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Journal Articles

Analytical study on removal mechanisms of cesium aerosol from a noble gas bubble rising through liquid sodium pool, 2; Effects of particle size distribution and agglomeration in aerosols

Miyahara, Shinya*; Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Seino, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Takuto*; Uno, Masayoshi*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2021/08

In a postulated accident of fuel pin failure of sodium cooled fast reactor, a fission product cesium will be released from the failed pin as an aerosol such as cesium iodide and/or cesium oxide together with a fission product noble gas such as xenon and krypton. As the result, the xenon and krypton released with cesium aerosol into the sodium coolant as bubbles have an influence on the removal of cesium aerosol by the sodium pool in a period of bubble rising to the pool surface. In this study, cesium aerosol removal behavior due to inertial deposition, sedimentation and diffusion from a noble gas bubble rising through liquid sodium pool was analyzed by a computer program which deals with the expansion and the deformation of the bubble together with the aerosol absorption considering the effects of particle size distribution and agglomeration in aerosols. In the analysis, initial bubble diameter, sodium pool depth and temperature, aerosol particle diameter and density, initial aerosol concentration in the bubble were changed as parameter, and the results for the sensitivities of these parameters on decontamination factor (DF) of cesium aerosol were compared with the results of the previous study in which the effects of particle size distribution and agglomeration in aerosols were not considered. From the results, it was concluded that the sensitivities of initial bubble diameter, the aerosol particle diameter and density to the DF became significant due to the inertial deposition of agglomerated aerosols. To validate these analysis results, the simulation experiments have been conducted using a simulant particles of cesium aerosol under the condition of room temperature in water pool and air bubble systems. The experimental results were compared with the analysis results calculated under the same condition.

Journal Articles

The Effect and effectiveness of decontaminating a pond in a residential area of Fukushima

Katengeza, E. W.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Iimoto, Takeshi*; Yoshinaga, Shinji*

Health Physics, 121(1), p.48 - 57, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

Special reconstruction and revitalization bases were designated in Fukushima's difficult-to-return zones by the Japanese government as targets of intensive decontamination to drastically lower air dose rates and enable residents to return. A pond amidst residences of one of these bases was targeted for decontamination and this study aimed at evaluating the effect and effectiveness of the decontamination by decontamination factor, air dose rate reduction factor, and the additional annual effective dose to residents. Air dose rates were measured in-situ with KURAMMA-II while soil core samples were collected and measured for radioactivity in the laboratory by gamma spectrometry. Lower decontamination factors were observed for more deeply distributed radiocesium soil profiles whereas areas covered with gravel demonstrated the largest reduction in air dose rates. Decontamination effectively lowered the radiocesium inventory and air dose rates by 51% and 37-91% respectively. Moreover, the additional annual effective dose to the public changed from 1.7$$pm$$0.79 mSv to 1.2$$pm$$0.57 mSv because of decontamination representing a dose aversion of 29%. These findings demonstrate how decontaminating ponds in residential areas can help to further lower the external exposure.

Journal Articles

Frontline of R&D for decommissioning and waste disposal, 1; R&D for processing and disposal of low-level radioactive waste and closure of uranium mine

Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Sugitsue, Noritake; Sato, Fuminori; Matsushima, Ryotatsu; Kataoka, Shoji; Okada, Shota; Sasaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Junya

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 62(11), p.658 - 663, 2020/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Analytical study on removal mechanisms of cesium aerosol from a noble gas bubble rising through liquid sodium pool

Miyahara, Shinya*; Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Seino, Hiroshi

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

In a postulated accident of fuel pin failure of sodium cooled fast reactor, a fission product cesium will be released as an aerosol such as cesium iodide and/or oxide together with xenon and/or krypton. In this study, cesium aerosol removal behavior due to inertial deposition, sedimentation and diffusion was analyzed by a computer program which deals with the expansion and the deformation of the bubble together with the aerosol absorption. Initial bubble diameter, sodium pool depth and temperature, aerosol particle diameter and density, initial aerosol concentration were changed as parameter. From the results, it was concluded that the initial bubble diameter was most sensitive parameter to the decontamination factor (DF). It was found that the sodium pool depth, the aerosol particle diameter and density have also important effect on the DF, but the sodium temperature has a marginal effect. To meet these results, the experiments are under planning to validate the results.

JAEA Reports

Decontamination simulation and future prediction of air dose rate in difficult to return zone in Fukushima Prefecture

Yamashita, Takuya; Sawada, Noriyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2019-010, 227 Pages, 2020/03


In order to support the decontamination activities proceeded by the national government and municipalities in terms of technology, we have developed a simulation system "RESET" which predicts the effect of decontamination. We also developed a "two-component model" for the purpose of predicting long-term changes in the air dose rate. We use these tools to perform decontamination simulation and predictive analysis of the air dose rate after decontamination, and provide information to the national government and municipalities aiming for reconstruction. In this report, the verification result of the prediction methods implemented using actual measurement data obtained in the "Decontamination model demonstration project in difficult-to-return zone" and "Survey result on transition of air dose rate after decontamination model demonstration project" conducted by Ministry of the Environment. In addition, the decontamination simulation conducted for the entire difficult-to-return area and the results of future prediction of the air dose rate after decontamination are shown.

Journal Articles

Development of evaluation method for aerosol particle deposition in a reactor building based on CFD

Horiguchi, Naoki; Miyahara, Naoya; Uesawa, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Osaka, Masahiko

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05

For source term evaluation from reactor buildings (RBs) in LWR severe accidents, we have launched to develop an evaluation method of FP aerosol particle deposition onto surfaces of internal structures in an RB based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper describes development of a CFD simulation tool as the base part of the evaluation method. A preliminary simulation for a representative RB under a representative flow condition was conducted to confirm the tool performance by roughly grasping the deposition behaviors of FP aerosol particle and decontamination factor (DF) in the RB. Calculation results showed that most of aerosol particles were deposited along with gas flow formed by the internal structures in the RB, demonstrating the advantageous feature of the present CFD tool. The DFs from 4 to 14 were obtained with increase of the particle diameters from 0.1 to 10 $$mu$$m as expected in terms of the particle movement equation.

Journal Articles

Uranium waste engineering research at the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center of JAEA

Umezawa, Katsuhiro; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Nakayama, Takuya; Nakagiri, Toshio

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2019/05

In December 2016, the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA Ningyo-toge) announced new concept of "Uranium and Environmental Research Platform". As part of the concept, uranium waste engineering research are now undergoing. The objective of the research is to establish the processing technology for safely and reasonable disposal of uranium waste. In particular, estimation of the amount of uranium and harmful substances and development of technologies to reduce their concentration in the waste to the permissive level for the disposal in shallow ground disposal are needed. We are now developing the technologies to reduce the concentration of uranium and harmful substances shown below. (1) Survey on uranium inventory. Uranium waste is now stored in 10-odd thousands of 200 L drums. We are surveying amount and chemical form of uranium in the drums. (2) Development of decontamination technology of metal and concrete waste. We are investigating decontamination methods for metals and concrete contaminated with uranium. (3) Development of technologies to remove, detoxify and fix the harmful substances. We are surveying the types and amounts of harmful substances in waste. In addition, we are investigating the method to remove, detoxify, and fix harmful substances. (4) Measurement technology of uranium radioactivity. We are investigating and examining ways to improve the quantitative accuracy of measurement and shorten the measurement time. (5) Development of uranium removal technology from sludge. We are investigating new processing method to remove uranium from sludge which is applicable for several kind of sludge. The results of these technological developments and environmental research will be reflected to "small-scale field test" and "disposal demonstration test" which are planned for demonstration of the uranium waste disposal technology.

JAEA Reports

Restoration activity of the contamination accident at plutonium fuel research facility

Restoration Activity Team for the PFRF Contamination Incident

JAEA-Review 2019-001, 58 Pages, 2019/03


The contamination accident occurred in a laboratory room (Room No.108) of Plutonium Fuel Research Facility (PFRF) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Oarai Research and Development Institute on June 6, 2017. The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags burst just after the lid of one storage container was opened during the inspection of storage containers for U and Pu in the ventilation hood. At that time, part of nuclear materials in the storage container were scattered all over the room. Five workers in the room were subjected to plutonium contamination, which resulted in internal exposure. In order to restore the Room No.108 of PFRF, the Restoration Activity Team organized in JAEA carried out the decontamination work after the investigation of the contamination level in the room. The team decontaminated the surface of walls, ceiling, gloveboxes and other experimental instruments. Depending on the contamination distribution and installation state of the instruments, suitable decontamination methods were selected. In addition to the manual wiping using wet clothes, the exfoliation method using a strippable paint was applied for constricted areas. As a result, the loose alpha-contamination level fell below the detection limit throughout the room. On the other hand, the fixed contamination was covered with plastic sheets after the decontamination by a strippable paint. We hope that the restoration activity described in this report will provide useful information for the management of decommissioning facilities, especially for facilities treating alpha-radioactive materials such as plutonium.

Journal Articles

7.2.3 Towards implementation of Fukushima environmental remediation

Miyahara, Kaname; Kawase, Keiichi

Genshiryoku No Ima To Ashita, p.159 - 167, 2019/03

This manuscript overviews lessons learned from decontamination pilot projects towards implementation of regional remediation after the environmental contamination due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

Journal Articles

Modelling the effect of mechanical remediation on dose rates above radiocesium contaminated land

Malins, A.; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Machida, Masahiko

Remediation Measures for Radioactively Contaminated Areas, p.259 - 272, 2019/00

Journal Articles

Safety assessment for recycling of soil generated from decontamination activities

Takeda, Seiji

Str${aa}$levern Rappot 2018:4 (Internet), p.62 - 64, 2018/04

The widespread environment was contaminated by radioactive cesium discharged by the severe accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Decontamination measures have been implemented extensively, resulting in the generation of large volume of decontamination soil that has been placed in temporary storage. To reduce the volume of decontamination soil, it can be effective to recycle the soil as construction material. This report shows the concept of safety assessment method for recycle to public projects in which the management system and allocation of responsibility are clarified, scenario construction and parameter selection, and also the results of safe assessment for the recycle to coastal levees.

Journal Articles

Activities for environmental restoration in Fukushima Environmental Safety Center of JAEA; Miharu-town and Minamisoma-city

Shobu, Nobuhiro

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(10), p.21 - 22, 2017/10

After the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been carrying out research and development activities towards the environmental restoration of Fukushima. This paper describes the following representative activities in Fukushima Environmental Safety Center of JAEA, such as the development of environmental monitoring and mapping technologies, the long-term assessment of transport of radio-cesium in the environment of Fukushima, and the technology development for advancing decontamination and volume reduction technologies.

Journal Articles

Implementation of decontamination technologies appropriate to Japanese boundary conditions

Kawase, Keiichi

Global Environmental Research (Internet), 20(1&2), p.83 - 90, 2017/03

Major challenges to implementing full-scale environmental decontamination were the absence of real-world examples and also lack of experience in planning and implementing decontamination technology appropriate to the physical and social boundary conditions in both Japan and Fukushima. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency was thus charged with conducting a range of Decontamination Pilot Project to examine the applicability of decontamination technologies, with a special focus on reducing dose rates and thus allowing evacuees to return to re-establish their normal lifestyles as quickly as possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining worker safety. In this report, re-edit the report of the Decontamination Pilot Project (Nakayama et al.,2014), do the commentary for the decontamination technology.

Journal Articles

Assessment of residual doses to population after decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture

Mori, Airi; Takahara, Shogo; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iijima, Masashi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 166(Part 1), p.74 - 82, 2017/01

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:35.83(Environmental Sciences)

Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Many inhabitants residing in the affected areas are now exposed to radiation in their daily lives. In an attempt to manage this radiation dose, an additional radiation dose of 1 mSv/y was adopted as a long-term dosimetric target. An activity level reading of 0.23 $$mu$$Sv/h was then determined as a guidance value to achieve the target by implementing decontamination measures. The objectives of this study are to assess the effects of decontamination based on this guidance value and to predict any possible future problems with the decontamination strategy. Using a probabilistic approach, we assessed the annual effective dose of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners in the Fukushima Prefecture. Our probabilistic model considers the variabilities in behavioral patterns and Cs-137 surface-activity levels. Five years after the initial contamination, the 95th percentiles of indoor workers and pensioners in 53 of the 59 municipalities were found to receive annual effective doses of below 1 mSv/y (0.026-0.73 mSv/y). However, for outdoor workers in 25 municipalities, the annual doses were over 1 mSv/y (1.0-35 mSv/y). Therefore, the guidance value is effective for indoor workers and pensioners; to determine whether additional countermeasures for outdoor workers should be implemented, a detailed assessment that uses more realistic assumptions is required.

Journal Articles

Purification of uranium products in crystallization system for nuclear fuel reprocessing

Takeuchi, Masayuki; Yano, Kimihiko; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Sambommatsu, Yuji*; Nakamura, Kazuhito*; Chikazawa, Takahiro*; Hirasawa, Izumi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(4), p.521 - 528, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:25.63(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Fukushima cleanup; Status and lessons

Miyahara, Kaname; McKinley, I. G.*; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki; Hardie, S. M. L.*

Nuclear Engineering International, 60(736), p.12 - 14, 2015/11

Remediation work in Fukushima is based on a comprehensive technical knowledge base, which is translated into actions that enable the rapid return of evacuees but also provides a globally valuable resource for disaster planning and contaminated site remediation.

Journal Articles

Measurements and evaluations of air dose rates around Fukushima, 5; Characteristics of air dose rate distribution in the environment around the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant site

Mikami, Satoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Ando, Masaki; Kinase, Sakae; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Kawase, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Saito, Kimiaki

Radioisotopes, 64(9), p.589 - 607, 2015/09

This article presents the features of regional distributions and temporal changes in air dose rate and radionuclide deposition densities in Fukushima on the basis of analyses on large-scale environmental monitoring results using diverse methods. The continuity of decontamination effects is discussed according to repeated monitoring data after the decontamination model project. Further, some examples are shown on the projection of air dose rates together with the ecological half lives for different land uses.

JAEA Reports

Essentials of neutron multiplicity counting mathematics; An Example of U-Pu mixed dioxide

Hosoma, Takashi

JAEA-Research 2015-009, 162 Pages, 2015/08


Neutron coincidence counting assay systems have been developed in the last two decades. Objects would extend to high-mass uranium-plutonium dioxide containing other spontaneous fission nuclei, so essentials of neutron multiplicity counting were reconsidered and expanded: (a) Formulae of multiplicity distribution were algebraically derived up to septuplet using a probability generating function; (b) Leakage multiplication was evaluated not by Monte Carlo method but by an average length from an arbitrary point inside a sample to an arbitrary point on its surface and a probability of induced fission within the length; (c) Mechanism of coincidence counting was associated with a couple of different time axes in Poisson process, and consequently a pair of close-to-coincident neutrons from the process was derived. For the formulae, new expressions using combination were wrote down. For spectrum and mean free path, actually treated uranium-plutonium dioxide was selected as an example.

Journal Articles

Decontamination and volume reduction of cesium-contaminated soil by combining soil solidification with interpolyelectrolyte complex and wet classification

Yamashita, Yuji*; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Nagano, Tetsushi; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Naganawa, Hirochika

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 305(2), p.583 - 587, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:40.75(Chemistry, Analytical)

We propose a method for the decontamination and waste volume reduction of cesium-contaminated soil. The soils were solidified with an interpolyelectrolyte complex solution and classified into several size fractions by wet sieving. $$gamma$$-ray spectrometry of these fractions showed that the distribution ratio of the activity concentration of coarse soil particles decreased, whereas that of soil particles under 0.075 mm increased relative to reference samples. Results show that the fine soil particles, on which radioactive cesium accumulates, were removed from the surface of the coarse soil particles during, and remained in the washing water.

JAEA Reports

Remediation of contaminated areas in the aftermath of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station; Overview, analysis and lessons learned, 2; Recent developments, supporting R&D and international discussions

Fukushima Environmental Safety Center, Sector of Fukushima Research and Development

JAEA-Review 2014-052, 49 Pages, 2015/03


The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was charged with conducting a range of "Decontamination Pilot Project" to examine the applicability of decontamination technologies. The project was implemented at 16 sites in 11 municipalities within the evacuated zone. Despite tight boundary conditions in terms of timescale and resources, the project provides a good basis for developing recommendations on how to assure decontamination efficiency and worker safety whilst additionally constraining costs, subsequent waste management and environmental impacts. This report, based on the Japanese detailed reports that have been published elsewhere, consists of two volumes. The volume 1 summarises the Decontamination Pilot Project, providing the background required to put this work in context for an international audience. In this volume 2, the subsequent application of output from these projects to regional remediation now being conducted by the Japanese government and municipalities, is discussed, along with a status update on such work, an overview of associated JAEA's R&D and international input to/review of regional environmental decontamination in Fukushima.

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