祐太

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 14 Pages, 2023/00

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:92.52(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) suffered a meltdown in the aftermath of the large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011. A massive amount of radioactive substance was spread over a wide area both inside and outside the FDNPS site. In this study, we present an approach for visualizing a radioactive hotspot on a standby gas-treatment system filter train, a highly contaminated piece of equipment in the air-conditioning room of the Unit 2 reactor building of FDNPS, using radiation imaging based on a Compton camera. In addition to fixed-point measurements using only the Compton camera, data acquisition while moving using an integrated Radiation Imaging System (iRIS), which combines a Compton camera with a simultaneous localization and mapping device and a survey meter, enabled the three-dimensional visualization of the hotspot location on the filter train. In addition, we visualized the hotspot and quantitatively evaluated its radioactivity. Notably, the visualized hotspot location and estimated radioactivity value are consistent with the accident investigation report of the FDNPS. Finally, the extent to which the radioactivity increased the ambient dose equivalent rate in the surrounding environment was explored.


Quantitative visualization of a radioactive plume with harmonizing gamma-ray imaging spectrometry and real-time atmospheric dispersion simulation based on 3D wind observation

永井 晴康; 古田 禄大*; 中山 浩成; 佐藤 大樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 16 Pages, 2023/00




ガンマ線画像スペクトル分光法による高放射線場環境の画像化による定量的放射能分布解析法(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 京都大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-027, 85 Pages, 2022/11




Radiation imaging using an integrated radiation imaging system based on a compact Compton camera under Unit 1/2 exhaust stack of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

佐藤 優樹; 寺阪 祐太

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(6), p.677 - 687, 2022/06

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:88.6(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) went into meltdown after being hit by a large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Measuring and understanding the distribution of radioactive contamination inside the FDNPS is essential for decommissioning work, reducing exposure to workers, and ensuring decontamination. This paper reports the visualization tests of radioactive contamination in the Unit 1/2 exhaust stack of the FDNPS using a compact Compton camera. Fixed-point measurements were conducted using only a Compton camera and moving measurements using an integrated radiation imaging system (iRIS) that combines a Compton camera with a simultaneous localization and mapping device. For the moving measurements, an operator carrying the iRIS acquires data continuously while walking in a passage near the stack. With both types of measurements, high-intensity contamination was detected at the base of the stack, and detailed three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the contamination was obtained from the moving measurement. The fixed-point measurements estimated the source intensity of the contamination from the reconstructed contamination image acquired by the Compton camera. Furthermore, workers can experience the work environment before actual work by importing a 3D structure model into a virtual reality system displaying the contamination image.


Noninvasive imaging of hollow structures and gas movement revealed the gas partial-pressure-gradient-driven long-distance gas movement in the aerenchyma along the leaf blade to submerged organs in rice

尹 永根*; 森 欣順*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 栗田 圭輔; 山口 充孝*; 三好 悠太*; 長尾 悠人*; 芦苅 基行*; 永井 啓祐*; 河地 有木*

New Phytologist, 232(5), p.1974 - 1984, 2021/12

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:64.21(Plant Sciences)

イネ植物($$Oryza sativa$$)は中空の器官を持ち、これが水上の葉から水没した器官へ空気を供給する経路として機能すると推定される。しかし、イネにおけるガス移動はリアルタイムで可視化されていない。本研究では、部分的に水没したイネの葉に窒素13標識窒素([$$^{13}$$N]N$$_2$$)トレーサーガスを供給し、葉身、葉鞘、節間に沿って下方に移動するガスの動きを経時的に観察した。


Visualization of radioactive substances using a freely moving gamma-ray imager based on Structure from Motion

佐藤 優樹; 峯本 浩二郎*; 根本 誠*; 鳥居 建男

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 7(4), p.042003_1 - 042003_12, 2021/10

Technology for measuring and identifying the positions and distributions of radioactive substances is important for decommissioning work sites at nuclear power stations. A three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction method that locates radioactive substances by integrating Structure-from-Motion (SfM) with a Compton camera (a type of gamma-ray imager) has been developed. From the photographs captured while freely moving in an experimental environment, a 3D structural model of the experimental environment was created. By projecting the radioactive substance image acquired by the Compton camera on the 3D structural model, the positions of the radioactive substance were visualized in 3D space. In a demonstration study, the $$^{137}$$Cs-radiation source was successfully visualized in the experimental environment captured by the freely moving cameras. In addition, how the imaging accuracy is affected by uncertainty in the self-localization of the Compton camera processed by SfM, and by positional uncertainty in the gamma-ray incidence determined by the sensors of the Compton camera was investigated. The created map depicts the positions of radioactive substances inside radiation work environments, such as decommissioning work sites at nuclear power stations.


Practical tests of neutron transmission imaging with a superconducting kinetic-inductance sensor

Vu, TheDang; 宍戸 寛明*; 相澤 一也; 小嶋 健児*; 小山 富男*; 及川 健一; 原田 正英; 奥 隆之; 曽山 和彦; 宮嶋 茂之*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1006, p.165411_1 - 165411_8, 2021/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We found that the sizes of the Gd islands determined from the transmission image correlated strongly with those determined from the SEM image. We demonstrated the CB-KID could be used to identify (1) tiny voids in a thermally sprayed continuous Gd$$_2$$O$$_3$$ film in and (2) various mosaic morphologies and different eutectic microstructures in Wood's metal samples. The fact that the CB-KID system could be used to identify features of samples with a wide distribution of sizes and thicknesses is promising for real application of the device for imaging samples of interest to material scientists. Operating the CB-KID at higher temperatures appreciably improved the efficiency for simultaneously identifying the X and Y positions of hotspots. We also compared the detection efficiency with the PHITS simulations. We now plan to improve the detection efficiency by increasing the thickness of the $$^{10}$$B neutron conversion layer


Non-invasive $$^{11}$$C-imaging revealed the spatiotemporal variability in the translocation of photosynthates into strawberry fruits in response to increasing daylight integrals at leaf surface

三好 悠太*; 日高 功太*; 尹 永根*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 栗田 圭輔; 河地 有木*

Frontiers in Plant Science (Internet), 12, p.688887_1 - 688887_14, 2021/07

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:80.64(Plant Sciences)



Analysis and mapping of detailed inner information of crystalline grain by wavelength-resolved neutron transmission imaging with individual Bragg-dip profile-fitting analysis

櫻井 洋亮*; 佐藤 博隆*; 足立 望*; 諸岡 聡; 戸高 義一*; 加美山 隆*

Applied Sciences (Internet), 11(11), p.5219_1 - 5219_17, 2021/06

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:43.28(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

As a new method for evaluating single crystal and oligocrystal, pulsed neutron Bragg-dip transmission analysis/imaging method is being developed. In this study, a single Bragg-dip profile fitting analysis method was newly developed, and applied for analyzing detailed inner information in a crystalline grain position-dependently. In the method, the spectrum profile of a single Bragg-dip is analyzed at each position over a grain. As a result, it is expected that changes of crystal orientation, mosaic spread angle and thickness of a perfect crystal can be evaluated from the wavelength, the width and the integrated intensity of the Bragg-dip, respectively. For confirming this effectiveness, the method was applied to experimental data of position-dependent Bragg-dip transmission spectra of a Si-steel plate consisting of oligocrystals. As a result, inner information of multiple crystalline grains could be visualized and evaluated. The small change of crystal orientation in a grain, about 0.4$$^{circ}$$, could be observed by imaging the Bragg-dip wavelengths. By imaging the Bragg-dip widths, both another grain and mosaic block in a grain were detected. Furthermore, imaging results of the integrated intensities of Bragg-dips were consistent with the results of Bragg-dip width imaging. These small crystallographic changes have not been observed and visualized by previous Bragg-dip analysis methods.


3D position and radioactivity estimation of radiation source by a simple directional radiation detector combined with structure from motion

佐藤 優樹; 峯本 浩二郎*; 根本 誠*

Radiation Measurements, 142, p.106557_1 - 106557_6, 2021/03

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:46.88(Nuclear Science & Technology)

It is important to visualize radioactive substances' position and distribution and estimate their radioactivity levels to reduce the exposure dose of workers in radioactive areas (such as decommissioning worksites of nuclear power stations) and improve nuclear security functions. To visualize the radioactive substance's three-dimensional (3D) location, a directional radiation detector with a cylindrical shield on a simple single-pixel gamma-ray detector was applied to the structure from motion (SfM) technology using an ordinary digital camera. Verification was performed by a system that combines SfM with a CdTe sensor probe having narrow directivity. $$^{241}$$Am radiation source's position was visualized by drawing the radiation source's image acquired by the gamma-ray detector on the work area 3D model reconstructed through SfM. Furthermore, as SfM is a simultaneous localization and mapping technology, the system measures the gamma rays while measuring the gamma-ray detector's dynamic position and posture information. The measurements can be acquired while the gamma-ray detector is freely moving in the work area. These methods visualized the radiation source's position and quantitatively estimated the radiation source's radioactivity.


Neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging for microstructure and residual strain in induction hardened gears

Su, Y. H.; 及川 健一; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 堀野 孝*; 井戸原 修*; 三阪 佳孝*; 友田 陽*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.4155_1 - 4155_14, 2021/02

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:73.53(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

A time-of-flight Bragg-edge neutron transmission imaging was used to investigate the microstructure and strain distributions in a gear hardened by a newly developed two-step induction-heating method: precursor (Sample 1) and final product (Sample 2). The edge- position and edge-broadening were determined and mapped with high spatial resolution, which enabled us to confirm the two-dimensional distributions of the microstructure and residual strain. A deep hardened layer was made for Sample 1 in which martensite was formed on the entire teeth and the outer peripheral portion of the gear body. Sample 2 was subjected to double induction-hardening, where a tempered martensite was formed as the thermal refined microstructure between a fine-grained martensite at the tooth surface and a ferrite-pearlite microstructure at the core. The relationship between edge-broadening and the Vickers hardness described by a linear equation was employed to derive the elastic residual strain. The residual strain map for Sample 2 revealed that a steep compressive strain was introduced into the fine-grained martensite at the tooth surface by the super rapid induction- heating and quenching process. The reversal of tension was speculated to occur below 2 mm from the tooth tip, and the strain was almost zero in the core region.


ガンマ線画像スペクトル分光法による高放射線場環境の画像化による定量的放射能分布解析法(委託研究); 令和元年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 京都大学*

JAEA-Review 2020-044, 79 Pages, 2021/01




アルファダストの検出を目指した超高位置分解能イメージング装置の開発(委託研究); 令和元年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2020-039, 59 Pages, 2021/01




Automatic data acquisition for visualizing radioactive substances by combining a gamma-ray imager and an autonomous mobile robot

佐藤 優樹; 峯本 浩二郎*; 根本 誠*; 鳥居 建男

Journal of Instrumentation (Internet), 16(1), p.P01020_1 - P01020_18, 2021/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:15.75(Instruments & Instrumentation)

To reduce the exposure doses of workers and to establish decontamination plans, it is important to understand and visualize the distribution of radioactive substances at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan, where an accident occurred on the 11th of March, 2011. In this decommissioning work environment, radioactive substances adhered to various objects, such as rubble and equipment, and it was necessary to visualize the distribution of these contaminants in all three dimensions. The technology used to automatically and remotely acquire data to visualize the distribution of radioactive substances in three dimensions was useful for reducing the exposure dose of the workers and to shorten the survey time. We constructed an automatic data acquisition system that consisted of a Compton camera and a 3D-light detection and ranging sensor mounted on an autonomously moving robot. We also evaluated the system feasibility using radiation sources and succeeded in automatically acquiring the data required for visualizing the radiation sources. For this data acquisition, the operator did not need to operate the system after the measurements were started. The effects of the imaging parameters of the Compton camera and the accuracy of the self-position estimation of the system on the radiation-imaging accuracy are also discussed.


Measurements of intensity of produced light in water during irradiations of electron beams with energies above and below the Cerenkov-light threshold

山本 誠一*; 長尾 悠人*; 栗田 圭輔; 山口 充孝*; 河地 有木*

Journal of Instrumentation (Internet), 16(1), p.P01007_1 - P01007_9, 2021/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Instruments & Instrumentation)



Homogeneity of neutron transmission imaging over a large sensitive area with a four-channel superconducting detector

Vu, TheDang; 宍戸 寛明*; 小嶋 健児*; 小山 富男*; 及川 健一; 原田 正英; 宮嶋 茂之*; 奥 隆之; 曽山 和彦; 相澤 一也; et al.

Superconductor Science and Technology, 34(1), p.015010_1 - 015010_10, 2021/01

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:42.13(Physics, Applied)

We demonstrated that a four-readout superconducting neutron imaging system shows good spatial heterogeneity and linearity using the delay-line method. We examined the precise pattern of a $$^{10}$$B-dot-array absorber and found the X-direction pitch (Px) = 250.7 um with a scatter of (Hx)= 5.4 um and the Y-direction pitch (Py)= 249.1 um with a scatter of (Hy)= 3.4 um while the $$^{10}$$B dot array was fully extended toward the X direction across the detector sensitive area. We consider that this demonstrates detection with good spatial homogeneity and conclude. The transmission-imaging system is suitable for use at pulsed neutron facilities. We also reported a clear transmission image of tiny screws and nuts, and ladybug (insect). We recognize that further efforts to improve the detection efficiency are necessary to make using the detector more practical.



丹羽 正和; 植木 忠正*; 星 博幸*; 杉崎 雄一*

JAEA-Research 2020-003, 33 Pages, 2020/07



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