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Elucidation of solid particle interfacial phenomena in liquid sodium; Magnetic interactions on liquid metal and solid atoms at the solid interface

Tei, C.; 大高 雅彦; 桑原 大介*

Chemical Physics Letters, 829, p.140755_1 - 140755_6, 2023/10



Soil dust and bioaerosols as potential sources for resuspended $$^{137}$$Cs occurring near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

太田 雅和; 高原 省五; 吉村 和也; 長久保 梓; 廣内 淳; 林 奈穂; 阿部 智久; 舟木 泰智; 永井 晴康

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 264, p.107198_1 - 107198_15, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Environmental Sciences)



The Development of a Multiphysics Coupled Solver for Studying the Effect of Dynamic Heterogeneous Configuration on Particulate Debris Bed Criticality and Cooling Characteristics

Li, C.-Y.; Wang, K.*; 内堀 昭寛; 岡野 靖; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; 高田 孝*; 岡本 孝司*

Applied Sciences (Internet), 13(13), p.7705_1 - 7705_29, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0

For a sodium-cooled fast reactor, the capability for stable cooling and avoiding re-criticality on the debris bed is essential for achieving in-vessel retention when severe accidents occur. However, an unexploited uncertainty still existed regarding the compound effect of the heterogeneous configuration and dynamic particle redistribution for the debris bed's criticality and cooling safety assessment. Therefore, this research aims to develop a numerical tool for investigating the effects of the different transformations of the heterogeneous configurations on the debris bed's criticality/cooling assessment. Based on the newly proposed methodology in this research, via integrating the Discrete Element Method (DEM) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Monte-Carlo-based Neutronics (MCN), the coupled CFD-DEM-MCN solver was constructed with the originally created interface to integrate two existing codes. The effects of the different bed configurations' transformations on the bed safety assessments were also quantitively confirmed, indicating that the effect of the particle-centralized fissile material had the dominant negative effect on the safety margin of avoiding re-criticality and particle re-melting accidents and had a more evident impact than the net bed-centralized effect. This coupled solver can serve to further assess the debris bed's safety via a multi-physics simulation approach, leading to safer SFR design concepts.


Occurrence of radioactive cesium-rich micro-particles (CsMPs) in a school building located 2.8 km south-west of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

笛田 和希*; 小宮 樹*; 蓑毛 健太*; 堀江 憲路*; 竹原 真美*; 山崎 信哉*; 塩津 弘之; 大貫 敏彦*; Grambow, B.*; Law, G. T. W.*; et al.

Chemosphere, 328, p.138566_1 - 138566_12, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Environmental Sciences)

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) derived radioactive Cs-rich microparticles (CsMPs) present a potential health risk through inhalation. Despite their occurrence in indoor environments impacted by the FDNPP accident, little is known about their prevalence. In this study, we quantitatively analyse the distribution and number of CsMPs in indoor dust samples collected from an elementary school located 2.8 km to the southwest of FDNPP. The school had remained untouched until 2016. Then, using a modified version of the autoradiography based "quantifying CsMPs (mQCP) method," we collected samples and determined the number of CsMPs and Cs radioactive fraction (RF) values of the microparticles (defined as total Cs activity from CsMPs / bulk Cs activity of entire sample). The numbers of CsMPs were determined to be 653 - 2570 particles/g and 296 - 1273 particles/g on the first and second floors of the school, respectively. The corresponding RFs ranged between 6.85 - 38.9 % and 4.48 - 6.61 %, respectively. The number of CsMPs and RF values in additional outdoor samples near the school building were and 23 - 63 particles/g and 1.14 - 1.61 %, respectively. The CsMPs were most abundant on the School's first floor near to the entrance, and the relative abundance was high near to the stairs on the second floor, indicating a likely CsMP dispersion path through the building. Additional wetting of the indoor samples combined with autoradiography revealed that indoor dusts had a distinct absence of intrinsic, soluble Cs species like CsOH. Combined, the results indicate that a significant amount of poorly soluble CsMPs were likely contained in initial radioactive airmass plumes from the FDNPP and that the microparticles could penetrate buildings. Clean-up plans for buildings / residential areas impacted by CsMP containing plumes, and monitoring of areas re-opened to the public, should take account of CsMPs in dusts.


Pore connectivity influences mass transport in natural rocks; Pore structure, gas diffusion and batch sorption studies

Yuan, X.*; Hu, Q.*; Lin, X.*; Zhao, C.*; Wang, Q.*; 舘 幸男; 深津 勇太; 濱本 昌一郎*; Siitari-Kauppi, M.*; Li, X.*

Journal of Hydrology, 618, p.129172_1 - 129172_15, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Engineering, Civil)

Mass transport in geomedia as influenced by the pore structure is an important phenomenon. Six rocks (granodiorite, limestone, two chalks, mudstone, and dolostone) with different extents of heterogeneity at six different particle sizes were studied to describe the effects of pore connectivity on mass transport. The multiple methods applied were porosity measurement, gas diffusion test, and batch sorption test of multiple ions. Porosity measurement results reveal that with decreasing particle sizes, the effective porosities for the "heterogenous" group (granodiorite and limestone) increase, whereas the porosities of "homogeneous" group (chalks, mudstone, and dolostone) roughly remain constant. Gas diffusion results show that the intraparticle gas diffusion coefficient among these two groups, varying in the magnitude of 10$$^{-8}$$ to 10$$^{-6}$$ m$$^{2}$$/s. The batch sorption work displays a different affinity of these rocks for tracers, which are related to their mineral components. For granodiorite, mudstone, and dolostone, the adsorption capacity increases as the particle size decreases, due to higher specific surface area in smaller particle-size. In general, this integrated research of grain size distribution, rock porosity, intraparticle diffusivity, and ionic sorption capacity gives insights into the pore connectivity effect on both gas diffusion and chemical transport behaviors for different lithologies and/or different particle sizes.


Origin of Cs-bearing silicate glass microparticles observed during Fukushima accident and recommendations on nuclear safety

日高 昭秀

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 332, p.1607 - 1623, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Chemistry, Analytical)

福島第一原子力発電所事故時に初めて放出されたタイプA Cs含有微粒子(以下、タイプA)の生成機構について、これまで様々な生成機構説が議論されてきた。筆者は、3号機の非常用ガス処理系(SGTS)のHEPAフィルタが水素爆発時に溶融して微粒化したことにより生成したと考えた。しかし、その仮説は、熱水力と大気拡散及びその学際領域にも及んで複雑であり、まだ推論が多く含まれている。このため、今後は様々な専門家による検証や、タイプA生成に関する再現試験が必要と考えた。さらに、もし仮説が正しいとした場合、HEPAフィルタは安全上重要な機器であり、水素爆発防止対策やHEPAフィルタの設計等にも影響するかもしれないと考え始めていた。そこで、これらの検討を進めるため、タイプAの生成機構に関して、総合的に解説したレビューが必要との結論に至った。本稿では、筆者がこれまでに執筆した論文等に基づき、仮説の根拠、検証及びその仮説が正しいとした時に実際に何が起こったと考えられるか、今後の課題、原子力安全性の更なる向上の観点からの提言について述べる。


低線量・低線量率放射線被ばくによる臓器別酸化ストレス状態の検討(委託研究); 令和3年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-063, 86 Pages, 2023/02




Bench-scale injection of magnesium hydroxide encapsulated iron nanoparticles (nFe$$^{0}$$@Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$) into porous media for Cr(VI) removal from groundwater

Maamoun, I.; Falyouna, O.*; Eljamal, R.*; Idham, M. F.*; 田中 万也; Eljamal, O.*

Chemical Engineering Journal, 451, Part3, p.138718_1 - 138718_22, 2023/01

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:90.95(Engineering, Environmental)

Chromium (VI) contamination in groundwater represents a significant threat to the current and future groundwater resources. Thus, in this work detailed investigation was conducted on the injection of magnesium hydroxide encapsulated iron nanoparticles (nFe$$^{0}$$@Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$) into a 3-D bench-scale groundwater treatment system for Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) and total iron concentration profiles were determined for the injection of both nFe$$^{0}$$ and nFe$$^{0}$$@Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ into porous media. The results indicated the expected poor mobility of nFe$$^{0}$$, which caused the accumulation of the injected mass within the injection zone and the low spreading range along the length of the aquifer. The injection of nFe$$^{0}$$@Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ into the groundwater treatment system for 80 consecutive cycles resulted in a clear enhancement in preventing the rapid corrosion of the iron core and around twenty percent improvement in the final Cr(VI) removal efficiency compared with that of nFe$$^{0}$$. The injected nFe$$^{0}$$@Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ maintained the full Cr(VI) removal efficiency for 30 post-injection cycles. Such a promising potential of the nFe$$^{0}$$@Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$, proposed it as one of the perfect candidates for in-situ water treatment applications, as a reactive nanomaterial with enhanced features, in terms of the prolonged reactive performance and the widespread of the injection zone to cover a larger contaminated area within the porous media.


A 3D particle-based simulation of heat and mass transfer behavior in the EAGLE ID1 in-pile test

Zhang, T.*; 守田 幸路*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; 神山 健司

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 179, p.109389_1 - 109389_10, 2022/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:40.11(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The ID1 test was the final target test of the EAGLE experimental framework program. It was used to verify that during a core disruptive accident, the molten fuel could be discharged via wall failure of an inner duct in FAIDUS, a design concept for the sodium-cooled fast reactor. The ID1 results revealed that the wall failure behavior owed to the large heat flow from the surrounding fuel/steel mixture. The present study numerically investigated the heat transfer mechanisms in the test using the finite volume particle method in the three-dimensional domain. The thermal hydraulic behaviors during wall failure were reproduced reasonably. The present three-dimensional simulation mitigated inherent defects of our previous two-dimensional calculation and clarified that the solid fuel and liquid steel close to the outer surface of the duct can expose the duct to high thermal loads, resulting in the wall failure.


The Formation mechanism of radiocesium-bearing microparticles derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant using electron microscopy

萩原 大樹; 近藤 啓悦; 日高 昭秀

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 331(12), p.5905 - 5914, 2022/12

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:63.62(Chemistry, Analytical)

Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs) were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the 2011 accident. We examined the CsMP formation process by analyzing Type-A particles and conducting in situ glass fiber experiments. The results demonstrated that heating glass fibers to 450$$^{circ}$$C - 800$$^{circ}$$C formed spherical particles, their morphologies and elemental compositions were similar to those of actual CsMPs. The mock-up particles size was strongly dependent on the glass-fiber thickness. Our findings reveal that glass fibers can form microparticles after being exposed to high temperatures.


Particle-based simulation of jet impingement behaviors

高塚 大地*; 守田 幸路*; Liu, W.*; Zhang, T.*; 中村 武志*; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10

A 3D particle-based simulation code was developed to analyze jet impingement behavior, and the physical models for thermal-hydraulic interactions between molten jets and solid plates used in the code was validated by simulating existing jet impingement experiments. In addition, particle-based simulations were conducted to understand the impingement characteristics of molten MOX fuel jets on SS plates, and the erosion rate of the SS plate was evaluated. The results showed that fuel crusts formed on the plate potentially provide thermal protection and confirmed the effect of the plate erosion rate on the jet diameter under conditions where crust formation is dominant.


Radioactive particles from a range of past nuclear events; Challenges posed by highly varied structure and composition

Johansen, M. P.*; Child, D. P.*; Collins, R.*; Cook, M.*; Davis, J.*; Hotchkis, M. A. C.*; Howard, D. L.*; Howell, N.*; 池田 篤史; Young, E.*

Science of the Total Environment, 842, p.156755_1 - 156755_11, 2022/10

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:54.86(Environmental Sciences)

While they have appeared only recently in earth's history, radioactive particles from anthropogenic sources are widespread in global environments and present radiological harm potentials to living organisms. Here we compare a varied set of particles from past nuclear fission and non-fission sources in Australia of highly diverse magnitudes, release modes, and environments. Numerous radioactive particles persist in soils 60 + years after their release events. Particles can be distinguished by their Ca/Fe and Si/Fe elemental ratios, which in this study range over orders of magnitude and reflect the materials available during their individual formation events. The particles from nuclear testing have dominant $$^{239+240}$$Pu activity concentrations, relative to $$^{90}$$Sr and $$^{137}$$Cs, which increases long-term radiological hazard from alpha emissions if inhaled or ingested, and contrasts with particles from nuclear power accidents (e.g., Fukushima). Internal fracturing is more prevalent than previously reported, and fracturing is greater in Ca-rich vs. Si-dominated matrices.


レーザー加工により発生する微粒子の解析と核種同定手法の開発(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東京大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-015, 119 Pages, 2022/09




Accumulation mechanisms of radiocaesium within lichen thallus tissues determined by means of ${it in situ}$ microscale localisation observation

土肥 輝美; 飯島 和毅; 町田 昌彦; 数納 広哉*; 大村 嘉人*; 藤原 健壮; 木村 茂*; 菅野 太志*

PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(7), p.e0271035_1 - e0271035_21, 2022/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:21.77(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Many lichens are well known to accumulate radiocaesium and, thus acting as biomonitors of contamination levels. Here, we use autoradiography and demonstrate for the first time ${it in situ}$ microscale localisation of radiocaesium within thallus tissues to investigate the radiocaesium forms and their accumulation mechanism. The radiocaesium was localised in the brown pigmented parts i.e., melanin-like substances, in the lower cortex of lichen thallus. Quantum chemical calculations showed that functional group of melanin-like substances can chelate Cs$$^{+}$$ ion, which indicates that the Cs$$^{+}$$ ions form complexes with the substances. Based on these findings, we suggest that radiocaesium ions may be retained stably in melanin-like substances for long periods (two to six years) due to steric factors, such as those seen in porphyrin-like structures and ${it via}$ multimer formation in the lower cortex.


燃料デブリ取出し時における放射性核種飛散防止技術の開発(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東京大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-010, 155 Pages, 2022/06





川口 浩一; 瀬川 智臣; 石井 克典

粉体工学会誌, 59(6), p.283 - 290, 2022/06



A Novel method to improve methane generation from waste sludge using iron nanoparticles coated with magnesium hydroxide

Eljamal, R.*; Maamoun, I.; Bensaida, K.*; Yilmaz, G.*; 杉原 裕司*; Eljamal, O.*

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 158, p.112192_1 - 112192_13, 2022/04

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:96.04(Green & Sustainable Science & Technology)

In response to the low efficiency of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process in generating methane gas, we apply for the first time the use of coated/ Fe$$^{0}$$ with Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ to enhance the production rate of methane gas from the degradation of waste sludge. A series of batch tests investigated several operations factors followed by a semi-continuous operation system examined the long-term production of methane gas in the presence of the coated/ Fe$$^{0}$$ were performed. The coating ratio of Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$/Fe$$^{0}$$ and the dosage of coated/Fe$$^{0}$$ were optimized to acquire the highest production rate of methane as 0.5% and 25 mg/gVS, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the methane production increased by 46.6% in the batch tests and 120% in the semi-continuous operation system compared to the control reactor. The results revealed that both Fe$$^{0}$$ and Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ did not significantly improve the production of methane when each one was used alone at different dosages, and the improved methane production originated from the synergetic effect of combining these two materials. The crucial role of Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ coating layer was associated with the controlled reactivity release of Fe$$^{0}$$, which was indicated by the slow release of ferrous and ferric ions in the bioreactors. Furthermore, the addition of coated/Fe$$^{0}$$ stimulated bacterial growth, increased methane content, and maintained the pH within the optimum range in the bioreactors. The dosing time of coated/Fe$$^{0}$$ was investigated during the four stages of AD process, and the best dosing time was found in the methanogenic stage (on Day 4). Overall, based on the experimental and predicted methane production, the coated/Fe$$^{0}$$ has a great potential for the practical applications of AD.


単一微粒子質量分析法に基づくアルファ微粒子オンラインモニタリングに向けた基礎検討(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 大阪大学*

JAEA-Review 2021-074, 104 Pages, 2022/03


日本原子力研究開発機構(JAEA)廃炉環境国際共同研究センター(CLADS)では、令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業(以下、「本事業」という)を実施している。本事業は、東京電力ホールディングス株式会社福島第一原子力発電所(1F)の廃炉等をはじめとした原子力分野の課題解決に貢献するため、国内外の英知を結集し、様々な分野の知見や経験を、従前の機関や分野の壁を越えて緊密に融合・連携させた基礎的・基盤的研究及び人材育成を推進することを目的としている。平成30年度の新規採択課題から実施主体を文部科学省からJAEAに移行することで、JAEAとアカデミアとの連携を強化し、廃炉に資する中長期的な研究開発・人材育成をより安定的かつ継続的に実施する体制を構築した。本研究は、研究課題のうち、令和元年度に採択された「単一微粒子質量分析法に基づくアルファ微粒子オンラインモニタリングに向けた基礎検討」の令和元年度と令和2年度の研究成果について取りまとめたものである。本課題は令和2年度が最終年度となるため2年度分の成果を取りまとめた。本研究は、1Fの燃料デブリ切削の際に発生するアルファ微粒子のオンラインモニタリングに向け、単一微粒子質量分析技術の適用性について基礎検討を行うことが目的である。令和2年度、模擬試料として(U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$試料ならびにウラン溶液試料を調製・分析し、レーザーアブレーションによる模擬アルファ微粒子製造装置ならびに噴霧法によるエアロゾル生成装置を用いて模擬アルファ微粒子の粒径分布測定を行った。さらに、単一微粒子質量分析計を使用して、模擬アルファ微粒子のオンライン質量分析を行った。模擬アルファ微粒子のオンライン収集ならびにイオン化に成功し、ウラン由来の正負イオンピークを明確に検出できた。測定結果から、$$^{238}$$Uの測定下限値を10$$^{-7}$$ $$sim$$ 10$$^{-6}$$Bq/cm$$^{3}$$と評価し、オンラインモニタリングに適用できることが示唆された。


Identification of carbon in glassy cesium-bearing microparticles using electron microscopy and formation mechanisms of the microparticles

日高 昭秀

Nuclear Technology, 208(2), p.318 - 334, 2022/02

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:70.73(Nuclear Science & Technology)



低線量・低線量率放射線被ばくによる臓器別酸化ストレス状態の検討(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2021-050, 82 Pages, 2022/01



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